When Is The Beginning Of Personhood

.. n 1948, and several Eastern European countries in the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s, much of Europe and Asia, along with Canada and the United States, legalized abortion. An estimate of about 50 million people have abortions a year. Of this number a lot of the abortions that are performed are done illegally which lead to immediate deaths. Illegal abortions are more likely to be performed by untrained people, in unsanitary conditions, or with unsafe surgical procedures or drugs.

In many European countries it is more likely for woman to have illegal abortions. In countries where abortion is legal less than one percent of pregnancy related deaths are caused by abortion. In the United States. the legalization of abortion became an issue in 1966, when Mississippi passed a law permitting abortion in cases of rape. In the following four years, other states started to legalize abortion to include cases in which a pregnancy threatens a womans health, the fetus has serious abnormalities, or the pregnancy is the result of sexual relations between close relatives. The Supreme court decided in the early 1973 two cases known as Roe v.

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Wade and Doe v. Bolton, that abortion was legal for any apparent reason before the 24th week of pregnancy. The reason for this is because the fetus has not yet become viable. The ruling of the Supreme Court allowed individual states to change the law by restricting abortion after viability. Except in certain cases when the pregnancy presents a threat to the womans health, abortion is allowed no matter how many weeks. In 1976 the Supreme Court recognized the right of pregnant girls under the age of 18, know as a minor, to terminate her pregnancy.

The court ruled three years later that states may require consent of one of the parents of the minor, who wants a abortion. However, consent is not needed if a confidential alternative form of review, such as a judicial hearing. A judicial hearing is made for young women, who had chosen not to involve their parents in their decision of abortion. The Supreme Court of The United States also ruled that a judicial court may approve a minors decision of abortion, in place of her parents, only if the judge finds that the young girl is capable to make the decision on her own. If the judge finds the minor not mature enough to make the decision of abortion on her own, the court can rule whether the termination of pregnancy is in the minors best interest.

Since these decisions many states have enforced parental consent, or notification laws. Although some laws have been argued in courts for years. For Example in 1990, Hodgson v. Minnesota, the Supreme Court upheld a law requiring that prior notice of the minors parents must be provided before and abortion is performed. In a similar case that happened in Ohio, the Supreme Court upheld a requirement for notice or consent of only one parent. In 1980 the Supreme Court upheld another ruling restricting the availability of federal Medicaid funding for abortions that were medically necessary.

After that ruling, abortion payments for the poor women were limited to cases in which the pregnancy threatened the womans life. Also in 1977, the Supreme Court allowed the city of St. Louis, Missouri to exclude elective abortions from procedures performed in a public hospital. In 1983, the court found it unconstitutional to require that a woman considering an abortion should be given information developed by the state, talking about risks and consequences and that they should wait 24 hours after receiving the information about abortion. Also in 1986, the court struck down a law in Pennsylvania requiring that state- developed materials about abortion being offered to woman that are undergoing the procedure of abortion.

In 1989 there was a Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health services, and since then the court has permitted several state imposed restrictions to stand. The Webster case upheld a Missouri law that prohibits the use of public facilities or public employees for abortion and requires a physician to determine the viability of a fetus older than 20 weeks before performing an abortion. In 1991, in the case of Rust v. Sullivan, the court upheld a federal policy that prevented health care providers who received federal funding from engaging in any activities that encouraged or promoted abortion as a method of family planning. This policy was later annulled by President Bill Clinton in 1993.

One year earlier in 1992 the court decided Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, which was a case in which the court reaffirmed the central ruling of Roe v. Wade, that no undue burden on access to abortion should exist for a woman over 18 years of age prior to fetal viability. That case also permitted states more freedom in regulating abortion. The court overturned rulings which made it possible for states to once again require that a woman be given information about abortion risks and consequences and wait 24 hours before actually performing the procedure. The last bill enacted by the Congress was passed in 1996, banning the practice of partial birth abortions.

President Clinton rejected the law because it failed to permit use of the procedure when a fetus displays abnormalities, or when carrying a pregnancy to term presents a serious threat to the womans life or health. Since then many states have passed the law banning use of the procedure. Since the Supreme Court ruling in 1973, pro-life supporters have worked continuously to reverse the decision. They had state and federal officials to place restrictions on women seeking abortions or on individuals providing abortions. In 1994, the Freedom Of Access to Clinic Entrances Act was enacted, which made it a federal crime to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. During that same year, in a case known as Madsen v. Womens health Center, the Supreme Court upheld the basic right to protest in peaceful, organized demonstrations outside abortion clinics.

More than two decades since the Supreme Court first upheld a womans right to abortion, the debate over the morality and the legality of induced abortion continues in the U.S. Although pro-life and pro-choice supporters still continue to argue the issue. A growing number of individuals and organizations are kind of leaving the debate in search of common ground. Many people hope that broadening the arguments to include a wider spectrum of perspectives will improve the chances of an end to the issue. The argument for abortion is that women who accidentally get pregnant have the option to get an abortion.

Instead of just having the baby and leaving it stranded abortion will not leave you in that situation. In some cases the pregnancy is unwanted and therefore that is why I think abortion should be legal. I feel that the woman should be able to decide what happens to their body. Some woman must have the abortion other wise it is a threat and risk to their lives and to their health. Some parents might not be understanding and when they find out that their child is about to perform and abortion, the parents wont let the child do it.

Therefore the child is forced to have an illegal abortion which is extremely dangerous. On the other hand, the argument against having abortion is that it can be very risky. Some abortions are so severe that they can kill you. Most of the abortions dont necessarily have to protect the mothers health since she wants to kill the baby. If the mother doesnt want to baby so badly than she should put it up for adoption.

Majority of the abortions performed in the United States are done in an unskilled way, which leads to either woman dying or having horrendous side effects such as the inability to have children. The woman who is having the abortion should be responsible to prevent a pregnancy from the beginning of the sexual relationship. In conclusion I feel that abortion should be legalized through out the world. I think an amendment should be passed for all those unwanted mothers who either cant afford to have a baby or who just dont want it. Obviously my position on this case is to allow the choice of an abortion in any case.

I hope Ive proved my arguments for having an abortion. In the future, I aspire that abortion will be legal in all states and not just selected states through out the country.


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