Tess Of The D’urbervilles Tess of the dUrbervilles Oral: Structure, point of view and narrative techniques in Tess of the dUbervilles. Ok well this isnt really an essay as such its a an oral that I had to give on Tess, but still it took ages and I guess I could be kind of helpful. -veronica Narrative techniques – Chance and coincidence, symbolises the forces working against Tess. Coincidence as a means to an end – Irony- social laws brought into account with the natural law. Ironies are also paralleled by separate ironies throughout he novel. Irony is enforced by omens – Technical words, jargon to add authenticity (local farming terms, musical, artistic or architectural) – Classical allusions. – Folk-law and folk magic. – Seasonal background as an accompaniment to emotions – Uses the microcosmic (Tess) to demonstrate the general – Tess shown in relation to the work she does, Tess is a natural women compared to Mercy.
– Relies on change of place and the idea of pilgrimage – Insight into character – Sharply drawn visual and sensory descriptions – Exploits contrast and comparison of place and character – Letters Structure – Title, division into phases – Coherence and real life timing in regard to the length of the phases – Realism is not impaired by the controlled structure because of the coherent but however not entirely coinciding events, such as her successive journeys home – Final chapter as demonstration of Hardys complete control – No sub-plots – Hardys fluctuating fatalistic and determinism. – Double meanings – Symbolism, Tess as an animal Point of View – Written in third person – Omniscient narrator. – Different stand points of narration, Narrative: distinguished from descriptions of qualities, states or situations and also from dramatic enactment of events. Narrative technique is the method of telling stories. Narrative technique is a broad term to describe anything Thomas Hardy does to communicate his message and ideas.
Under this umbrella of narrative technique also fall such things as structure, style, point of view, imagery and so on. To understand many of the narrative techniques Hardy adopts we must have some understanding of his background, the audience and the times he was writing in and why he would have wanted to broach such controversial issues. Hardy was a poet, he intensely read and studied poetry and literature from his early twenties. Prose fiction was his temporary profession out of economic necessity. This serves to explain the symbolic, metaphoric, poetic nature of his writing and also the many references to Shakespeare, other literature and the bible. In order for Hardy to convey his ideas he had to not only consider the needs of his current audience but also pursing his greater literary and personal obligations. To do this he had to include his insights indirectly and evasively, adopting symbolic meanings that reached beyond the superficial social actions of the time. It is also important to note how the novel was released and the censoring that was in place to control controversial or inappropriate morals, values and issues.
The serialized format of realize also contributed in a large way, somewhat dictating the story line and affecting the general lay out. This is evident when you notice that there are several series of rising action, climax and denouement, generally towards the end of phases. Examine the explanatory note to the first edition – form a true sequence of thing, talks of the Victorian expectations of a true story. Possibly why Hardy paid such attention to the surroundings and the use of local terminology. – Piece the trunks and the limbs of the novel together The effect of the serialization and censoring had on the novel. It is not in its true form until can be read completely and together.
– Artistic formin respect of the books opinions and sentiments Hardy struggling to be true to his greater literary and personal values and morals. He had to entertain his current audience but his language was used in such a way that the general story lines transcends the ages, and elevates it beyond the story. The quote he reflects on is obviously appropriate and intended to the orthodox Victorian expectations, If an offence come out of the truth, better is that the offence come than that the truth be concealed St Jeromes. Letters – They provide a different insight into the characters: – Altered level of narrative – Different character voices come through – Direct insight Page 440 we see a letter to Angel from Tess, this hasty scrawl written in a brief moment of pure passion and confusion gives us greater insight into Tesss character. This is a far more graceful way of expressing Tesss character than when Hardy himself feels compelled to interject and justify Tesss actions at times. The letter states, You know I did not intend to wrong youIt is all injustice I have received at your hands! Letters are also used to create irony and hence suspense, on page 416 Tess writes to Angel, but he doesnt find it.
I think I must die if you do not come soonI became another woman, filled full of new life from you. Creates irony and suspense 277 dairymaids write to Angel 450 Tess in relation to the work she does Angel only relates to her as the dairy maid, doesnt recognize her in her new surroundings. Social status he expects her to be a servant. Natural setting. Dairymaid correlates with our impression of her as a natural being and an animal.
Tess eventually conforms to this- letter Chance and coincidence whole theme of fate is largely communicated through this. This narrative technique highlights the inevitability of her fate and her tragedy. Such as the cock crowing thrice on the wedding night. Irony title and subtitle. Narrative is ironic especially last chapter.
The development and interest of the plot relies heavily on the irony in Tess of the DUrbervilles . The title and sub-title are just the beginning of the irony in the narrative. The fact that Hardy refers to Tess as being part of the DUrbervilles rather than Durbeyfield is ironic we find out because she is actually more of a DUrberville than Alec is. The sub-title A pure women is ironic because it leads us to question whether she actually is a pure woman in terms of convention. Unwittingly through Hardys irony we are questioning aspects of the plot that through his clever use of technique and language we are noticing and questioning the greater social questions that Hardy so cunningly disguised.
Uses the microcosmic to demonstrate the general Tess is on numerous occasions directly representative of not only the women of the time, but also of the pastoral community as a whole. Hardy does this by way of graphic imagery and significant symbolism. For example where Tess and Izz are returning to work at Flintcome-Ash Farm, Hardy cleverly portrays them all as being of the same kind. Tess, with the other women workers, in their whitey-brown pinners By presenting them as a concourse all attired alike they represent an entire league of women, all the women of the era. In this passage a man, an indistinct figure: this one black, represents the enemy, the devil, and the evil of industrialization. His appearance described as a creature of Trofet or hell is sent to discompose its aborigines or Tess and the other natives. Hardy has generalized this small-scale industrialization and mankind into all-consuming forces, typical of his ability to take the specific and transform it into the general.
Hardy represents this man as Hardys attitudes and ideas. Exploits contrast of place and character- place she lives with Alec compared with dairy and Stonehenge is contrasted with all other places. Tess contrasted with everyone, Mercy Chant; the Clares are contrasted with Tess parents. Tess contrasted with other women (dairy maids) most other characters are just expanded stereotypes (Alec villain etc) Character and place are also paralleled with each other. Hodge page 173 Angel initially is foreign in his surrounding, the conventional farm-folk of his imagination personified by the pitiable dummy known as Hodge but these misconceptions were obliterated after a few days residence. In a short time Angel began to like the outdoor life. Hardy parallels Angel with his surrounding saying that He grew away from the old associations, and saw something new in life and humanity.
The Herons page 463 Hardy uses metaphor to describe the surrounding a fairy place suddenly created by the stroke of a wand, and allowed to get a little dusty. This glittery novelty is exotic and out of place …