The University Of Oxford

.. e wrong doings committed against the people who lived in the town of Oxford. Oxford students in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were taught in a different way than college students today. There were also no specific courses like History, Mathematics, and Biology etc (Story 4). Instead the students at Oxford were taught to be well-rounded individuals (Story 4). During a students time at Oxford he attended lectures on any of the following categories: law, medicine, theology and the seven arts.

At the end of students studies at Oxford he had to take an oral exam in order to receive his master (Story 4). So as one can see, a student at Oxford University had to have a great deal of discipline to be able to achieve his goals. There were four different topics taught at Oxford University in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Leff 127). They may differ in regulations and the time taken to gain a master in one subject to another, but they all consist of very difficult and thorough material. Theology was the most revered of the subjects taught, due to its goals of understanding our purpose in life and life itself. Next there is law, which was probably the most studied of all the subjects at Oxford.

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Then there is Medicine, which was well needed and well taught at the University. Finally, the seven arts, which took the least amount of time to obtain a master but were very widely used through out the world. The history of theology at Oxford University has been well preserved. Gordon Leff, author of the book Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, believes that there are several factors that contributed toward such preservation of the study of theology at Oxford. He had this to say about the issue at both Oxford University and rival Paris University: the theological faculties of both universities have survived, partly because of the nature of the subject, partly because its members were older and spent over twice as long there as in the arts faculty, and partly because of the nature of the course (Leff 160-161). Theology at Oxford University in the thirteen and fourteenth centuries was based on the Bible and the Sentences (Leff 164).

The Sentences were written by Peter Lombard and consisted of four books discussing the topics of God, Creation, Christ, and the Sacraments (Leff 164). Theology attracted the purest thinkers and those who were prepared to spend a large portion of their lives debating and speculating on abstract questions, which had no direct relevance outside of the university and religious areas. The number of students who achieved masters in theology was very small because of the degree of difficulty of the subject. In the late thirteenth century and the first two decades of the fourteenth century only about twenty students receive their license in theology from Oxford (Leff 163). However, those involved in theology did receive the highest honors.

Law is the area of study at Oxford that attracted the wealthiest people and promised the most lucrative returns. At Oxford there was the study of civil and then canon law (Leff 178). Before being permitted to study canon law one first had to swear to have taken three years of courses in civil law (Leff 178-179). It took a student of law at Oxford six years to earn a bachelor and five more years to obtain a license to practice law (Leff 178). Law was probably the most widely studied subject at Oxford, with one of the highest demands in the world outside of the University. Medicine was another of the main courses taught at Oxford, which also promised profitable rewards and was very much needed in the world.

The study of medicine at Oxford took four years to acquire a bachelor and either six or eight for a license, depending on whether or not the student had a master in the arts (Leff 180). Also to achieve a license in medicine one had to pass an exam that consisted mainly of ancient Arabian traditions (Leff 180). After getting a license one had to lecture at the University for a year before he was permitted to practice in the outside world (Leff 180). The arts were also taught at Oxford University. There are seven of these arts and they are as follows: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic and music, astronomy, moral philosophy, and metaphysics (Leff 146). The arts were mainly considered to be a stepping-stone on the way to another higher course.

The course of arts had many different regulations that were first brought about by Robert de Courcon in 1215 (Leff 138). There were regulations on what books could be read, ages for different grades, and the conditions to be observed (Leff 138). The minimum age one could be to study the arts was twenty-one, and the minimum period of study in a particular subject of the arts was four years (Leff 138). The reputation of Oxford University is one full of troubles in its social and political life but very admirable in its scholarly life. Around the 1170s Oxford University was known as a place lawyers could get very superlative advice (Thompson 2). Oxford was recognized as being one of the leading schools in the teaching of theology and law; however, it was also well known as an exceptional school of medicine and philosophy.

In 1911 the vice chancellor of Oxford University had this to say about the reputation of Oxford: To be given the right, and therefore the duty, to speak in this place, and from this Chair, to speak for Oxford and on the high theme of Poetry, is indeed to be accorded a position, which might well overweight event the most competent and confident (Warren 3). Oxford University is a very important part of Englands history. In 1355 Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning (Brief 1). In those days being honored by a king was a very big deal, even more so than today (Brief 1). One of the many milestones in the Universitys history is in 1878, when the first halls were established for women (History 1).

This shows the Universitys willingness to change against its many years of tradition, which proves that Oxford is an all around exceptional school of learning. Oxford University today has become one of the most highly distinguished schools in the world. Oxford has greatly expanded its number of students having over sixteen thousand in attendance last year (Oxford Facts 1). One quarter of these students are from over seas or some other location out side of England (Oxford Facts 1). This fact shows Oxford Universitys commitment to trying to attract as many foreign students as possible (Oxford Facts 1).

In attendance last year there was one hundred and thirty different nationalities among the student body (Oxford Facts 1). Almost five thousands students are in postgraduate work; of these three thousand are in arts and humanities. The University of Oxford in Oxford, England has been around for a very long time. It has been giving students an education, and making a history for itself with all of the famous events and people that have been involved with the University. Oxford University has been one of the leading institutions of learning for the better part of nine centuries. All of its existence Oxford has been a very important part of Englands society and economy.

As well as being a big part in Englands past, Oxford is also an important part in England today. The University has had some of the best students attending it and some of the best courses being taught in his halls and colleges. The lives of the students were dependent upon their education and in the end their graduation at Oxford University. Even though Oxford is a very highly distinguished school of learning, it did have its share of problems with the townspeople, who were being ill-treated by the University and the King of England. Oxfords origins are hard to pinpoint because of it exceedingly old existence but are very interesting.

Oxford University is a very distinguishable and significant institution of learning in Englands history and present day. Bibliography A Brief History of the University. http://www.ox.ac.uk/aboutoxford/history.shtml. 10/15/00. pgs. 1-2. History of the University. http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/outline/hist.htm. 10/16/00. Pgs.

1-2. Kenny, Anthony. The Oxford History of Western Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 1994. FSCC.

Leff, Gordon. Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1968. FSCC. Oxford. Http://www.aboutbritain.com/towns/oxford.asp. 10/16/00. pgs.

1-2. Oxford Facts and Figures. . August 25, 2000. pgs.1-2. The Story of Oxford. http://www.oxford-info.com/History.htm.

10/16/00. pgs. 1-9. Thompson, R.M. Serlo of Wilton and the Schools of Oxford. Medium Aevem.

1999: pg. 1-9. Warren, T. Herbert. Oxford and Poetry in 1911. Folcroft, PA.: The Folcroft Press Inc., 1961. FSCC.

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