Subject History

subject = History title = Russian-Japanese War Russian-Japanese War Russian-Japanese War 20th Century History The Russian-Japanese war of 1904 was a European conflict that was fought because one country was becoming too strong. The conflict was mainly fought because two separate countries had their own special interests in far east countries like Korea, China, and Manchuria. Britain and Japan recognized the independance of China and Korea, but at the same time authorized each other to intervene in either territory if their own”special interests” were threatened by another power or by internal disorder. That power was now Russia. There was already a rivalry going on between Britain and Russia because of the Trans-Siberian railway but now there was another dimension. Russia now had access to the pacific. Her presence in Asia threatened already established Britain interests.

China leased the ice-free Port Arthur to Russia and allowed them to store their war ships there. The two empires were set on a collision course. Britain was very reluctant to commit herself to a distant threat of war so she took a step to allying herself with the growing industrial power of Japan. In doing so, Britain found her soldiers in the east. At this time Russia failed to realize how powerful Britain and Japan had made themselves.

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Russia was unable to take Japan seriously even though they had many reports on how large the Japanese naval and military forces were. Unfortunately, Russia’s constant penetration into Korea and Manchuria continued unabated despite the presence of numbers of Japanese immagrants and traders. Russia had succeeded in replacing the now defunct Chinese influence with her own. Russia now began taking over the administrative departments and had their officers train the Korean army to fight on their side. In April, May, and June of 1903, Russian’s had told the Japanese that they would move out of China.

They did not and continued to occupy the land. In July of the that same year, the Japanese Ambassador proposed that Russia and Japan were to recognize the independance of China and Korea. Both nations were to rcognize preponderance, the Japanese in Korea balanced by russians in Manchuria. They were to recall their troops from their respective area as soon as possible. In return, the Russians would protect the railways in Manchuria and the Japanese would do the same in Korea. It came to the attention of the Japanese that the Russians were building up their naval and military forces in the far east.

They were also moving troops not only into Manchuria, but also into North Korea. It now became obvious to the Japnese that the Russians had no intention of releasing their hold on Manchuria and Korea. Nevertheless, the negotiations went on. On February 10th, 1904, both nations produced formal declarations of war. On February 8th, a large part of the Russian Pacific squadron lat anchor in the roadstead of Port Arthur. The ships were arranged in three lines running east and west.

The innermost consisting of five battleships: the flagship, the petroulouk, the sebastopol, peresuept, pobieda, and pollada. The middle line was headed by two more battleships which were the tsarevich and the retvizan. They were followed by three crusiers and the outline of three more. Meanwhile, off Round Island about 60 miles east of Port Arthur, the Japanese fleet was making its disposition under Admiral Togo. He was in command of the combined fleet which had left Japan two days before they had broken off negotiations. Around 11:00pm the Shiralaimo, the leading Japanese destroyer, came within sight of the two patrolling Russian destroyers, the Pastoropin and the Bezstrashini. To the surprise of the Japanese, the two ships turned around and headed back to Port Arthur so the captains could report to the Russian Admiral Stark.

At this time there was no fighting going on at all. However, as the ships turned to go and make their report, the Japanese began to fire at the same time that the two Russian destroyers were making their report. The Pollada was the first Russian ship to go down, they were hit mid ship and one of the coal tankers caught on fire. The Retvizan was the next with a 200 square foot hole in her port side. The Tsarevich was hit on her stern.

Unfortunately, her bulkheads shattered and the steering compartment flooded. All three ships tried to make it to shallow water. The Pollada grounded near a light house on the west side of the harbor, and the Retvizan and the Tsarevich came to grief in the narrow gullet of the harbor, almost blocking it. Admiral Togo of Japan, saw this and sent five merchant ships around with bombs to blow up the rest of the ships in attempt to block the harbor. This attempt was unfortunately unsuccessful because Russian ships began to open fire and destroyed the Japanese merchant ships. On the morning of february 25th, admiral Togo tried yet another approach through indirect bombardment of the harbor and its installations in the hope of damaging more ships. He found that as long as the Russian fleet remained in the harbor under the protection of the shore batteries, it would be impossible for the Japnese to destroy them.

Japan had won many battles in this war. None of them were as important as the one they had fought in the harbor of Port Arthur (the second battle). Port Arthur was a big turning point for them because almost a year later a weak Russian Navy decided to give up in January of 1905. Russian rule of Port Arthur had fallen, and for the Russians, they had the advantage of having Port Arthur, so when they lost it, they pretty much lost the war. By this time, they had already lost many men and also many ships. The Japanese combined with Britain were victorious and the countries that were held under Russian rule were eventually left by the Russians to rule for themselves.

The British and Japanese interests in the three countries in which the war was fought over, were now protected. Russian-Japanese War 20th Century History The Russian-Japanese war of 1904 was a European conflict that was fought because one country was becoming too strong. The conflict was mainly fought because two separate countries had their own special interests in far east countries like Korea, China, and Manchuria. Britain and Japan recognized the independance of China and Korea, but at the same time authorized each other to intervene in either territory if their own”special interests” were threatened by another power or by internal disorder. That power was now Russia. There was already a rivalry going on between Britain and Russia because of the Trans-Siberian railway but now there was another dimension.

Russia now had access to the pacific. Her presence in Asia threatened already established Britain interests. China leased the ice-free Port Arthur to Russia and allowed them to store their war ships there. The two empires were set on a collision course. Britain was very reluctant to commit herself to a distant threat of war so she took a step to allying herself with the growing industrial power of Japan. In doing so, Britain found her soldiers in the east.

At this time Russia failed to realize how powerful Britain and Japan had made themselves. Russia was unable to take Japan seriously even though they had many reports on how large the Japanese naval and military forces were. Unfortunately, Russia’s constant penetration into Korea and Manchuria continued unabated despite the presence of numbers of Japanese immagrants and traders. Russia had succeeded in replacing the now defunct Chinese influence with her own. Russia now began taking over the administrative departments and had their officers train the Korean army to fight on their side.

In April, May, and June of 1903, Russian’s had told the Japanese that they would move out of China. They did not and continued to occupy the land. In July of the that same year, the Japanese Ambassador proposed that Russia and Japan were to recognize the independance of China and Korea. Both nations were to rcognize preponderance, the Japanese in Korea balanced by russians in Manchuria. They were to recall their troops from their respective area as soon as possible. In return, the Russians would protect the railways in Manchuria and the Japanese would do the same in Korea.

It came to the attention of the Japanese that the Russians were building up their naval and military forces in the far east. They were also moving troops not only into Manchuria, but also into North Korea. It now became obvious to the Japnese that the Russians had no intention of releasing their hold on Manchuria and Korea. Nevertheless, the negotiations went on. On February 10th, 1904, both nations produced formal declarations of war. On February 8th, a large part of the Russian Pacific squadron lat anchor in the roadstead of Port Arthur.

The ships were arranged in three lines running east and west. The innermost consisting of five battleships: the flagship, the petroulouk, the sebastopol, peresuept, pobieda, and pollada. The middle line was headed by two more battleships which were the tsarevich and the retvizan. They were followed by three crusiers and the outline of three more. Meanwhile, off Round Island about 60 miles east of Port Arthur, the Japanese fleet was making its disposition under Admiral Togo. He was in command of the combined fleet which had left Japan two days before they had broken off negotiations. Around 11:00pm the Shiralaimo, the leading Japanese destroyer, came within sight of the two patrolling Russian destroyers, the Pastoropin and the Bezstrashini.

To the surprise of the Japanese, the two ships turned around and headed back to Port Arthur so the captains could report to the Russian Admiral Stark. At this time there was no fighting going on at all. However, as the ships turned to go and make their report, the Japanese began to fire at the same time that the two Russian destroyers were making their report. The Pollada was the first Russian ship to go down, they were hit mid ship and one of the coal tankers caught on fire. The Retvizan was the next with a 200 square foot hole in her port side.

The Tsarevich was hit on her stern. Unfortunately, her bulkheads shattered an.

Subject History

subject = History title = The Tragedy of the Black Death papers = Imagine yourself alone on a street corner, coughing up bloody mucous each time you exhale. You are gasping for a full breath of air, but realizing that is not possible, you give up your fight to stay alive. You’re thinking, why is this happening to me? That is how the victims of the Black Death felt. The Black Death had many different effects on the people of the Middle Ages. To understand the severity of this tragic epidemic you must realize a few things about the plague.

You should know what the Black Death is, the cause of the plague, the symptoms, the different effects it had on the people, and the preventions and cures for the plague. The Black Death, also known as the Black Plague or the Bubonic Plague, which struck in 1349, and again in 1361-62, ravaged all of Europe to the extent of bringing gruesome death to many people of the Middle Ages. The Black Death struck in 1349, and again in 1361-62, but was restricted just to Europe (Rowse 29). It was a combination of bubonic, septicaemic, and pneumonic plague strains (Gottfried xiii) that started in the east and worked its way west, but never left its native home. One of the things that made the plague one of the worst was that there were outbreaks almost every ten years (Rowse 29), but still restricted to Europe.

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It is thought that one third to one half could have possibly died by the plague (Strayer and Munro 462), with some towns of a death rate of up to 30 or 40 percent (Strayer and Munro 462). Very few who were infected with the plague actually survived more than one month after receiving the disease (Strayer and Munro 462). The Black Death was an incredible event that effecte d everyone on either a physical or emotional level, or both. The Black Death was more terrible, and killed more people than any war in history (Strayer and Munro 462). The plague was so horrible and terrifying that people said it made all other disasters in the Middle Ages seems mild when comparing it to the Black Death (Gies 191). There have been many disputes over what caused the Black Death, but only one is supported with the most evidence.

It is thought that on October of 1347, a Genoese fleet made its way into a harbor in northeast Sicily with a crew that had “sickness clinging to their very bones” (Gottfried xiii). The sickness this crew had was not brought by men, but the rats and fleas aboard the ship. The harbor tried to control the sickness by attempting to quarantine the fleet, but it was too late (Gottfried xiii). Within six months of the docking of that very fleet, half of the region had either fled the country, or died. That fleet, along with many other fleets along the Mediterranean Sea brought the greatest natural disaster to the world (Gottfried xiii). The infested rat, called the black ship rat, was carried in the baggage of merchants on board the ships traveling all over the Mediterranean (Norwich 30).

They didn’t know it, but it was the people that actually spread the disease across the land. The plague spread in a great arc across Europe, starting in the east in the Mediterranean Sea, and ending up in northwest Germany (Strayer and Munro 462). It is incredible that the plague hit Europe several times, but still no one understood neither the causes nor the treatments of the epidemic (Strayer and Munro 462). There was another cause that some people strongly believed brought the disease into their world. Doctors at the University of Paris claimed that on March 20, 1345, at one o’clock in the afternoon, a conjunction of three higher planets Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars caused a corruption of the surrounding air, which made the air become poisonous or toxic (Gottfried 110).

This is a highly unlikely theory unless you are coming from a basis of Astrology. Another explanation of the plague that scientists gave was environmental factors. These scientists thought that there were many earthquakes that caused toxic fumes to come from the center of the earth (Gottfried 110), which, again, brought contaminated air for the people. Certain historians have wondered if the plague could have been caused by overpopulation of the continent, but they are not completely convinced (Hoyt and Chodorow 632). Some people, possibly out of desperation, turned their violence on the Jews and blamed them for the cause of the plague (St rayer and Munro 463).

Whatever the cause was, you could tell from looking in a persons eyes that, ” above every person hung the terror of the Black Death” (Strayer and Munro 476). Although the Black Death was one of the largest epidemics ever recorded, it did not have many visible symptoms. The actual symptoms varied in different parts of the continent. The most ordinary symptoms were black tumors or boils on your neck, and the coughing up of blood (Zenger). One thing about coughing up blood that made the plague even worse, was that when you coughed up blood, everyone in the room was susceptible to the disease (Zenger). This is because when the person coughed up the blood, the bacteria went airborne and infected the person of the closest proximity (Zenger).

This allowed the plague to spread more quickly and easily. The Black Death had more than just physical effects, but more extensive effects over the course of 25 years. Such as physical effects, social and religious effects, economic effects, agricultural and commercial effects, effects on architecture, and effects on the future. For two generations after the plague, there was almost no increase in the population of Europe (Strayer and Munro 462), while the rest of the world increased in population. After the plague had passed, Europe seemed to suffer from a case of collective shell-shock (Strayer and Munro 463), this made it look like all of Europe was hit by a deadly stun gun, but the stun never wore off. What scared the people, was that the Black Death killed more people than a hostile army and gave its victims no chance to fight back (Strayer and Munro 462).

The Black Death had many different social and religious effects on the common people of Europe. Some people dreaded the time when the plague would come, and some people just sat back, ate, drank, and were merry just as though they had never heard of the plague (Strayer and Munro 463). Although all the people suffered, the peasants suffered the most. This is because they lived in such unsanitary conditions and had the least care. In many places whole villages of peasants were wiped out completely (Hartman 235), and in less than one month. The Black Death, along with seven other plagues and diseases of the Middle Ages, was considered contagious (Durant 1002). Because they were contagious, a victim of any plague or disease was forbidden to enter a city unless under separation (Durant 1002).

Many people actually thought that the Black Death was a punishment to society because they were wicked (Hoyt and Chodorow 596), and because they did not repent for their sins. Although the people withstood many effects, the social consequences were surely less striking (Rowse 29). For not only were the people struck in many ways, but they were also astounded, terrified, and bewildered of this secretive beast lurking in every place they go (Gottfried xiii). Some people think that the plague contributed to the moral disintegration of European society (Strayer and Munro 462). Many people sat around and faced the fact that they would eventually be taken in by the plague, and some tried to do something about it, religiously. Many people, religious or not, tried to take refuge in Godly practices.

Some tried easing their conscience through “exaggerated penances” (Strayer and Munro 463), or others doubled their devotions and encouraged revivals (Strayer and Munro). Varied people “filled their hearts with unbearable anguish about the Sorrows of Mary and the sufferings of Christ,” yet these same people filled with anguish flocked to executions and tore each other apart in their frequent civil wars (Strayer and Munro 463). Almost all people thought they would live through the plague if they gave into the surge of religious hysteria. Since people were dying left and right, it should be expected that there would be a decrease in available labor. So now there are half as many peasants to do the work, and the same amount of fields. This amounted to too much work to do, and little peasants to do the work (Hartman 235).

This would obviously not work out. Everything was being ruined, overrun, or neglected because of this sudden, but expected shortage of workers (Hartman 235). The peasants saw this happening and they knew they could receive something good out of this. The laborers also saw that they were on demand, and so they demanded higher wages (Hartman 235). Now that wages rose, prices rose along with it (Hoyt and Chodorow 635).

The mortality rate of the region not only produced a labor shortage, but a sudden increase in the income per capita (Hoyt and Chodorow 635). When the plague had ended, half of the workers on the estates of the nobles in England disappeared (Hartman 235). You could see that the Black Death shook the entire agricultural and commercial structure of the west (Gies 226). The decrease of construction in the 14th century could be seen along with the cathedrals started in the 12th and 13th centuries and never finished because of the plague (Durant 894). The effects on the future were not as bad as the effects the 14th century people experienced. The European population steadily declined after 1350 for the next century (Gottfried xiii).

It is said that “chronic depopulation characterized the 14th and 15th centuries” (Gottfried xiii). In 1351, it was calculated that the total number of dead in Europe was approximately 23, 840,000 people (Gottfried xiii). That is a great decrease considering that there were an estimated 75,000,000 people living in Europe before the Black Death struck (Gottfried xiii). There were almost no known preventions or cures for the Black Death except a few ideas that don’t always help or don’t help at all. Some doctors instructed the sick to stay by fires and to drink as much as possible (Zenger).

One thing that kept the disease from spreading more rapidly was keeping anyone infected with a disease out of the cities (Durant 1002). After the plague had become extremely serious, the town’s people exterminated the old black ship rat that carried the disease (Rowse 29). This was there last attempt at getting their old lives back, but it was too late for that. Aren’t you glad we are living in the 20th century, and not the 14th century!? The Black Death certainly had one of the greatest effects on the world in all areas, and was also one of the greatest changes for the people of the Middle Ages. If we want change in our lives, does it always have to be the bad things that bring us back into reality? I should hope not.

It seems that bad or depressing situations give us a grasp on what is really important in our daily lives, and that is what we all need. Bibliography Durant, Will. The Age of Faith. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1950. Gies, Joseph and Frances.

Life in a Medieval City. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Gottfried, Robert. The Black Death. New York: The Free Press, 1983. Hartman, Gertrude.

Medieval Days and Ways. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1961. Hoyt, Robert and Stanley Chodorow. Europe in the Middle Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, Inc., 1976. Norwich, John. Britain’s Heritage.

New York: The Continuum Publishing Company, 1983. Rowse, A.L. The Story of Britain. Great Britain: British Heritage Press, 1979. Strayer, Joseph and Dana Munro. The Middle Ages.

New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1959. Zenger. The Black Death. California: Timeline Series, 1989.

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