The International Space Station The International Space Station is the doorway to the future of mankind and the world as it is known. The scientific and medical discoveries that will be made on the station could create billions of dollars annually. A plan like this, arranged to benefit the whole world economy, should sound like a good idea to every person, but some believe that the ISS is too risky, too ineffective, or too costly to create. Whether or not the space station is worth the money, time, and effort, one thing is clear, everyone is interested in this virtual floating laboratory and what assets or liabilities it will bring. The future of scientific experimentation and exploration may be located, not on earth, but on the man made island called the International Space Station.
Of all the factors that go into building a space station, construction of the massive object is the most tedious objective. During the building of the ISS, tensions have run high several times when deadlines were missed or funds were not available. This space station is the most expansive mission the world has ever encountered. The International Space Station will be a fifteen country mission. When finished, it will boast over an acre of solar panels for heating and energy, have a volume roughly sizable to two jumbo jets, and contain four times the electrical power of the Russian space station, Mir. It will take approximately forty-five flights over the next five years to assemble the one hundred pieces of the station while circling the orbit of the earth (Goldin 11). This floating station, the size of a large football stadium, which is traveling at over 17,500 miles per hour around the earth, will have a minimum life expectancy of only ten years, although scientists hope for a much longer time. The station is so large that it will sometimes be visible by the naked eye during the night (Chang 12). Many people agree with the idea of some sort of space laboratory, but wonder why it has to cost so many tax dollars.
Some estimates for the station confirm that the cost has been underestimated by billions of dollars. Late last year Boeing beat out several other competitors for the prestigious position of main contractor. NASA agreed to sign a 5.6 billion dollar contract with Boeing to build many of the essential parts of the space station. Russia is also placing trust in this airplane superpower. They signed a 180 million dollar contract to build the Functional Cargo Block, the unit that will provide power to stabilize the station (Bizony 87).
The International Space Station may provide many scientific discoveries, but everyone will pay for it. This project will become the most expensive project in space since the 1969 mission of Apollo 13 to the moon. The total estimated cost will be over twenty billion dollars (8). On the International Space Station, there will be a large variety of experiments ranging from improvements of industry to medical advances. The largest portion of time will be devoted to scientific experimentation and discovery.
The ISS will create advances that will assist scientists to better understand the mysteries of the physical, chemical, and biological world. Without gravity they may conceive the technological discoveries that will boost all economies (Goldin 11). One thing the astronauts will use in their pursuit of knowledge is remote telescience. It is an advanced technology that allows scientists on the ground to monitor the progress of the experiments on the station. This will keep people on Earth up to date on the data collection that is occurring in space. Telescience will use interactive data and video links to make the connection as realistic as possible (Science Facilities 7).
The populous sometimes asks what the station will do scientifically. The International Space Station will try to answer questions that have bothered deep thinkers for years. The affect of no gravity on living things, any mental and physical affect on humans in space, and the growth of better materials in space that will create better products on Earth will all be explored in hopes of becoming better understood. Hopefully, scientists will be able to answer these questions and many more on the International Space Station (Chang 12). NASA has confirmed that microgravity, the almost weightless condition of space, is one of the largest factors in the experiments that will occur aboard the International Space Station.
The affects of gravity and microgravity on animals, plants, cells, and microorganisms will be studied on the station. Artificial gravity can be adapted from 0.01 G, almost entirely weightless, to 2G, twice the earths gravity, to fit the experiment (Science Facilities 1). Gravitational biology is a major research topic dealing with microgravity. It is the study of gravitys influence on living things such as plants and animals. This will help astronauts conclude definitely what will happen to humans on long trips and stays on Mars (6).
The Optical Window is a special window that will monitor natural events with cameras, sensors, and other devices. The window will be able to track such disasters as oil spills, hurricanes, and forest fires (3). The ISS is our best effort to date to provide a laboratory environment where combustion can be fully understood. Combustion will help to better understand air pollution, global environmental heating, propulsion, and hazardous waste incineration (Industrial Processes 3). The new experiments on combustion could save the United States millions of dollars annually because it controls the heating of homes, powering of cars, and the production of a large range of synthetic materials (4).
Real combustion cannot take place on Earth. So combustion will be studied in space. On the ground gravity feeds flames with oxygen and takes away heat. The space stations combustion facility will do research on gas, liquid, and solid fuels which already yields eighty-five percent of the worlds energy production (Science Facilities 4). Combustion is the release of chemical energy.
Combustion research on the station will lead to less pollution in the industries and the production of advanced materials which will have very large payoffs for the economy (2). Since the computer age began, microchips have become smaller and more efficient every year. On the International Space Station, The multinational crew will spend one half of its time working on science. Many experiments will deal with improving the microchip and the silicon that makes it up (DiChristina 77). Finding cures for many medical problems is one hope for the space station. One of the most important missions of the station will be to search for cures to earthly diseases.
The International Space Station will provide information that might lead to cures for AIDS, Cancer, Diabetes, Emphysema, and Osteoporosis (Lawler 50). Scientists will find this mission an ideal spot to study the human biology without the restraints of gravity. A cure for Cancer might be found in space. In orbit, Cancer cells grow in solid clumps because gravity does not flatten them. Therefore the space station will be the best effort yet to search for treatments because they can be studied three dimensionally (Bizony 120). Some think that protein crystals are the answer to many cures.
They are associated with every disease on Earth. If they can be understood deadly diseases may be curable (DiChristina 77). Aging has always been a large concern for many people on Earth. Soon that may not be as large of a problem. Research from previous shuttle missions and Mir have shown that some of the processes that occur in a person when they get older are the same processes that also affect the astronauts on a mission in space. Problems such as weakening of the heart, muscles, and bones, disturbed sleep patterns, abnormal immune system, and problems balancing affect both groups the same ways. Therefore, some aspects of aging may be curable if scientists can find a connection between the two (Our health 1).
NASA is trying to learn more about the affects of weightlessness on their astronauts during long missions. They plan to use the International Space Station as one means to do so. On the space station, scientists will discover ways to predict the effects of weightlessness on travelers to Mars (7). It has already been 1earned that living in space for any extended period of time is not good on a persons health. Scientists plan to explore why and will study the effects of prolonged weightlessness on the human body and mind (Bizony 113). Developers working for NASA are creating some of the most technologically advanced machines ever made which are specially formulated for experimentation on the International Space Station.
It would be very hazardous and not practical for NASA to return an ill or hurt member of the station back to the United States. Therefore, NASA is improving computer systems that will be able to diagnose and help treat any injury that may occur while on the station. These machines, along with medically trained astronauts, will create a very small need for return missions to Earth due to health considerations (Our health 3). To deliver the best medicine possible, the space station will be equipped with virtual reality and medical monitoring systems like those found …