.. ocial relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability. Example: The tribe of apes that Tarzan belonged to was a Gemeinschaft. 23. Gender Socialization.. The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society.
Example: While performing the duties as the king of the apes, Tarzan was often called upon to settle domestic disputes between mates. One brute had beaten his mate because she had refused to care for him properly which included grooming him and providing him with fresh fruit. 24. Generalized Other.. A term for a child’s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child’s subculture.
Example: Tarzan became aware of the demands of his society and subculture much slower than his peers but soon surpassed them in intelligence and cunning. 25. Homogamy.. The pattern of individuals marrying those who have similar characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, religious background, age, education, and/or social class. Example: Jane ultimately participated in homogamy by marrying Tarzan’s cousin even though she knew she had made a mistake by accepting his proposal. 26.
Id.. A term for the component of personality that includes all of the individual’s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification. Example: Tarzan was accustomed to gratifying without delay all of the needs of his id. He killed and ate when hungry whether or not the food was cooked as D’Arnot would have preferred was of no consequence. 27.
Individual Discrimination.. Behavior consisting of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property. Example: The actions of the great ape that killed John Clayton would be considered individual discrimination by Tarzan, because he believed he was descended from both groups. 28. Informal Education.. Learning that occurs in a spontaneous, unplanned way.
Example: Discovering the usefulness of clothes was definitely unplanned as it occurred during and because of a tornado. 29. Ingroup.. A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity. Example: The apes were the ingroup Tarzan claimed. 30.
Instrumental Leadership.. Group leadership that is goal or task oriented. The kingship of the apes was task oriented. Example: The king provided food, and settled squabbles. 31. Internal Colonialism.. According to conflict theorists, a practice that occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group. Example: The black warriors in the story were refugees from the Congo that had been taken over by white settlers.
32. Kinship.. A social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption. Example: The apes were the only kinship group that Tarzan knew. 33. Language..
A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another. Example: Tarzan was able to communicate with the apes as well as the humans he encountered by means of language. 34. Master Status.. A term used to describe the most important status that a person occupies.
Example: As a young man Tarzan’s master status was that of the king of the apes. As an adult his master status was that of a man and the master status he wanted was that of the husband of Jane. 35. Material Culture.. A component of culture that consists of the physical or tangible creations (such as clothing, shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share. Example: The material left behind by John Clayton for his son was the cabin, books, and the diamond encrusted pendent.
36. Matrilineal descent.. A system of tracing descent through the mother’s side of the family. Example: Matrilineal descent was the only possible line to trace for Tarzan because he believed Kala was his mother and his father was dead. 37.
Migration.. The movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency. Example: When the black warriors moved their palisade too close to the lake where Tarzan’s group was living, he took them farther into the jungle. 38. Mores..
Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture. Example: In Jane’s culture the promise to marry was not taken any less lightly than the marriage. She could not break her promise to marry even though she wanted to desperately. 39. Nonverbal Communication..
The transfer of information between persons without the use of words. Example: Tarzan used sign language with the humans to communicate with them. 40. Patriarchy.. A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men. Example: Both cultures that Tarzan ultimately recognized as his own were patriarchal. 41. Patrilineal Descent..
A system of tracing descent through the father’s side of the family. Example: Patrilineal descent was impossible to Tarzan, prior to meeting D’Arnot , due to the death of his father. 42. Peer Group.. A group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and (usually) similar age.
Example: The peer group of Kala showed interest in the human infant, but she would not allow them to touch him. 43. Presentation of Self.. A term for people’s efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image. Example: Tarzan’s proposal of marriage to Jane was pure presentation of self, although the story would have us believe everything he promised to be true. 44.
Rationality.. The process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures (bureaucracy). Example: In Jane’s culture men and women often were not at liberty to marry whom they chose due to bureaucracy. 45. Reference Group.. A term used to describe a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member. Example: The only reference group available to Tarzan was that of the apes.
46. Resocialization.. The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s previous background and experiences. Example: D’Arnot took Tarzan to Paris in order to resocialize him into his own culture. 47. Rituals..
Regularly repeated and carefully prescribed forms of behaviors that symbolize a cherished value or belief. Example: The rites of the Dum Dum marked important events in the life of the tribe –a victory, the capture of a prisoner, the killing of some large fierce denizen of the jungle, the death or accession of a king, and were conducted with set ceremonialism. 48. Role Exit.. A situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity. Example: The abdication of the position of king on the part of Tarzan was a role exit.
49. Role Performance.. How a person actually plays a role. Example: Tarzan was not performing his role as king and the tribe was constantly squabbling amongst themselves.