.. lso technical colleges. The people that live in Soweto transport to work by bus, train, taxi, and privately owned automobiles. The white population has two main segments. There are the descendents of the Dutch or British immigrants, and then there are the Afrikaners.
The Afrikaners speak Afrikaans, this is a language that is resultant from the Netherlandic, Dutch, and Flemish. These people are descendents of the Boers, who were the earliest white settlers. These people migrated northward from the Cape Colony into the interior, this was because the farmers and cattlemen started competing with Bantu tribes for the rural pastoral lands. The British immigrants that spoke English started to inhabit the cities from 1820 and on. They were reinforced by the others that became attracted by the diamond, gold, coal, and platinum mines. Eventually they came for the industry and commerce.
The rural Afrikaners began to migrate to the areas that included mining and industry. This happened around 1920 and today are moving English-speaking businessmen. Afrikaans and English have equal status as official language. However, intermarriage is slowly mixing the two groups. Another colored group resulted from the enslavement of the San hunters and Khoi-Khoi farmers and herdsmen. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company officials arrived in Table Bay.
Here they enslaved some of these people, the rest fled northward to the Kalahari desert to seek refuge from the settlers. The company had much trouble trying to enslave the Africans, so they imported Malay, Malagasy, East Indian, and Javanese slaves. The Asian slaves, Khoisan, and white settlers intermarried during the next century and produced a Cape Colored community. When freed, they stayed in the in the southwestern Cape area as tradesmen and agricultural workers, speaking Afrikaans and practicing religion. Many of the Cape Coloreds still continue to live in the southwestern cape. The intermarriage between the black and whites resulted in this colored group. There were laws enacted to prevent the mixed marriages, however the numbers still increased.
The laws were abolished in June of 1985. The Asian community is mostly made of East Indians. Brought to the coast of Natal between 1860 to 1895, they were made to become indentured servants. The large need for laborers was because of the large sugar plantations and many black men refused to work them. So they basically took people for slaves that did not have a defense.
The Indians were insured a free passage back to their native country of India, however the bulk chose to stay in South Africa. They stayed for work in Natal as industrial workers or market gardeners, which eventually led them to taking jobs as businessmen. They abandoned their homeland languages to learn their new native language of English or Afrikaans. The other Asians that make up the population are East African Arabs. They came as shopkeepers to the Transvaal gold-mining area in the beginning of the 20th century. There are a few hundred Chinese that are descendents of the indentured laborers that were brought from Canton to work in the mines. The low-income groups of any and all races acquire medical, dental, and regular health services.
Unfortunately, the qualified staff shortages and the mass rural isolation have delayed the full coverage for many communities. For the rest, there are copious amounts of private services throughout South Africa. The medical training in the country is very high quality. The first heart transplant was preformed in South Africa. The Baragwanath Hospital neat Johannesburg is the largest hospital in Southern Hemisphere of the world. It runs 12 independent clinics in the black township of Soweto (mentioned earlier.) Malaria is very commonly found in the northeastern part of South Africa, however there are intermittent epidemics in some rural areas.
A disease that was a past threat, however presently poses none, was yellow fever. Usually in areas of rural poverty diseases such as tuberculosis, typhoid, and cholera are found quite often. There is a very common water disease, with the name of Bilharzia, is found in all rivers flowing eastward. This poses a threat for many residents that drink, bathe, and cook with the water because it cannot be very easily destroyed. This is because the piped water supplies are very lacking in the countryside, and it would be a very expensive problem to fix.
There are an abundant amount of environmental health problems, two of which are malnutrition and major pollution. These do receive extra attention from the medical and social-welfare authorities, especially when the crops fail. Teri’s Hometown: Johannesburg The city from which Teri is from is called Johannesburg, South Africa. Johannesburg happens to be one the largest cities in South Africa that is not placed on a coast, a lakeshore, or a river. It lies on a prairie in the southern part of the Transvaal province, which happens to be a major center for international air travel and for an extensive network of rail lines.
The city is sometimes called the “city of gold”, because gold was found there in 1886. The gold-bearing reef is commonly called the “Rand”(Teri referred to this earlier.) The city has a moderately mild climate, with summer temperatures averaging 50 degrees F and winters averaging 68 degrees F. The rainfall averages about 30 inches a year. The effects of all of the developers and damage to this land have left it with little remains of the original plant and animal life. However, work has been done to create reserves, such as the Melville Kopje (small hill) Reserve, to keep the history of South Africa in tact.
The principal population groups in the cosmopolitan city are English and Afrikaans (speaking whites and African Blacks) who speak Zulu, Xhosa, Pedi, Venda, and Tswana. The population of Asians includes Japanese, Chinese, and Indians. The European population includes Germans, Hungarians, Italians, and French. A large number of blacks from the rural areas set up squatter camps and shantytowns because of the city’s rapid urbanization and industrialization between the two world wars. Johannesburg underwent a large slum-clearance program because of the tremendous pressure that they exerted on the city’s services.
(Including water, transportation, and health.) Johannesburg’s narrow downtown streets are towered over by its tall buildings, the suburban streets are much more spacious and tree lined. The city is the administrative headquarters of the gold mining companies located in the environs. A financial center, that houses the Stock Exchange, several banks, and insurance companies, was established in 1887. Education in Johannesburg includes many primary and secondary schools. It also has various technical colleges and research institutions.
The University of Witwatersrand is for English-speaking students, and was founded in Johannesburg in 1922. The Rand Afrikaans University gives higher education in Afrikaans, the Transvaal College of Education is for Asians, and the Rand College of education is for coloreds.