South Africa

.. lso technical colleges. The people that live in Soweto transport to work by bus, train, taxi, and privately owned automobiles. The white population has two main segments. There are the descendents of the Dutch or British immigrants, and then there are the Afrikaners.

The Afrikaners speak Afrikaans, this is a language that is resultant from the Netherlandic, Dutch, and Flemish. These people are descendents of the Boers, who were the earliest white settlers. These people migrated northward from the Cape Colony into the interior, this was because the farmers and cattlemen started competing with Bantu tribes for the rural pastoral lands. The British immigrants that spoke English started to inhabit the cities from 1820 and on. They were reinforced by the others that became attracted by the diamond, gold, coal, and platinum mines. Eventually they came for the industry and commerce.

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The rural Afrikaners began to migrate to the areas that included mining and industry. This happened around 1920 and today are moving English-speaking businessmen. Afrikaans and English have equal status as official language. However, intermarriage is slowly mixing the two groups. Another colored group resulted from the enslavement of the San hunters and Khoi-Khoi farmers and herdsmen. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company officials arrived in Table Bay.

Here they enslaved some of these people, the rest fled northward to the Kalahari desert to seek refuge from the settlers. The company had much trouble trying to enslave the Africans, so they imported Malay, Malagasy, East Indian, and Javanese slaves. The Asian slaves, Khoisan, and white settlers intermarried during the next century and produced a Cape Colored community. When freed, they stayed in the in the southwestern Cape area as tradesmen and agricultural workers, speaking Afrikaans and practicing religion. Many of the Cape Coloreds still continue to live in the southwestern cape. The intermarriage between the black and whites resulted in this colored group. There were laws enacted to prevent the mixed marriages, however the numbers still increased.

The laws were abolished in June of 1985. The Asian community is mostly made of East Indians. Brought to the coast of Natal between 1860 to 1895, they were made to become indentured servants. The large need for laborers was because of the large sugar plantations and many black men refused to work them. So they basically took people for slaves that did not have a defense.

The Indians were insured a free passage back to their native country of India, however the bulk chose to stay in South Africa. They stayed for work in Natal as industrial workers or market gardeners, which eventually led them to taking jobs as businessmen. They abandoned their homeland languages to learn their new native language of English or Afrikaans. The other Asians that make up the population are East African Arabs. They came as shopkeepers to the Transvaal gold-mining area in the beginning of the 20th century. There are a few hundred Chinese that are descendents of the indentured laborers that were brought from Canton to work in the mines. The low-income groups of any and all races acquire medical, dental, and regular health services.

Unfortunately, the qualified staff shortages and the mass rural isolation have delayed the full coverage for many communities. For the rest, there are copious amounts of private services throughout South Africa. The medical training in the country is very high quality. The first heart transplant was preformed in South Africa. The Baragwanath Hospital neat Johannesburg is the largest hospital in Southern Hemisphere of the world. It runs 12 independent clinics in the black township of Soweto (mentioned earlier.) Malaria is very commonly found in the northeastern part of South Africa, however there are intermittent epidemics in some rural areas.

A disease that was a past threat, however presently poses none, was yellow fever. Usually in areas of rural poverty diseases such as tuberculosis, typhoid, and cholera are found quite often. There is a very common water disease, with the name of Bilharzia, is found in all rivers flowing eastward. This poses a threat for many residents that drink, bathe, and cook with the water because it cannot be very easily destroyed. This is because the piped water supplies are very lacking in the countryside, and it would be a very expensive problem to fix.

There are an abundant amount of environmental health problems, two of which are malnutrition and major pollution. These do receive extra attention from the medical and social-welfare authorities, especially when the crops fail. Teri’s Hometown: Johannesburg The city from which Teri is from is called Johannesburg, South Africa. Johannesburg happens to be one the largest cities in South Africa that is not placed on a coast, a lakeshore, or a river. It lies on a prairie in the southern part of the Transvaal province, which happens to be a major center for international air travel and for an extensive network of rail lines.

The city is sometimes called the “city of gold”, because gold was found there in 1886. The gold-bearing reef is commonly called the “Rand”(Teri referred to this earlier.) The city has a moderately mild climate, with summer temperatures averaging 50 degrees F and winters averaging 68 degrees F. The rainfall averages about 30 inches a year. The effects of all of the developers and damage to this land have left it with little remains of the original plant and animal life. However, work has been done to create reserves, such as the Melville Kopje (small hill) Reserve, to keep the history of South Africa in tact.

The principal population groups in the cosmopolitan city are English and Afrikaans (speaking whites and African Blacks) who speak Zulu, Xhosa, Pedi, Venda, and Tswana. The population of Asians includes Japanese, Chinese, and Indians. The European population includes Germans, Hungarians, Italians, and French. A large number of blacks from the rural areas set up squatter camps and shantytowns because of the city’s rapid urbanization and industrialization between the two world wars. Johannesburg underwent a large slum-clearance program because of the tremendous pressure that they exerted on the city’s services.

(Including water, transportation, and health.) Johannesburg’s narrow downtown streets are towered over by its tall buildings, the suburban streets are much more spacious and tree lined. The city is the administrative headquarters of the gold mining companies located in the environs. A financial center, that houses the Stock Exchange, several banks, and insurance companies, was established in 1887. Education in Johannesburg includes many primary and secondary schools. It also has various technical colleges and research institutions.

The University of Witwatersrand is for English-speaking students, and was founded in Johannesburg in 1922. The Rand Afrikaans University gives higher education in Afrikaans, the Transvaal College of Education is for Asians, and the Rand College of education is for coloreds.

South Africa

South Africa is a place of hurt, heart, and change.
Over the years, South Africa has either been through rough
times in the traditional tribal part, or being descriminated
because of their color of skin.

South Africa has two major tribal groups; The
Nguni/South Ndebele, and the khoi/San. The South Ndebele,
together with the Zulu, Xhosa and Swazi, belong to the South
Nguni ethnic group. In the case of the South African Ndebele
group, the area is the Southern part of South Africa. Here,
they have lived, worked on farms, and hunted for
generations. They are a very communal tribe. They work
together, share together, help each other out, and hunt with
each other. This group is very dependent on all of their
family.

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On the other hand the Khoi/San group is the complete
opposite of the Nguni/South Ndebele. They live in the
Kalahari Desert, they are Nomadic, and rely on livestalk to
live. They might be more Independent then the Nguni, but
they still get alittle help from their families too. Like
they go hunting together. Unlike the Nguni the Khoi/San use
poisoned arrows to kill their livestalk.Little did these
groups know what they were going to be going through the
next 300 years; colonialism.
In 1652 South Africa was forever changed when Dutch
established a rest stop in South Africa.Apartheid also
unofficially started. At that time, the area was occupied by
the Khoi/San clans. The pressure on the Khoi/San increased
as more Dutch and French settlers arrived. By the 18th
century, most Khoi/San had lost their land to these European
settlers.
Cape Town became a major port as a way station for the
Europeans. The colonists were mostly farmers and cattle
herders. They became known as the Boers. They developed
their own culture and language (Afrikaans). In the 1770’s,
the Boers encountered the Bantu, who were migrating. The
Nguni Bantu clans settled between the Drakensberg Mountains
and the sea. The Sotho clans settled in the interior, north
of the Cape Colony. The 19th century competition for land
led to the conflict between the Bantu clans, which led to
the boer war, 1899-1902. Hundreds and thousands died during
the wars, entire clans disappeared and it resulted in the
creation of many Bantu nations. Now they are unable to
communicate with each other, and now they don’t have any
power to stop the Europeans. British forces twice occupied
the Cape region, in 1795 and 1806. In 1814, toward the end
of the Napoleonic Wars, Great Britain purchased the Cape
Colony from the Dutch for 6 million Britidh pounds. After
1820 thousands of British colonists arrived in South Africa,
and they demanded that English law be imposed. English
became the official language in 1822. The Khoi/San were
given protection, and slavery was abolished in 1833. When
the Dutch, or the Afrikanns found out that slavery was
ebolished they got angry, because they thoght that the
Bilble said that black people were supposed to be slaves,
which then created the Boer war.

It is now 1948, the Europeans
have now taken over South Africa. Four Years earlier a man
named Nelson Mandela became a lawyer, and joined the A.N.C.

so he could help the salvaging African people. Even though
he played a very important roll in Apartheid, colonialism,
and their human rights, that still didn’t stop the Europeans
from torturing them for the next 46 years. Nelson Mandela
was a nice man, but in 1956 Mandela went on trial for
treason, but was acquitted in 1961. During this time he
married Nkosikazi Nomzamo Madikizela. He was again arrested
in August of 1962, he was sentenced to five years in
prison. While in prison, Mandela, along with several others,
was convicted of sabotage and treason and in June 1964 was
sentenced to life imprisonment. During this period Mandela
became a worldwide symbol of resistance to white domination
in South Africa. In prison he acted nice to everybody. When
an Officer told him to do something, he politely answered
Yes sir, but he did this for a reason. He did that so the
officers could feal the guilt for what they have been doing
to all the black people. The goverment soon got pressured by
the people to let

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