Stress

Stress This research paper explains stress and its causes and cures. The research paper will attempt to determine whether there is an effective way to cure stress. Stress is an integral part of life. The complete absence of any stress results in death. Stress plays a key role in daily life, influencing – if not governing – happiness, productivity and health. Stress is known to cause various psychiatric disorders involving anxiety and depression, including posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression, generalized anxiety, and multiple personality disorders.This research will also attempt to explain ways to cure the illness’s caused by Stress.

The more stress one puts on thereselves the weaker one’s immune system becomes. With a weakened immune system we become susceptible to disease and injury. Stress is an adaptive response. It’s the body’s reaction to an event that is seen as emotionally disturbing, disquieting, or threatening. To prepare for an event, the body increases its heart rate and blood pressure; more blood is then sent to your heart and muscles, and your respiration rate increases. .

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

In the first stage of stress, alarm, the body mobilizes its “fight or flight” defenses, either to resist the stress-causing factor or adapt to it. In this stage, the pituitary-adrenocortical system pours hormones into the bloodstream. The pulse quickens, the lungs take in more oxygen to fuel the muscles, blood sugar increases to supply added energy, digestion slows, and perspiration increases. In the second stage of stress, resistance, the body begins to repair the incidental damage caused by the arousal in the alarm stage. If the stressful situation is resolved, the stress symptoms vanish.

If the stressful situation continues, however, a third stage, exhaustion, sets in, and the body’s adaptive energy runs out. This stage can continue until some vital organs are affected, and then disease or even death can occur. There are three types of stress, mental, physical, chemical. These different variations of stress all cause similar effects to one’s body. Each of these stresses can come from many sources.

Most of these have appeared as a primary threat in our environment. Mental stress occurs from a shock as severe as the death of a loved one or from a simple thing like a faulty alarm clock making one late for work. Physical stress on the body can be caused by anything from not getting adequate sleep to a severe whiplash injury from a car accident. In addition, there is a chemical stress which may come from environmental pollution, the side affects of medications or even consumption of overly refined food. Compounding all this is the tension cycle, in which mental stress triggers physical stress or vice versa, leading to a downward spiral of health and happiness and an increasingly painful series of symptoms. Mental stress and Physical Stress are linked due to the fact that if one has mental stress it can cause physical stress. Man’s response to psychological stress differs little from sources of potential physical harm (i.e., with surges of adrenaline, a rise in blood pressure and heart rate, and a 4x increase in blood flow to the muscles needed to fight or run away.) Physical symptoms may include a headache, upset stomach, muscle tension, neck or backache, rapid breathing, sweaty palms, and exhaustion.

Mentally, you may feel distracted, have trouble concentrating, be illogical or forgetful, or you may have scary thoughts or feel suspicious. You may become easily irritated and impatient, or you may feel tense, depressed, angry or alone. You may have difficulty sleeping. Chemical Stress, however, is cause from manmade substances or objects. our body to make a certain number and quality of enzymes, antibodies, and hormones. These are the end products.

The raw materials to make these end products come from our foods. Lack of a suffiecient diet can cause chemical stress. Chemical stress can also come from pesticides, insecticides, polluted air and water, heavy metals such as mercury or lead, asbestos and artificial food additives. Stress in general causes the immune system to weaken to a great extent. There are many health problems related to diminished immune systems including allergies and susceptibility to different diseases such as fungus and yeast infections.

With the premature degeneration the stress will cause an acceleration in the aging and the break down of tissues. Physical consequnces such as cellular damage is caused by highly unstable molecules called free radicals. Because of the highly unstable nature of the “free radicals”, they can be extremely toxic and are a primary result of stress that undermine the immune system and threaten health. Ironically, the body’s immune system produces these highly toxic free radicals in minute amounts because they are essential for the immune system to remove a virus or bacteria. It is only when high concentration of free radicals are present, or when the level of free radicals overwhelm the body’s ability to remove them, does a threat to health occur. Maintaining the balance between free radical activity and antioxidant enzyme supply is one of the important functions of the body.

It is in the cell where free radicals are created and do the most damage. In the case of the immune system, this random circulation of the free radicals (molecules with an unpaired electron which is seeking to bind with any and everything) cause communication break down between the immune system cells and the body, thus weakening or wiping out some of their signals. Simply put excess amounts of the free radicals create chemical reactions at the wrong place at the wrong time causing havoc with the cellular environment. In doing so, the excess amounts of the free radicals cause break down of the immune systems (i.e.allergic reaction or auto immune reaction). You may ask then, why would there be excesses amounts of these free radicals created. It would be easier to consider the fact that the factors related to release of excess amount of the free radicals are mostly originated from modern advancements in our society such as chemical preservatives in the food or the polluted air and water. Then it is simple to see why so many individuals can not over come the threats posed by germs, viruses or abnormal cell growth (like cancer). Again, stress (of all types) and the resultant free radicals are a primary cause in weakening of the immune system and accelerated degenerative process.

There are two kinds of stress. Good Stress, positive reinforcement for human nature and Bad Stress that causes diseases. Major causes of stress include illness, job changes, moving, separations and divorces, deaths in the family, and financial difficulties. But even joyous events, like marriage, the arrival of a baby, or entertaining guests, can be stressful. Stress also appears associated with heart disease. While evidence to date does not suggest that stress management strategies can be the sole therapy to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease, some stress reduction techniques, when used regularly, can be a valuable adjunct to other behavioral, dietary, and medical interventions for reducing the risks of heart disease.Stress is also related to blood pressure.Tension and hypertension are not the same thing. Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. You can have high blood pressure without feeling stressed or tense.

However, continual stress may lead to permanently elevated blood pressure. Stress is also associated with the the nervous system. We showed that stress activates a group of noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem that project widely to other regions of the central nervous system. When these neurons are stimulated by stress, they release transmitter norepinephrine which, in addition to arousing the brain, causes the activation of the c-fos gene in the noradrenergic target cells. The c-fos protein, in turn, is known to activate other genes that may produce prolonged changes in the function of the brain to stress is a key event in causing persistent psychiatric disorders following stress.

Stress

Stress Stress is the “wear and tear” our bodies experience as we adjust to our continual changing environment; it has physical and emotional effects on us and can create negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel us to action; result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence stress can result in feelings of distrust, rejection anger, and depression, which in turn can cause health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high pressure, heart disease, and stroke. (Koop,1998). The long term effects of stress on one’s health are quite significant.

The American Academy of Family Physicians has said that two thirds of office visits to family doctors are prompted by stress-related symptoms. Stress is more than just a nuisance or something that occasionally makes people feel nervous or anxious. Very stressful events have been associated with a dramatically increased risk of heart attack. Chronic, ongoing stress, even when it is not so dramatic, can affect one’s health in very significant ways. One common example of this is the effect of a very stressful job.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Stress, however, is not always bad. Some stress is inevitable and actually beneficial. Stress helps people when they need to grow, attain difficult goals and perform their best. Some degree of stress enhances performance even when individuals are not in immediate danger. An athlete in a race may perform better because of the stress of the big event. A wedding can be both very stressful and very happy at the same time. It would not be desirable to eliminate all stress from everyone’s life.

The total absence of stress would leave people sluggish and bored. Stress can increase performance, but only to a point. When one’s stress exceeds a certain limit, additional stress will detract from performance. Stress or nervousness before a big presentation sometimes helps one to perform better and/or think with more clarity and precision,. However, if that person becomes excessively stressed and anxious, he or she will have difficulty remembering what to say. The physical stress of swimming in very cold water helps individuals to swim harder, but only for a short time.

The colder the water and harder that one swims, the more quickly he or she becomes exhausted. Everyone’s tolerance for stress is different, and individuals handle various types of stress differently. It is important to recognize and respect one’s limits. People do not learn to handle stress by letting it overwhelm them and rob them of their strength. Ideally, people would be able to adjust to the amount of stress that they face so that they receive neither too much nor too little.

This, of course, is not always possible. When one cannot eliminate excessive stress, the best way to manage it is to learn to maintain a balance even during a stressful event. If people learn to recognize the warning signs of increasing stress before they reach their limit, they can cope intelligently with their stresses before their resources are all spent. (Sarafino,1999). A large population of people suffering from high stress is college students. In a study by Whiteman (1998) stress is defined as any situation that evokes negative thoughts and feelings in a person. The same situation is not evocative or stressful for all people, and all people do not experience the same negative thoughts and feelings when stressed.

A critical issue concerning stress among students is its effect on learning. Yerkes-Doson Law postulates that individuals under low and high stress learn to the least and that those under moderate stress learn the most. Field study and laboratory tests support the notion that excessive stress is harmful to students’ performance. Mechanisms that explain why students perform badly under stress include “hypervigilance” (excessive alertness to a stressful situation resulting in panic-for example, overstudying for an exam) and “premature closure” (quickly choosing a solution to end a stressful situation-for example, rushing through an exam). (Falk,1995). Students react to college in a variety of ways.

For some students, college is stressful because it is an abrupt change from high school. For others, separation from home is a source of stress. Although some stress is necessary for personal growth to occur, the amount of stress can overwhelm students and affect the ability to cope. Since World War II, changes in American higher education includes growth has been a loss of personal attention to students. One measure of excessive stress, or distress, in college students is the use of mental health services.

Symptoms commonly report by campus psychiatrists portray a general picture of school related stress, for example, the inability to do school work and the fear of academic failure. One way for teachers to promote more of a healthy learning environment is to reduce stress among students. Studies of teachings that produces the most learning suggest that “effective” teachers use an analytical and synthetic approach to the subject matter, organize the material well to make it clear, and establish rapport with their students. Most studies identify enthusiasm as important in promoting students’ learning. The key seems to be to make college courses challenging but not threatening.

Many stress models emphasize a “mismatch” between the individual and his or her environment. Both too little and too much stress inhibits learning. Stress is difficult to define because individuals react to it very differently, and a situation that is stressful for one person may not be for another. Further, stressed individuals vary widely in the effectiveness of their coping. Some college students, when stressed by academic demands, use ineffective mechanisms for coping.

They may use “defense avoidance”, for example, avoiding studying and putting off writing assignments. Teachers can help such students develop more effective mechanisms for coping through “stress inoculation”-managing their courses so that students have more information about what to expect, giving feedback on their progress, and providing a degree of control over course activities. (Whiteman, 1998). Feedback is information about current performance that can be used to improve future performance. When given properly, feedback can encourage positive stress that motivates students to action and can discourage the negative stress that inhibits action.

Teachers can take specific steps to give effective feedback: (1) helping students know where they stand, (2) setting up ‘learning hoops”, (3) providing written comments on students work, (4) testing often enough, and (5) arranging personal meetings to discuss students’ work. Having a personal sense of control is an important factor in reducing stress. When students do not know what to expect in their courses, they feel out of control. Teachers can help students have a greater sense of control by using requests rather than commands, giving students choices in course requirements, explaining assignments so students know their purpose, involving students in the design of examinations, and soliciting and using feedback from students to improve courses and teaching. College teachers who can effectively use feedback and control in their classroom to create a climate ripe for learning. Students are relaxed but motivated to learn when they have an instructor who provides direction and feedback and who is willing to accept it in return.

(Gaff, 1998). Studies of college teaching support the view that the frequency and quality of teachers’ contact with students, inside and outside the classroom, affect students involvement in there own learning. Positive teacher-student relations have been linked to students’ satisfaction with college, their educational aspirations, and their academic achievement. And when students perceive their teachers as partners in the educational process, they are more likely to take on new and difficult tasks. To improve their relationships with students and enhance students’ learning, teachers can provide structure at the onset of a course, encourage class participation, get to know students by name, mobilize student tutors and study groups, use appropriate humor and persona stories be “professionally intimate,” be accessible outside class, develop advising skills and be open to the role of mentor.

In general students feel less stress and cope more effectively with stress if they feel they belong to the academic community. Faculty can play a key role in introducing and welcoming students to that community. (Ericksen, 1984). While teachers are not therapists, they can be helpful to stressed students. By demonstrating friendly attributes, teachers can become aware when students are stressed and help them cope more effectively. Sociology Essays.

Stress

Stress
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Statement of the Research Problem
How do you cope with stress in the workplace to achieve a more balanced
lifestyle? Stress is a part of everybody’s life. Depending on the level of
stress, it can control our lives, especially in the workplace. We begin to
spend several long hours at work, and thus have less time for other things.

Stressed employees may be unhappy and thus produce nominally. Stress can
deteriorate social and family relationships and eventually burn you out;
ultimately it can take toll on your health. Organizations need to recognize
stress as a problem and decide whether or not to act upon it.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now


Background Information
This question needs to be answered because stress is a problem that all
organizations must deal with; stress can cause poor work performance and lower
employee morale. These factors can increase employee turnover rate and lessen
quality of life. We all must deal with stress; question is how we handle and
control it. With downsizing the buzz word in the modern corporate world,
companies have become mean and lean. Employees are compelled to be more
efficient; they find themselves taking on the work of what used to be two. The
result is longer hours, less time for outside activities, and consequently
increased stress.


According to Business Week, the typical American works 47 hours a week, and if
current trends continue, in 20 years “the average person would be on the job 60
hours a week.” Another factor that increases stress is technological
advancements. With all the new technology one is always connected to work and
accessible 24 hours a day 7 days a week. According to Business Week, it is now
possible, and thus increasingly expected, for employees to be accessible and
productive any hour, any day.


At a workplace, one observes several sales people working long hours, claiming
it is due to under staffing. Employees reach a point of diminishing returns.

The more hours they work, the less productive they are. This stressful condition
causes the quality of work to dwindle. Consequently, clients recognize this,
and eventually they terminate the business relationship. Soon the company loses,
as it is built on these clients.


Statement of the Objectives
In this research, I expect to discuss factors which lead to stress in the
workplace. Are individuals stressed in the workplace? What causes stress in
the workplace? Who is mostly stressed: men or women? Are individuals being
exposed to stress management techniques? Should employers implement stress
management techniques? As a future manager, I would like to be able to
determine if stress is a problem for employees; if so, implement a strategy to
curtail stress in the workplace. By recognizing stress in the workplace,
employers can act appropriately to reduce stress. The outcome can benefit
social and family relationships, as well as preserve ones health and make us
more productive in our organizations.


Scope
The research project will comprise of a sample size of 30 individuals, randomly
selected from general business areas. The study will analyze stress factors in
the U.S workforce and its impact on the American organization. Effective stress
management techniques will then be presented, which will allow individuals or
organizations to implement. Secondary information from various sources will be
utilized to explore effective methods of coping with stress. The conclusions
and recommendations I will draw will be applicable to any American organization
with stress as a problem. Although this study will generalize from the small
population, it can be used as a starting point to recognizing the problem, as
each organization can require a different approach.


Limitations
The sources utilized in the research will be extracted from current articles
(1994-present) from online services, the Internet, and public libraries. A
survey will be given to individuals of randomly chosen organizations and will
not target any specific company or industry. Due to time constraints, the
population will be limited to 30 individuals. The research will explore factors
causing stress in the workplace and its impact on organizations. Effective
methods of coping with stress will be given, but limited to ones examined in the
secondary resources.


Research Procedures
The project will focus on stress factors in the workplace and effective methods
to balance a healthy lifestyle. The sample group will consist of 30 individuals
randomly selected from general business areas. The survey will be conducted
during lunch periods when several employees leave and return to the workplace.

The questionnaire will attempt to see if the sample individuals believe stress
is a problem and what can be done to resolve it. The questionnaire will be
delivered in person and each individual will fill out the survey at that point.


Since the survey will be conducted in a general public area, no authorization is
needed to administer. Once I receive all the surveys, I will quantify the data
into an Excel spreadsheet. I will report the data mostly in percentages (e.g.

70percent of the individuals acknowledge that stress is a problem in the
workplace). The data will be utilized to see if stress is a factor impacting
the American workforce. Stress management techniques will be presented where
appropriate.


Additional Information
Data and references will be collected between now October 12, 1996 through
November 5,1996. I will conduct the survey individually. The gathering of
references will also be done on my own. The study will take approximately 25-40
hours to complete, not including data collection time.


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
Stress is an adaptive response. It is the body’s reaction to an event that is
seen as emotionally disturbing, disquieting, or threatening. When we perceive
such an event, we experience what stress researchers call the fight or flight
response. To prepare for fighting or fleeing, the body increases its heart rate
and blood pressure; more blood is then sent to your heart and muscles, and your
respiration rate increases (Domar, 1996). Stress is both positive and negative.

Good stress is a balance of arousal and relaxation that helps you concentrate,
focus, and achieve what you want. Bad stress is constant stress and constant
arousal that may lead to high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and worse.

The body does not distinguish between negative and positive stress. The same
physiological responses can take place whether you are happy or sad about a
given situation (Robinson, 1996). When extending to the workplace, stress may
lead to poor work performance and end up costing an organizations several
thousands of dollars. The organization loses on salary because they are not
receiving satisfactory production and if the employee becomes ill, health and
workers compensation rates can soar (Carpi, 1996). The organization must decide
whether or no to implement a stress management program, since there are several
external stressors that can overtake an individual. Internal stressors, within
organizations include technology and corporate downsizing which leads to longer
hours and job uncertainty. If one does not know how to manage stress, it can
get out of control (Carpi, 1996).


Analyzing Stress on Individuals
In a 1995 survey of 1,705 respondents it is analyzed that stress rises with
level of education and job level and is higher than average for women (Robinson,
1996). Fifty-eight percent of the women respondents possess moderate to a lot
of stress in the workplace compared to 53 percent of men. From the divorced
individuals, 62 percent are stressed in the workplace compared to married and
never married at 57 percent, and 58 percent respectively. The widowed
respondents maintain the least stress at 38 percent (Robinson, 1996). College
graduate respondents possess more stress at 64 percent than high school
graduates at 55 percent. Only 43 percent of the less than high school
respondents felt stress in the workplace. Those with more education feel more
stress, possibly because their jobs involve greater managerial and financial
responsibility (Robinson, 1996). Stress is an epidemic in American life. In
nationwide polls, 89 percent of Americans reported that they often experience
high levels of stress, and 59 percent claimed that they feel great stress at
least once a week (Hellmich, 1994). A five year study of the American workforce
conducted by the Families and Work Institute showed that 30 percent of employees
often or very often feel burned out or stressed by their jobs, 27 percent feel
emotionally drained from their work, and 42 percent feel used up at the end of
the work day (Hellmich, 1994). Balancing work pressures and family
responsibilities leaves many workers feeling burned out. Researchers at Harvard
found that as stress increases, performance and efficiency do also. However, if
stress continues to increase, the level of performance and efficiency decreases
(Hellmich, 1994). Paula Morrow, director of the Industrial Relations Center at
Iowa State University College of Business states that According to the Center on
Work & Family , “Flexible scheduling, job-sharing, and on-site child care cut
absenteeism and turnover, boosting productivity. The key is for managers to
give up control of the process of work and empower employees to determine how it
gets done” (Daniel, 1994).


Examining the Effects of Downsizing on Stress
The downsizing of organizations have caused a stressful environment. Downsizing
has created concerns over job security, and has forced employees to take on a
larger workload. According to a local union representing U.S. West stated that
work still needs to be done, but with fewer people (Scott, 1996). Downsizing
creates quantitative and qualitative stress. Quantitative stress pertains to
doing the same amount of work with fewer people. Reengineering the organization
entails shaping the company to be more efficient with less individuals. These
individuals are asked to do a wider variety of work functions they are not
trained to do, causing qualitative overload (Scott, 1996).


Identifying Job Uncertainty
Elizabeth Fried, president of N.E. Fried and Associates states, “We have cut out
a whole layer of middle management an the pressure has to go someplace, either
up or down.” (Tahmincioglu, 1995) Ed Simon, analyst with the Labor Department
is concerned that the “leaner, meaner” mentality will be a trend that continues
with us for a while. He states that eventually the people working long hours
may not be able to keep that pace up and that it might be to a company’s benefit
to train and bring in more workers (Tahmincioglu, 1995). Not only are the
longer hou

Stress

Stress
Stress is the wear and tear our bodies experience as we adjust to our continual changing environment; it has physical and emotional effects on us and can create negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel us to action; result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence stress can result in feelings of distrust, rejection anger, and depression, which in turn can cause health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high pressure, heart disease, and stroke. (Koop,1998). The long term effects of stress on ones health are quite significant. The American Academy of Family Physicians has said that two thirds of office visits to family doctors are prompted by stress-related symptoms. Stress is more than just a nuisance or something that occasionally makes people feel nervous or anxious. Very stressful events have been associated with a dramatically increased risk of heart attack. Chronic, ongoing stress, even when it is not so dramatic, can affect ones health in very significant ways. One common example of this is the effect of a very stressful job. Stress, however, is not always bad. Some stress is inevitable and actually beneficial. Stress helps people when they need to grow, attain difficult goals and perform their best. Some degree of stress enhances performance even when individuals are not in immediate danger. An athlete in a race may perform better because of the stress of the big event. A wedding can be both very stressful and very happy at the same time. It would not be desirable to eliminate all stress from everyones life. The total absence of stress would leave people sluggish and bored. Stress can increase performance, but only to a point. When ones stress exceeds a certain limit, additional stress will detract from performance. Stress or nervousness before a big presentation sometimes helps one to perform better and/or think with more clarity and precision,. However, if that person becomes excessively stressed and anxious, he or she will have difficulty remembering what to say. The physical stress of swimming in very cold water helps individuals to swim harder, but only for a short time. The colder the water and harder that one swims, the more quickly he or she becomes exhausted. Everyones tolerance for stress is different, and individuals handle various types of stress differently. It is important to recognize and respect ones limits. People do not learn to handle stress by letting it overwhelm them and rob them of their strength. Ideally, people would be able to adjust to the amount of stress that they face so that they receive neither too much nor too little. This, of course, is not always possible. When one cannot eliminate excessive stress, the best way to manage it is to learn to maintain a balance even during a stressful event. If people learn to recognize the warning signs of increasing stress before they reach their limit, they can cope intelligently with their stresses before their resources are all spent. (Sarafino,1999). A large population of people suffering from high stress is college students. In a study by Whiteman (1998) stress is defined as any situation that evokes negative thoughts and feelings in a person. The same situation is not evocative or stressful for all people, and all people do not experience the same negative thoughts and feelings when stressed. A critical issue concerning stress among students is its effect on learning. Yerkes-Doson Law postulates that individuals under low and high stress learn to the least and that those under moderate stress learn the most. Field study and laboratory tests support the notion that excessive stress is harmful to students performance. Mechanisms that explain why students perform badly under stress include hypervigilance (excessive alertness to a stressful situation resulting in panic-for example, overstudying for an exam) and premature closure (quickly choosing a solution to end a stressful situation-for example, rushing through an exam). (Falk,1995). Students react to college in a variety of ways. For some students, college is stressful because it is an abrupt change from high school. For others, separation from home is a source of stress. Although some stress is necessary for personal growth to occur, the amount of stress can overwhelm students and affect the ability to cope. Since World War II, changes in American higher education includes growth has been a loss of personal attention to students. One measure of excessive stress, or distress, in college students is the use of mental health services. Symptoms commonly report by campus psychiatrists portray a general picture of school related stress, for example, the inability to do school work and the fear of academic failure. One way for teachers to promote more of a healthy learning environment is to reduce stress among students. Studies of teachings that produces the most learning suggest that effective teachers use an analytical and synthetic approach to the subject matter, organize the material well to make it clear, and establish rapport with their students. Most studies identify enthusiasm as important in promoting students learning. The key seems to be to make college courses challenging but not threatening. Many stress models emphasize a mismatch between the individual and his or her environment. Both too little and too much stress inhibits learning. Stress is difficult to define because individuals react to it very differently, and a situation that is stressful for one person may not be for another. Further, stressed individuals vary widely in the effectiveness of their coping. Some college students, when stressed by academic demands, use ineffective mechanisms for coping. They may use defense avoidance, for example, avoiding studying and putting off writing assignments. Teachers can help such students develop more effective mechanisms for coping through stress inoculation-managing their courses so that students have more information about what to expect, giving feedback on their progress, and providing a degree of control over course activities. (Whiteman, 1998). Feedback is information about current performance that can be used to improve future performance. When given properly, feedback can encourage positive stress that motivates students to action and can discourage the negative stress that inhibits action. Teachers can take specific steps to give effective feedback: (1) helping students know where they stand, (2) setting up learning hoops, (3) providing written comments on students work, (4) testing often enough, and (5) arranging personal meetings to discuss students work. Having a personal sense of control is an important factor in reducing stress. When students do not know what to expect in their courses, they feel out of control. Teachers can help students have a greater sense of control by using requests rather than commands, giving students choices in course requirements, explaining assignments so students know their purpose, involving students in the design of examinations, and soliciting and using feedback from students to improve courses and teaching. College teachers who can effectively use feedback and control in their classroom to create a climate ripe for learning. Students are relaxed but motivated to learn when they have an instructor who provides direction and feedback and who is willing to accept it in return. (Gaff, 1998). Studies of college teaching support the view that the frequency and quality of teachers contact with students, inside and outside the classroom, affect students involvement in there own learning. Positive teacher-student relations have been linked to students satisfaction with college, their educational aspirations, and their academic achievement. And when students perceive their teachers as partners in the educational process, they are more likely to take on new and difficult tasks. To improve their relationships with students and enhance students learning, teachers can provide structure at the onset of a course, encourage class participation, get to know students by name, mobilize student tutors and study groups, use appropriate humor and persona stories be professionally intimate, be accessible outside class, develop advising skills and be open to the role of mentor. In general students feel less stress and cope more effectively with stress if they feel they belong to the academic community. Faculty can play a key role in introducing and welcoming students to that community. (Ericksen, 1984). While teachers are not therapists, they can be helpful to stressed students. By demonstrating friendly attributes, teachers can become aware when students are stressed and help them cope more effectively.

x

Hi!
I'm Lydia!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out