There are people out there in the workforce that believe they are obligated to do their best at their job simply because that is what is expected from all of us as humans. On the other hand there are those out there that want to only do as much as they can get away with doing. No matter which one of these employees you are or are working with companies and employers need to understand the concept of motivation. Motivation comes in many forms such as money, benefits, or simple recognition within. Motivation also leads to higher productivity and profit and that is what we are all looking for in business.
The key to unlocking peak performance from your work force is the concept of human motivation. And the key to motivation revolves around one fundamental principle: “Whats in it for me?” (WIIFM). Weve all been socialized to believe that only “selfish” people consider “Whats in store for me.” When in reality all people are motivated first by self-interest. The word selfish is used as a negative label for someones perceived behavior. Understanding the concept of self-interest is perhaps the only way we will understand our need to achieve. Self-interest or feeling good about your self is a fundamental ingredient of motivation.
When you work an extra hour, not on the clock, you are doing it for one real reason. It makes you feel good to either get the job done well or to help someone else. In the end you might get some sort of recognition in the company but usually you will not stay an hour extra today to get a gold star in two weeks from now. Dr. Gerald Kushel, author and professor emeritus, has stated in his book Reaching the Peak Performance Zone, there are several variables involved in motivation. Among them are intensity, durability, context and value (reward).
Motivation intensity has a big part in how hard someone will work for his or her reward. If an employer offers a reward that does not mean a lot to the employee then they will not work for it. Intensity has to do with how strongly the person wants the reward (Opportunities in Human Resource Management Careers, Traynor and McKenzie). A person can be highly motivated, mildly motivated or only slightly motivated. The person answers the question “Whats in it for me?” with “Something I want very much,” the performer is considered highly motivated.
If the answer is “I can take it or leave it,” that performer is considered only slightly motivated. Durability has to do with how long lasting the motivation is (duration) (Managing Human Resources, Sherman, Bohlander, Snell). Motivation tends to last longer when it is reinforced intermittently rather the consistently. Some how, intermittent rewards are stronger. A person can come to expect the reward rather than see it as a treat, which it is supposed to be. Psychologists have believed this for years. Perhaps it has to do with the uncertainty or the surprise factor of the stimulus. We tend to take for granted and not appreciate the thing that has become routine.
There is a certain excitement factor and something we cannot take for granted or assume. We have learned that the intensity and duration of a given motivator are enhanced if the reward is immediately given following the act of behavior (Managing Human Resources, Sherman, Bohlander, Snell). This immediate reinforcement leaves no confusion in the mind of the performer, as to what the reward is for. For example if you tell an employee “If you finish this stack of paper work and type this letter for me I will treat you to lunch.” If you choose to tell this person “I owe you one.” and do not give them their reward until the following week they might have already forgotten what it was for. In turn when you ask for another favor and promise a reward your employee will be less motivated to do it. What might ordinarily be perceived as a reward to one person it might be a punishment to another. You must custom fit a reward system to your employees and jobs to get the ultimate performance from you reward system.
Furthermore, the more value the recipient of the reward places on the completion of the behavior that is being rewarded, the more powerful and personally rewarding it is. Context is the time, the place and the way the reward is delivered (Managing Human Resources, Sherman, Bohlander, Snell). Context is partly a matter of the culture of a particular organization. What that mans is, when a certain motivator is offered in a particular corporation, it may not have the same value it has when it is offered in another place. For example, an “employee of the month” parking space may be a meaningful reward in some companies, meaningless in some companies, or even a demotivator for some people in other companies. It all depends on what is perceived as “valued” by the corporate culture. To be demotivated means that neither the energy nor the commitments are there.
Negative reinforcement often proves to be highly demotivating. In one form or another, these have been used in business settings for a long time. Negative reinforcers include such things as “taking names,” “kicking butt,” penalties, reprimands, docking or withholding pay, canceling vacations, removing privileges, and showing contempt for or ignoring the performer. Demotivation is worse then no motivation at all. Positive reinforcement works better. Positive reinforcers include such things as recognition, respect, praise, better working conditions, money, paid vacations, fringe benefits, prizes, etc. There are two types of motivators, intrinsic and extrinsic (Managing Human Resources, Sherman, Bohlander, Snell). The word motivation often brings things to mind like money, or special privileges, like the key to the executive washroom. These are extrinsic, meaning external. Someone else is dangling this particular item in front of you as a way of getting you to do something.
Intrinsic motivators are internal. They originate entirely from within you. Intrinsic motivation tends to be deeper and more powerful than extrinsic motivation. The effects tend to last longer too, with intrinsic motivation. The following motivations are usually intrinsic: Enjoyment of the work itself for its own sake Desire to have a “piece of the action,” such as sharing visions, missions, leadership, authority and responsibility Pride in performing excellently Proving some secret point to oneself Achievement of deep-seated value (such as helping another person) Having a deep and abiding belief in the importance of the work one is doing Desire to exceed ones previous level of job performance (being self-competitive) A self-responsible performer can find a sufficient reason to excel if there is a WIIFM or two to strike the proper sensitive nerve.
Some of the following WIIFMs are likely to motivate your probable peak performers: Trusting and being trusted A mutual mission Continuous quality improvement Benchmarking progress A mutual, measurable objective A quality work life balanced with a home life More money Psychic income Here is how 1,000 employees, in a survey, ranked their needs in the workplace in order of preference (). 1. Interesting work 2. Full appreciation for work done 3. Feeling “in on things” 4. Job security 5.
Good wages 6. Promotions and growth opportunities 7. Good working conditions 8. Personal loyalty to workers 9. Tactful disciplining 10. Sympathetic help with personal problems In another survey by Dr.
Gerald Graham, Wichita State University, the top five motivating techniques reported by employees in order of preference are (): 1. Personal thanks 2. Written thanks 3. Promotion for performance 4. Public praise 5. Morale-building meetings Motivation is not always a reason to instill rewards in your company. Sometimes as an employer you need to address problems that you already have rather than just trying to avoid future ones.
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