.. ss. These factors are connected to the work undertaken, they involve the environment. They serve to protect dissatisfaction. Another two factor act to motivate employees to their full potential.
These are related the contents of the jobs carried out, these are motivational or growth factors. The strength of these factors will affect whether people are satisfied and not satisfied but not dissatisfaction. The Hygiene factors of Frederick Hertzberg can be related to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which is talked about below. The lower needs of Abraham Maslow’s can be related to Frederick Hertzberg’s hygiene factors is listed below: – Proper compliance with these factors should partially ensure employees do not get dissatisfied. However other factors will have to be implemented to improve motivation.
In order for employers to achieve efficiently must pay attention to the motivators and growth factors. Abraham Maslow Maslow in the year of 1954 suggested that human needs operated at stages such as basic needs which including food or hunger and advanced needs which include self development and fulfilment. Part of Maslow’s argument was that employees try to satisfy the lowest needs of the hierarchy first. The basic need of people may include food and hunger. It is only after these needs have been meet that they will move up to needs such as self-esteem and self-realization. One of the reported problems quite early was the supposed rigid ness of the hierarchy. Research conducted afterwards indicated that people did not satisfy their needs in the systematic method, which Maslow designed.
Alderfer later developed Maslow’s work. Who after further study devised his ERG theory of motivation. Instead of a hierarchy Alderfer suggested a continuum with three sets of needs instead of five. Existence Relatedness Growth Growth responds to the higher needs indicated on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Existence to the lower needs and Relatedness to social needs. Much of the critic problems with Maslow’s Hierarchy were its rigid ness so Alderfer allowed for two sets of needs to be dealt with at the same time.
(The Hawthorne Experiments) Elton Mayo The Studies “The Hawthorne Studies (or experiments) were conducted from 1927 to 1932 at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago, where Harvard Business School professor Elton Mayo examined productivity and work conditions. The studies grew out of preliminary experiments at the plant from 1924 to 1927 on the effect of light on productivity. Those experiments showed no clear connection between productivity and the amount of illumination but researchers began to wonder what kind of changes would influence output”. It was in the 1930’s when Elton Mayo studied the results of experiments involving exposing women to different conditions to see how their motivation was effected. The results, which he found, were astonishing.
One set of women was given more breaks and flexible working hours, the output rose dramatically. Then the breaks were taken away and rigid hours were reinstalled the effect was that out rose dramatically again. After studying the results and talking to the women Elton Mayo concluded that the women were happy because they felt needed and lighting and breaks were only a small factor. It was also concluded that because they felt they were important they worked hard and this was the main motivator. The majority of the workers in the Hawthorne Experiment also suggested that when they were working together they had Team Spirit and this was as important as in Sport”.
It was furthermore stated that working in a team gave each of the member’s personal pride and self-esteem. However in similar experiment similar to the Hawthorne Experiment staff stated that “steady work (61%) and steady wages (28%)” were important factors. In relation to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this shows that the middle needs only have to be met in some cases e.g. telephone operators. Summary of motivation Motivation is a force that drives people to do things. Employees are normally motivated to achieve their needs, whatever they may include. The needs, which workers may want to achieve, are: Crucial needs – Food.
Water etc Community needs – A secure job reasonable pay etc Fulfilment needs – Pride, to belong etc The low level needs of employees are usually meet within the social interactions. The middle level needs are usually met by job security and usually increase motivation slightly if increased. I f reduced below a satisfactory level then motivation has a possibility of dropping below critical levels. Higher levels are generally part of the self-development sector and ultimate satisfaction (becoming the top in your field position or experience). Performance > Reward or Punishment (Employees of a company will be motivated if they associate certain incentives with an activity of work) The Step Ladder of Needs So far I have talked about the answers, which I received from my questionnaires and related my findings so the motivational theorists, which can be seen above. However the need and levels even motivational theories as a whole can be applied to one job at a high or low level.
The Jobs that exist in the Partnership of Andrew and Robertson’s are listed below. I am going to talk about each one and state at which level in motivational theorists charts they are and what their needs and wants are according to their financial, emotional and physical needs. PA – Personal Assistant Property Manager Finance Manager Accountant Clerk Office Assistant However first I am going to look at some of the key roles held by People in organisations. Although the term ‘management’ is commonly associated with business we find managers in all kinds of organisations. Indeed, wherever there is a need for People to work together for commons purpose ‘managers’ are needed to co?ordinate the inputs of people, materials.
Machines and money. Of course not all those people who carry out a management role are called managers. Headmasters, bishops and generals are as much managers as is the marketing manager of a large company. Within most business organizations we can see three broad categories of management and we will use these categories to look at managerial roles within an organization. This group, comprising the Senior Managers (Partners) or Directors of the organisation, has the most power and responsibility within the organisation. It is responsible for determining the long?term objectives of the organisation and has a time horizon of over five years.
In a company senior management will be responsible to the shareholders for the success of the organisation. Due to the complexity of the managers’ and directors’ work it is likely that they will only have one or two executives reporting to them, but indirectly they are responsible for all employees working under them. Directors may be executive or non?executive. An executive director is a full time employee of the company. He or she will be responsible for the smooth running of a department within the organisation as well as being a member of the Board of Directors, contributing to discussions, particularly those involving his or her own functional specialism. Non?executive directors are part?time employees appointed to the Board of Directors because of their broad knowledge of industry or political influence. Their knowledge and contacts may be useful in determining policy or in getting contracts.
Non?executive directors may also be the representatives of large shareholders who wish to see that their interests are safeguarded. Worker directors These are the ‘front line’ managers who deal with the Workers and put plans of senior and middle management into operation. These plans are, by now, essentially short-term ? perhaps a week or a month at the most. They are also responsible for large groups of workers ? a span of control of 20 to 30 is not exceptional. Unfortunately the importance of having good supervisory managers is often ignored.
To do their job properly they must not only have good technical skills but also very good interpersonal skills. These sets of manager’s work within the set the policy set down by the senior managers. They are responsible for ensuring that the organisation and utilisation of resources within their department conforms to the guidelines. Normally their time horizon is one year and they will have between four and nine subordinates reporting to him. Management is often referred to as ‘getting things done through people’.
This definition draws attention to the importance of the managers creating a climate where people believe that they are part of a team and their contributions are valued by the organization. The team will. Obviously consist of the groups that we have discussed above – senior, middle and junior management ? but also equally importantly, the clerical, administrative and production staff. Today, considerable effort is made by many organizations to make the ordinary worker feet part of the team ? an essential and important member. Involvement in decision making, recognition in company magazines (for social, sports or works?related activities), works outings, Christmas parties and even group gifts on engagements, parenthood or marriages, are all part of the process of team building.
Motivators Appropriate for Different Types of Performance Frederick Hertzberg Hygiene Theory Many of the secretaries in the firm of Andrew and Robertson are technologically inept. Because they do not feel part of the company they will not work as hard. However technology is slowly being introduced. However in the present employees are feeling de-motivated. This can be related to Hertzberg’s Hygiene theory under working conditions. The employees of Andrew and Robertson are working on computers with minimum knowledge and therefore creating a frustrated environment.
Under Hertzberg’s Hygiene means training is not being maintained and is therefore dissatisfying the employees. Recognition is one of Frederick Hertzberg’s motivators or Growth factors. This motivator or growth factor can be assigned to Andrew and Robertson’s because of its open organisational approach, which means partners all the way don to clerks, work together and all know each other. Therefore creating a singular workforce geared to meet the aims of the partnership. Because recognition is a key point in work efficiently Frederick Hertzberg’s theory can be applied to this approach, which is taken by all members of staff.
Within the partnership of Andrew and Robertson’s there is a key element, which is used to motivate staff, this is simply congratulating staff on work well done, which is then transferred in to a sense of achievement throughout the entire organisation. Most modern firms use the hard or fear approach, which involves lots of supervision to ensure an honest days work. This approach does not however amplify into a sense of achievement because the work even if complete start to finish is not enjoyable and therefore no sense of achievement. Which is essentially why Andrew and Robertson’s have high staff satisfaction and loyalty. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Self-actualisation During my time at Andrew and Robertson’s I observed many of the partners while they were talking to employees. They seemed to be happy and did not look down at lower level employees.
The partners seemed to operate on Maslow’s highest tier, self-actualisation needs. Esteem Because of the nature of Andrew and Robertson’s and the traditional values there is high staff loyalty and efficiently. Also because of the close quarters and the helpful environment there is respect among fellow workers. Respect and self-respect from others in order to fell satisfied and valuable is not a written policy in Andrew and Robertson’s but it does occur through other methods of motivation, which have been utilised Belonging Needs Close Quarters stated above this method thought not intended is highly effective in motivating staff. When I worked at Andrew and Robertson’s I noticed that the environment was extremely helpful. People were always in a helpful mood and the method of forcing employees into helping each other via the forming of friendship and mutuality.
This type of motivations concurs with a stage on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. So therefore staff may not have met the physiological needs and Safety and Security need. However they are directly catapulted on to the third tier, which is belonging needs. As well as concurring with Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. These facts also concur with the work of Alderfer.
Who said that Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs was too rigid. After further study devised his ERG theory of motivation. Instead of a hierarchy Alderfer suggested a continuum with three sets of needs instead of five. Existence Relatedness Growth Under, which the above types of performance would apply to the bottom layer, Existence, instead of the middle as with Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. Safety and Security Needs The partnership of Andrew and Robertson’s is a secure building. All three branches are fitted with Security systems and there is an optional Life plan policy, which can be entered into if offered.
Which is the reason for why people work so hard and Physiological needs Basic needs such as food water and shelter are all met because the pay is reasonable at the firm of Andrew and Robertson’s. Food and drink is also supplied in small quantities at break times. The management sees these as incentives because in the afternoons the employees generally work harder. So therefore the reason for higher efficiently in the afternoons is the cakes and tea, which are available at lunch times and corresponds to the Physiological needs on Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs William Bridges IT Evolution William Bridges wrote that there have been many changes in the modern working environment. Including the number of jobs in an organisation deceasing or increasing during fluctuating periods of demand. He argument being the advancement of IT had increased competition and therefore the nature of management philosophy. This is truer at Andrew and Robertson’s since the number of employees aged over 40 years has dropped tremendously over the last 3 years due to the need for IT compliant staff.
Since it is the partners who dictate policy their behaviour and types of behaviour towards their management policy. (Questionaire connected to report) Name of Subject: Position: Procedure: Basic Questions Additional Questions Personal Queries Subjects Comments Basic Questions Questionnaire Introduction This questionnaire, which I am completing for my Motivation at Work project, is designed to ascertain how you are motivated and whether you motivate the people around you. I apologise for using your valuable time and hope that you enjoy the questionnaire. (Please return the questionnaire as soon as possible) 1. What is your gender? Male o Female o 2. How many hours do you work a week? Under 10 Hours o 10 – 20 Hours o 20 – 30 Hours o 30 – 40 Hours o 40 – 50 Hours` o 50+ Hours o 3.
How long have you worked for Andrew and Robertson? 1 Year o 2 Years o 3 Years o 4 Years o 5 Years o 6- 10 Years o 10+ Years o 4. In your position, what is your current job title? 5. How would you rate the social environment in the office? (1-10 max) 6. In what age categories are you? 18 – 20 o 20 – 30 o 30 – 40 o 40 – 50 o 50+ o 7. What types of social activities are organised within the work place? Picnics o Lunch-time meetings o Christmas Parties o Other (Please specify) 8.
Do you have a mostly large or small workload? Small o Medium o Large o Extremely Large o 9. Do you have to work over your contracted hours? Yes o No o 10. How many different tasks do you complete per day? 1 o 2 o 3 o 4 o 5 o 6+ o 11. How often are you trained to complete new tasks? Every 6 Months o Every 12 Months o Every 18 Months o Every 24 Months o 12. Do you enjoy any company perks? Car o Free Rent o Security o Other (Please specify) 13. How many holiday days do you receive per year? 14.
In your spare time, what hobbies do you peruse? Rugby (Sports) o Board Games o Work o Charity Work o Child Care o Fe o 15. How many people in the workplace have close friendships? 5 o 6 o 7 o 16. How often does your supervisor appraise you? Every 6 Months o Every 12 Months o Every 18 Months o 17. In your appraisals are you views listened to and passed on to management? I am listened to o I am not listened to o I am listened to, but my views are ignored o I am not listened to, and my views are ignored o 18. How many holiday days do you receive per year? 1 Week o 2 Weeks o 3 Weeks o 4 Weeks + o 19. Do you judge yourself to be important or unimportant? Important o Unimportant o Dogs Body o 20. Do You think you will have a chance of promotion in the next: 2 Years o 4 Years o 6 Years o Other Never o 21.
Under what conditions would you consider leaving the company? Only for a higher wage o If there were more perks o I would never leave the company o (Thank you very much for filling out this questionnaire, your help is appreciated. This questionnaire will help me to analyse how motivated the office is and how each person feels about the business.) Additional Questions How do you Motivate yourself? Do you enjoy your duties as a ? How often do you skip your Lunch Break due to work? Are you allowed freedom in completing tasks undertaken? What are the specific good and bad points of the office environment? How often are you praised for work completed, is it sincere? Roughly how much do you earn? Do you feel this is high enough for the work load involved? How would you rate office communications? Have any of the ideals put forward by yourself been considered or implemented Personal Queries Subjects Comments Business.