Spanish Verb Book

.. IR’s convertirse to become reunirse to get together servirse to prepare for oneself Yo me sirvo un pollo. I am preparing myself a chicken. Nos reunimos algun dia. Lets get together someday. El se converte un hombe. He’s becoming a man.

Te sirves el pescado. Your preparing yourself some fish. convertirse – to become reunirse – to get together servirse – to prepare for oneself me converto nos convertimos me reuno nos reunimos me sirvo nos servimos te convertes — te reunes — te sirves — se converte se converten se reune se reunen se sirve se sirven Reflexive verbs reflect the action of the subject back to the subject. For example a person brushes his hair, or a person shaves himself. These reflexive verbs are conjugated the same way as their non-reflexive counterparts except that to show that the action reflects you must place me, te, se, nos, or se depending upon who is the action is being done to. Reflexive verbs can also be used to express an action in which two or more people do the action to each other, for example, Ellas se miran, or they look at each other.

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Imperative Mood (Commands) Words in imperative mood (more commonly known as commands) are something that orders a person or group of persons to take an action. They are similar to other verbs and are taken from the other verbs. They are not conjugated except for singular, or plural commands. Singular command being one that commands only one person, and a plural command commands a group of people. Reflexive verbs also may be used as commands. There are five irregular commands which do not follow the pattern that is set by the commands before it. Polite Commands To congugate a not irregular, polite command.

1. Take the first person congugation of the verb (i.e. cantar – canto) 2. Remove the o from the end of the verb. 3. If an AR verb add e to the end, if an ER or IR verb, add a to the end.

4. If the command is plural, add an n to the end of the verb. 5. If the command is reflexive add an se to the end of the verb, then place an accent mark over the originally stressed vowel. 6.

If the command is negative place a no before the verb 7. If both negative and reflexive, move the se before the verb (as a separate word), also, remove the added accent mark. 8. If the original verb ended with a CAR, make the C in the new verb a QU. 9.

If the original verb ended with a GAR, make the G in the new verb a GU. 10. If the original verb ended with a ZAR, make the Z in the new verb a C. 11. You may place an usted (for singular) ustedes (for plural) lafter the verb, but it is not necessary.

1. Locate the verb on the chart below, then use the appropriate form of the verb. Verb Singular Plural Meaning dar d den to give estar est estn to be (temporary) ir vaya vayan to go saber sepa sepan to know ser sea sean to be (permanent) 2. If the command is negative, place a no before the verb. 3. You may place an usted (for singular) ustedes (for plural) lafter the verb, but it is not necessary. Examples: Singular (not negative, non reflexive, not irregular) Cante usted bien.

Sing well. Beba usted la leche. Drink the milk. Singular (negative, non relexive, not irregular) No pase usted a la puerta. Don’t go to the door. No traiga ustedes los libros. Don’t bring the books.

Singular (not negative, relexive, not irregular) Levntese usted a las ocho. Get up at eight o’clock. Si sintese usted cerca de la mesa. Sit near the table. Singular (negative, relexive, not irregular) No se quite usted los guantes. Don’t take off the gloves. No se lave usted la cara.

Don’t wash your face. Plural (not negative, not reflexive, not irregular) Hagan ustedes la tarea. Do your homework. Estudien ustedes la leccin. Study your lesson.

Plural (negative, non relexive, not irregular) No hagan ustedes el trabajo ahora. Don’t do the work now. No coman ustedes el pan. Don’t eat the bread. Plural (not negative, relexive, not irregular) Acestense ustedes tarde.

Go to bed late. Acstense ustedes en casa. Stay at home. Plural (negative, relexive, not irregular) No se ponanse ustedes los zapatoes. Don’t wear your shoes. No se acuestan ustedes a las diez.

Don’t wake up at six. Mixed (Irregular) D usted el libro a Juan. Give John the book. Estn ustedes all a las dos. Be there at two o’clock. Vaya usted con ellos.

Go with them. Sean ustedes bien por favor. Please be good. Sepa usted la leccin por maana. Know the lession for tomorrow. Informal Commands Whenever you give a command to a person that is your friend and you know.

You do not need to use the polite version of that command most often an informal command is used. These have a completely different form than that of the formal commands. Using affirmative familiar commands. When using one of these commands simply follow these steps: 1. First select the verb you are going to use.

2. Take the normal second person conjugate of the verb (i.e. cantar – cantas) 3. Remove the s from the end of the verb. Examples: Toma t caf. Drink coffee.

Vive t en Mxico. Live in Mexico. Trae t el dinero. Bring the money Oye t la msica. Listen to the music.

Canta t ahora. Sing now. Come t la ensalada. Eat the salad. Escribe t la carta.

Write the letter. Empieza a leer. Begin reading. Vuelve pronto. Come back soon.

Da el dinero a Jos. Give the money to Jos. Using negative familiar commands. 1. First select the verb you are going to use.

2. Take the first person conjugate of that verb. 3. Take the first person congugation of the verb (i.e. cantar – canto) 4.

Remove the o from the end of the verb. 5. If an AR verb add e to the end, if an ER or IR verb, then add a to the end. 6. Then place s at the end of the word. Examples: No mires la televisin esta noche.

Don’t watch TV tonight. No aprendas esta leccin. Don’t learn the lesson. No asistas al concierto. Do not attend the concert. No cier cieres la puerta.

Don’t close the door. No envuelvas el paquete. Wrap the packet. No pongas el espejo alli. Don’t put the menu there.

No vengas con cosotros. Don’t come with us. No hagas el favor. Don’t do the favor. No veias al museo con Robert.

Don’t go to the museum with Robert. No contestas a mi pregunta. Don’t answer my question. Irregular Familiar Commands Certain commands are irregular and do not follow the pattern, refer to the chart for them. Verb Familiar Command Decir Di Hacer Haz Ir Ve Poner Pon Salir Sal Ser S Tener Ten Venir Ven Examples: Sal de me casa. Leave my house.

Haz el favor de escuchar. Do me the favor of listening. Pon la silla aqui, por favor. Set the chair here, please. Di algo.

Say something. Ven conmigo en seguida. Come with me at once. S bueno. Be good. Ve aqui.

Come here. Ten paciencia. Have patience. Reflexive Informal Commands For affirmative reflexive informal commands simply attach te to the end, and add an accent mark above the previously stressed syllable. For negative reflexive informal commands place a te in front of the verb (as a separate word), there is no accent to place. Examples: No te quites los guantes. Don’t take off the gloves.

No te laves la cara. Don’t wash your face. No te ponas el pollo. Don’t fix yourself the chicken. Levnteste a las ocho. Get up at eight o’clock. Si sinteste cerca de la mesa.

Sit near the table. Maquilleste en la cara. Put make up on your face. Preterite (Past) Tense This section will explain how to use all the previously mentioned verbs in the past tense. For example if you want to say I drank the milk, instead of I am drinking the milk. Simply follow the new rules for conjugation with the old verbs. Regular AR Verbs Mi leccin de piano termin a las ocho ayer.

My piano lesson ended at eight yesterday. El invierno pasado nev mucho. Last winter it snowed a lot. Nosotros admiramos las pinturas en el museo. We admired the pictures in the museum.

Quin compr el coche? Who bought the car? prestar – to lend encontrar – to find contestar – to answer pensar – to think prest prestamos encontr encontramos contest contestamos pens pensamos prestaste — encontraste — contestaste — pensaste — prest prestaron encontr encontraron contest contestaron pens pensaron The preterite tense is equivalent to the past tense in English: I ate, she went, we talked, did he work?, we did not speak. To form the preterite tense AR’s simply remove the ar at the end and instead add the following ending depending upon the subject of the verb: yo t aste usted, l, ella nosotros amos ustedes, ellos, ellas aron Regular ER Verbs Bebimos vino anoche. We drank wine last night. Ella no devolvi los libros a la biblioteca. She did not return the books to the library.

Qu vendieron ayer? What did they sell yesterday? Que aprendieron ustedes en la clase? What did you learn in class? romper – to break defender – to defend mover – to move aprender – to learn romp rompimos defend defendimos mov movimos aprend aprendimos rompiste — defendiste — moviste — aprendiste — rompi rompieron defendi defendieron movi movieron aprendi aprendieron The preterite tense is equivalent to the past tense in English: I ate, she went, we talked, did he work?, we did not speak. To form the preterite tense ER’s simply remove the er at the end and instead add the following ending depending upon the subject of the verb: yo t iste usted, l, ella i nosotros imos ustedes, ellos, ellas ieron Regular IR Verbs A qu hora salieron ayer? At what time did they leave yesterday? l dividi el pastel en cuatro partes. He divided the pie into parts. Escribieron una carta anoche. They wrote a letter to their relatives.

Prometiste a traer los aiertas. You promised to bring the tapes. recibir – to recieve escribir – to write describir – to describe abrir – to open recib recibimos escrib escribimos describ describimos abr abrimos recibiste — escribiste — describiste — abriste — recibi recibieron escribi escribieron describi describieron abri abrieron The preterite tense is equivalent to the past tense in English: I ate, she went, we talked, did he work?, we did not speak. To form the preterite tense IR’s simply remove the ir at the end and instead add the following ending depending upon the subject of the verb: yo t iste usted, l, ella i nosotros imos ustedes, ellos, ellas ieron Irregular Verbs in Preterite Tense There are several groups of irregular verbs in past tense. Each type is different and unrelated.

Each are conjugated differently than the previously mentioned way, and some are very different. Oddballs Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form dar – to give di diste dio dimos dieron ir* – to go fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron ser* – to go fui fuiste fue Fuimos fueron *Though ir and ser share the same conjugation they have different meanings you must use context clues to discover the meanings Yo di el coche. I gave him the car. Ella fue a la tienda. She went to the store Nosotros fuimos hombres.

We were friends. Ellos fueron casa. They went home. Diste tu el libro a ella? Did you give the book to her? This group has no real pattern and is very odd. The U-Stem Irregulars Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form andar – to walk anduve auviste anduvo anduvimos anduvieron caber – to fit cupe cupistestuvo cupo cupimos cupieron estar – to be estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvieron poder – to be able pude pudiste pudo pudimos pudieron saber – to know supe supiste supo supimos supieron poner – to put puse pusiste puso pusimos pusieron tener – to have tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvieron Yo anduve a escuela.

I walked to school. Ella cupo en buena. She fit in well. Nosotros tuvimos un casa. We had a house. Ella estuvo un profesora.

She was a teacher. Ellos pudieron a nadar. They were able to swim. The J-Stem Irregulars Verb – Meaninge I Form You Form He Form We Form They form conducir-to drive conduje condujiste condujo condujimos condujeron decir – to say dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijeron traer – to bring traje trajiste trajo trajinos trajeron Yo conduje casa. I drove home.

Dijiste ayer. You told me yesterday. Ella trajo el libro. She brought the book. Ellos dijeron ayer.

They said yesterday. Yo traje el coche. I brought the car. The I-Stem Irregulars Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form hacer to do,make hice hiciste hizo* hicimos hicieron querer – to want quise quisiste quiso quisimos quisieron venir – to come vine viniste vino vinimos vinieron *This instance is irregular more than the other irregulars. Yo hice un nota buena.

I made a good grade. Ella quiso un gata. She wants a cat. Nosotros vinimos casa. We came home.

Ellos quisieron la comida. They want food. Ella hizo la tarjeta. She made the card The Y-Stem Irregulars Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They form caer – to fall ca caste cay camos cayeron creer – to believe cre creste crey cremos creyeron or – to hear o oste oy omos oyeron leer – to read le leste ley lemos leyeron Ella cay ayer. She fell yesterday.

Yo o t. I heard you. Lemos el libro. We read the book. Creyeron me.

They believe me. Yo o las noticas. I heard the news. Imperfect tense In Spanish something is considered immperfect tense if it is equivalent to the english used to or the like, an action that was repeated. Imperfect AR Verbs Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form estar – to be estaba estabas estaba estbamos estaban ayudar – to help ayudaba ayudabas ayudaba ayudbamos ayudaban andar – to walk andaba andabas andaba andbamos andaban preguntar – to ask preguntaba preguntabas preguntaba preguntbamos preguntaban Yo estudiaba mis lecciones todos los los dias.

I studied my lessons every day. Mi familia viajaban durante el verano. My family used to travel during the summer. Tu estabas mi amigo. You used to be my friend.

El ayudabame muchos. He used to help me a lot. Nosotros andbamos a la tienda. We used to walk to the store. To form imperfect AR verbs you simply remove the AR at the end of the verb and insert the following depending upon the subject needed.

yo aba t abas usted, l, ella aba nosotros bamos ustedes, ellos, ellas aban Imperfect ER Verbs Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form vender – to sell venda vendas venda vendamos vendan comer – to eat coma comas coma comamos coman poner – to put pona Ponas pona ponamos ponan hacer – to make haca Hacas haca hacamos hacan Yo venda libros en la tienda. I used to sell books in the store. Nosotros comamos pollo todos las dias. We used to eat chicken every day. El pona la mesa. He used to set the table.

Ellos beban vino. They used to drink wine. Yo lea los libros. I used to read books. To form imperfect ER verbs you simply remove the ER at the end of the verb and insert the following depending upon the subject needed.

yo a t as usted, l, ella a nosotros amos ustedes, ellos, ellas an Imperfect IR Verbs Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form dormir – to sleep dorma dormas dorma dormamos dorman sentir – to feel senta sentas senta sentamos sentan partir – to leave parta partas parta partamos partan salir – to go out sala salas sala salamos salan Yo me dorma temprano. I used to go to sleep early. El senta enjoada a tu. I used to feel mad at you. Nosotros sentamos tarde.

We used to leave late. Ellos salan en domingo. They used to go out on Sunday. Yo sala siempre todos las dias. I used to go out almost every day.

To form imperfect IR verbs you simply remove the IR at the end of the verb and insert the following depending upon the subject needed. yo a t as usted, l, ella a nosotros amos ustedes, ellos, ellas an Irregular Imperfect Verbs Verb – Meaning I Form You Form He Form We Form They Form ser – to be era eras era eramos eran ir – to go iba ibas iba ibamos iban ver – to see vea veas vea veamos vean Nosotros ibamos a la tienda. We used to go to the store. Yo vea un doctor. I used to see a doctor. Ellos eramos loco.

They used to be crazy. El era un estudiante. He used to be a student. Tu ibas a casa temprano. You used to go home early These three verbs are the only verbs that are irregular in this tense, simply follow the conjugations above.

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