The Internet

The Internet The Internet is the name for a group of worldwide information resources. These resources are so vast as to be well beyond the comprehension of a single human being. Not only is there no one who understands all of the Internet, there is no one who even understands most of the Internet (Harley 2). The Internet is often thought of as a computer network, or sometimes a group of computer networks connected to one another. The computer networks are simply the medium that carries the information.

The beauty and utility of the Internet lie in the information itself that is being transmitted. The Internet has undergone a remarkable transformation since its early days. The original Internet was a low-speed, text-based network used to connect a few government sites to the research and defense contracting community. The Department of Defense began a project known as ARPAnet (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) back in the late 1960’s, starting the first internet. It was designed by the network architects to interconnect government computers with defense contractors (Banta 2). The design of the network was such that no one computer system was dependent upon the functioning of any of the other computer systems. If any one computer network node was destroyed, such as in a nuclear attack, the rest of the network would continue to operate (Banta 2).

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In the 1970s, the Internet began to be interconnected with large universities and research organizations (Banta 2). The type of information going across the Internet began to change from that of being primarily government oriented to that of research oriented. During the 1980s, more universities and government contractors began using the internet contributing to its growth. As the amount of network traffic increased, the speed of the Internet began to slow down. In the mid – 1980s, the U.S.

Department of Defense split the network into the ARPAnet and the MilNet. The MilNet consists of only traffic to and from military sites and other government locations vital for national defense. The National Science Foundation (NSF) took over ARPAnet and merged it into a high-speed network called NSFnet (Benta 2). The NSFnet was the prototype for the national Internet backbones that we have today. It provided high-speed links among scientists and supercomputing facilities and served as the main Internet traffic arteries for the United States. People at universities and elsewhere immediately began using the increased speed for everything other than supercomputing, and this led to the birth of the national Internet infrastructure. In 1995, the NSF handed over control of the Internet backbone to commercial carriers (Glen 3).

In the last couple of years Internet usage has shifted from the university environment to that of becoming more commercial. The primary thing that has led to this shift was the development of the World Wide Web (the Web) by CERN (the high-energy physics research institute in Geneva, Switzerland). Coupled with this came the development of the first practical web browser, Mosaic, from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) (Glen 3). Today, the Internet is being used by all sorts People – educators, librarians, hobbyists, and business people – for a variety of purposes, from communicating with each other, to accessing valuable information and resources. To appreciate what the. Internet has to offer, imagine discovering a whole system of highways and high-speed connectors that cut hours off your commuting time.

Or a library you could use any time of the day or night, with acres of books and resources and unlimited browsing. That’s the Internet. Web browsers allowed people to explore the resources of the Internet in a way that was far easier than the original text-based applications like FTP (file transfer protocol, Gopher (a search engine), Telnet (remotely accessing a computer), etc. As more people become interested in the Internet, the more web browsers were developed and came into use. The main web browsers in use today are Netscape and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.

Web browsers were developed that were more graphically (picture) oriented and easier to use than the old text based applications. This led to an increase in the number of people that began connecting themselves to the Internet and this led to a slow down in the traffic of the Internet. Graphic files are very large and the amount of bandwidth (amount of information that can be transmitted in a line in a given period of time (Pfaffenberger 53))required to send them across the Internet is also large, thereby causing a natural slowdown in the system when many people are on it. As more people began using the Internet, businesses also became interested in it for its huge market potential. Businesses began building web sites to attract customers that were very complex and rich in graphics (photographs, movies, sound clips, and animations). This further led to a slowdown in the current Internet bandwidth.

The bigger the file, the longer it takes to send it to your computer and the longer that you must be connected on-line. The more people on-line, the greater the demand on the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to increase their bandwidth to the Internet backbone. The more demand on the backbone, the greater the pressure to upgrade it to an ever increasing capacity. Every- six months surveys are taken as to the number of people using the Internet. Below, is a chart showing the number of users in the United States, and their projected growth by the year 2000. As can be seen by the graph, the amount of growth from people using the Internet is tremendous and is almost geometrical in nature (Kantor 1-4). With more and more people connecting through American On-line, CompuSereve, Prodigy, and local ISPs, growth is expected to continue to increase at an outstanding rate.

It has caused change and adaptation in almost all walks of life, from grade school students to corporate chairpersons. And its size and impact on the world will only become larger. Technology.

The Internet

The Internet Science:Computers(:Internet) The Internet – By: Matt Garner The Internet, or net, is a vast network of computers that connects many of the world’s businesses, institutions, and individuals. The Internet is composed of many parts, including the World Wide Web, FTP, IRC, Newsgroups, Gopher, WAIS, Archie, and of course Electronic Mail (Email). The Internet is mainly used for communication. Email is the most heavily used resource of the Internet- over 40 million email messages are sent through the Internet a day. The second most used resource, called the World Wide Web, or WWW, consists of pages of words, images, sounds, and video.

The Internet is continuing to grow at 40% a year, with about 20 million users, mainly in USA, Canada, and Australia, but still many all over the world. You can do many things on the Internet, such as shop for just about anything, bank and manage money, watch and listen to live cable televison and radio broadcasts, talk to other users with voice like a telephone, conduct international meetings, and access all kinds of information on any subject imaginable. As mentioned earlier, the WWW consists of pages and pages of text, images, sounds, and video. Unlike pages in a book, there is no maximum size for a page, and there is HyperText Links. If you click on any one of these links, the computer will automatically go to the page specified by the link.

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The WWW is programmed in a computer language called Hyper Text Markup Language, or HTML. Searching the Web can be a difficult thing to do, or if you use a search engine, it can be really easy. Since so many new web pages are added to the Web a day, a very good index is hard to keep, and an alphabetical listing of millions of web pages would be almost impossible to navigate through. To help this problem, people developed search engines that search the Web for you. Some search engines, like Yahoo, search in a big web directory they have made of hundreds of thousands of web pages, that is organized like a phonebook. Other search engines, like Alta Vista, or Magellan, search in a list of Web pages it has created as it surfed the web all by it’s self.

People usually access the Internet through a computer using a device called a modem. Modems connect people to the net through telephone lines. Some companies, and the “heart” of the Internet, Use Fiber-Optic cables to connect. Fiber-Optic cabled are made of hair-thin strands of glass that carry information at the speed of light as pulses of light. Fiber-Optics are thousands of times faster than standard copper telephone lines.

The Internet began in the 1960’s. In 1962, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense developed a network of computers called ARPAnet. At first, this network only connected military and government computer systems. The purpose was to make all information safe, so that in disaster or war, if one computer was destroyed, it’s information would not be lost. In 1966, the ARPAnet was expanded to include universities and other institutions. One of the first universities to be added was Utah State University. Soon, large companies and corporations were added, too.

By 1990, anyone with a computer, a modem, and Internet software could connect to the Internet. There are many things in the future of the net, including video conferencing, online virtual reality worlds, and faster Internet connections.

The Internet

Abstract
The Internet is a source of more information then most of us know. In this report I highlight some
of my favorite things. Also, I highlight some of the things that we as users and buyers need to be cautious
of before using.


What is the Internet?
What comes to a your mind when they think of the Internet? Well, I will tell you what used to come to my
mind. When I thought of the Internet, I thought of x-rated Web pages and chat rooms. I envisioned a
medium that was so full of disgusting and perverted pictures that parents needed a “cybersitter” to make
sure that their children did not get into the Web pages that they were not supposed to. I thought this was
the way it was because that is what I had heard about, but I’m a experimental type person and decided to
investigate for myself what was really on the Internet. What I found surprised me greatly, for although
there are a lot of things that a person would not want their children to see or read, a person has to
intentionally search out these things to find them. When you compare the wealth of information you can
retrieve off the Internet, it is worth the effort that it takes to make it where children can work on the
computer without fear of them being exposed t!
o something they should not. One way to make it safer for your children and teens is done when you
origianly sign up with your Internet provider. What you do is turn on teen access only, or children acess
only, but since nothing is foolproof, keep the computer in a open spot where the you can always see what is
going on, for supervision is always the best solution.

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What does the Internet do? That is a concise question with a broad answer. The facts show that the
Internet does nothing. We travel through it to get to our destination ,but we do not use it as itself. It is a tool
in our human communications capability. In my research the article compared the Internet to the telephone
system, and said that it was similar to our Interstate highway System. The Internet extends the reach of
people so that ideas and services can be exchanged, but this does not happen by itself. The Internet is
actually a global network of networks. Millions of computers are able to share information with each other
using the telephone lines. In fact, the Internet links at least 3 million computers at any one time, and that
does not count the people logging on just to surf the net. It only counts the institutions providing some type
of Internet service, or information sharing programs.


How did the Internet begin? I thought this was interesting. The Internet began like most things in our
society, that is to say that it was started by the government. The Internet started out as a experimental
military network in the 60’s. It then expanded to other governmental agencies and then to higher education.


Now the Internet is well known all over the world, for just about anywhere you go, people know what the
Internet is. Not everyone knows what to do with the Internet, but most know what it is.


Now, unlike a few years ago, the Internet is accessible to just about anyone with a computer. The
individual needs only a modem, but they also needs internet access to be connected. At this point it would
be good to distinguish between Internet providers and commercial services providing Internet access. As I
mentioned before the Internet started with the government and spread to education. These two groups
comprised the bulk of the Internet until the late 1980’s when companies began linking to the Internet. So a
University or Government agency that provides internet access to their students and employees are
providing what is considered full Internet access. They do not pay for their Internet access it is part of their
studies and employment. On the other hand, the average Joe can get hooked online through a commercial
service such as America online, prodigy, and other large communications company such as AT;T and
GTE. These companies provide Internet access that is much mo!
re user friendly, and was designed with the consumer in mind.


One thing I forgot to mention, is that before you can be connected to an online service you need a computer
equipped with a fax modem. If you plan to surf the Web a lot the fax modem should be at least 28.8 model;
however, the 33.6 fax modem would be an even better choice.The older 14.4 fax modems are ok, but they
are incredibly slow.Using my own computer as a basis of my experience I can truly say that the more
megabytes of memory that you have, the better off you are. I started out with 16 megabytes, but have
recently upgraded to 32 megabytes, and my computer now moves two to three times quicker when
downloading information from the Internet.


So what is it that makes the Internet so interesting? I will give you and example. My husband came into
the room jumping up and down because he needed to do a essay for his English class about serial killers.


He wondered where he could find the information that he needed about serial killers. He went into AOL’s
net find, and boom, he hit on a Web site from a college in Tennessee full of information about serial killers.


It could not have been easer. I myself asked for information about the Internet, and after a little bit of
searching I found a plethora of information. A person has to be time conscious on the Internet, because you
can get lost. Before you know it you may have spent 3 hours doing something that should have taken only
an hour. This is ok if you have the time to do it, but most of us don’t.


A few words of caution that I would like to mention is that when visiting cyberspace you have to be alert to
all the risks involved. During our cyberspace visits we may encounter con artists and other unscrupulous
people. Everyday my e-mail is full of junk mail just like my snail mail is. (snail mail is mail sent by the
U.S. postal service) I received e-mail from a person who was posing as a member of my online service’s
billing department, and sent me a message asking for my address, credit-card number, and confidential
account password. They say never give your information out over the telephone, and I do believe that this
should hold true on the Internet as well. For now we must assume that any information that is send through
the Internet can be read by strangers. We also have to be cautious because it is also possible to corrupt
your computer files with a virus picked up from a file that you download. I have been warned recently to
even watch my e-mail, because pe!
ople have been passing viruses that way. It would be wise for anyone using the Internet to have really
good antivirus software. I use Mcfee which is 90% foolproof, and I have had good success so far with it.


While using the Internet to do my research, I came across another great use of the Internet. This is a big
boon for law enforcement. There is a FBI Web page listing the top ten most wanted fugitives. For
example, Leslie Isben Rogge was a fugitive who escaped federal custody in Idaho in 1985. He bribed a
guard and escaped. He continued to evade capture, despite being spotted in Mexico and the Caribbean. In
1990 he was added to the FBI’s ten most wanted fugitive list. In March of 1996, someone in Guatemala
spotted his picture on the FBI’s Web page, and police in that Central American country began their search.


Eventually, with nowhere to run where he would not be recognized, Rogge turned himself in to the U.S.


embassy . He is now in Jail. The FBI’s ten most wanted list had been on the Internet for less then a year
when Rogge was arrested. The Web can make information on law enforcement available and accessible to
a worldwide audience. TV shows can reach many people,!
but Rogge’s capture has alerted the FBI about how the Internet can reach people overseas. We need all the
help we can get.


I want to focus on e-mail for instants. Even though I do get aggravated by all the constant junk mail I
receive, and I’m sure others do too, E-mail is still the most widely used part of the Internet. I came across
some surveys in my research which noted that 35 million people used e-mail last year, compared to only 9
million people who browsed the Web. The survey predicts that this year Web users will jump to 23 million
people. That’s nothing when compared to the 60 million people who will be sending and receiving e-mail
during the same time period. The report also noted that by the turn of the century 152 million people will be
using the Web, but e-mail still will maintain its lead with 200 million users hitting their Send buttons.


One other pretty cool thing that I enjoy using is AOL’s chat rooms. I really don’t have that much time to
mess with it, but when I do it’s really neat to sit and talk to people about any thing from parenting to
sewing. It can be a lot of fun.


Though the Internet we have a wide range of services which include news and weather reports, shopping,
games and electronic versions of many magazines and newspapers.


There is also a good deal of other internet services that you can access such as child services which provide
educational materials, games, and discussion groups just for kids. There are many discussion groups with
topics ranging from cooking to computer programming. There are all kinds of news sites that contain up to
date business news, and current stock exchange price. Services like airline reservations, home shopping are
abundant. Reference listings contain online encyclopedias. The Internet makes doing reseach for reports
much easier, and in our household being connected online is almost a necessity.


References
Teacher TLM (9/23/95) What is the Internet? TutorTCPIP
AAC Staff (6/15/97)What are some pros and cons of the Internet? TutorTCPIP
Consumers Union of U.S. Inc. (6/37/96) Cyberspace: A Beginner’s Guide Consumer Reports
Marlene Blanshay (5/27/97) Law Enforcement On the NetNetGuide
Robert Seidman (5/27/97) Will E-mail Be the Saviour of the Web? NetGuide

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