Selected Readings in Computer-Mediated Communicati

on, Communication ThThis is a selected listing of items related to Computer-Mediated
Communication, the Internet, and network information infrastructure and
These items were on my qualifying exam reading list for the doctoral
program in Communication and Rhetoric at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

I took these exams in September, 1993.

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The first sections describe what the articles and books are about.

Following these sections is the full bibliography.

Comments are welcome.

This file’s URL
1 Explaining Computer-Mediated Communication
1.1 Meta-theories
1.2 Conceptualizations of Computing
1.3 Theories, Models, Typologies and Propositions
1.4 Innovation Diffusion/Media Choice and Adoption/Critical Mass
1.4.1 Critical Mass Theory
1.5 Information/Media Richness
1.6 Social/Psychological Factors
1.7 Social Presence Model
1.8 Reduced Social Cues (RSC) Approach
1.9 Social Identity Theory and De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model
1.10 Social Information/Influence/Context Model
1.11 Language Aspects/Rhetorical
1.12 Media Characteristics / Media Evolution
2 Studies and Applications of Computer-Mediated Communication
2.1 Studies
2.1.1 Comparing CMC with FTF
2.1.2 Socioemotional Content in CMC
2.2 Computer-Mediated Scholarship/Education
2.3 CMC Infrastructure
2.3.1 Forums and Tools
2.3.2 Networks
3 Organizational Communication
3.1 Theory
3.1.1 Structure/Functions of Organizations
3.1.2 Human Relations
3.1.3 Communication as Process of Organization
3.1.4 Adaptive Structuration Theory
3.1.5 Organizations as Cultures
3.1.6 Network Analysis
3.2 Studies of Organizations
3.3 Technology/Communication in Organizations
3.4 Organizational CMC
3.5 CSCW
3.5.1 GDSS
1Explaining Computer-Mediated Communication
* Rice (1992) recursively summarizes material from CMC reviews. Main
point: “Even a general awareness of the diversity of these contexts, much
less the numerous studies associated with the various contexts, should
obviate the easy and ill-formed introduction found in many CMC studies,
that ‘there is little theoretical or empirical research in this area.’ “
* Rice (1989a) asserts that we need to integrate CMC research around
four themes: stakeholders, goals, domains, and tools. Main point: p. 436
Integrate CMC research across disciplines/tech/research processes via
stakeholders, goals, analytical domain, and tools.

1.2Conceptualizations of Computing
* Mowshowitz (1981) describes five positions underlying
conceptualizations of computing: technicism, progressive individualism,
elitism, pluralism, radical criticism.

* Hirschheim (1985) describes underlying epistemological and ontological
stances in office automation research.

* Turkle (1982) talks about how we project our ideas onto computers.

1.3Theories, Models, Typologies and Propositions
* Burge (1992) presents a detailed bibliography for current literature in
distance education and CMC.

* Rice (1992) recursively summarizes material from CMC reviews. Main
point: “Even a general awareness of the diversity of these contexts, much
less the numerous studies associated with the various contexts, should
obviate the easy and ill-formed introduction found in many CMC studies,
that ‘there is little theoretical or empirical research in this area.’ “
* Hacker and Monge (1988) describes theory of
communication/information models and designs of CMC systems.

* Johnston (1989) comments on Rice’s article on issues and concepts in
research on CMC.

* McCreary (1990) describes three behavior models for CMC.

* Rice and Boan (1985) describes journals about CMC.

* Culnan and Markus (1987) describes media use factors. Main point:
CMC is low in social presence (no noverbal); therefore, it is task-oriented
and impersonal.

* Bowers (1992) claims artifacts have politics by analyzing formalisms of
design or implementation. Main point: “If we are to take computer
technology seriously, we will have to abandon innocent humanism in
favor of a cyber politics.”
* Cathcart and Gumpert (1983) talk about mediated interpersonal

* Feenberg (1986) presents an operating manual for computer

* Ghani (1988) describes flow theory in CMC.

* Kuehn (1990) asserts that play theory explains CMC as “communication
play” when communicators can alter interaction and achieve goals.

1.4Innovation Diffusion/Media Choice and Adoption/Critical Mass
* Rogers (1983) describes the diffusion of innovations.

* Rogers (1986) describes impacts of innovations.

* Grantham and Vaske (1985) summarizes factors affecting
diffusion/adoption of the technology.

* Leonard-Barton (1988) describes role of implementation process in
innovation diffusion.

* Markus (1987) describes diffusion and adoption of interactive media
systems in terms of critical mass.

* Markus (1990) describes critical mass theory for interactive media,
which directs attention away from the individual to the community level
of analysis.

* Miles (1992) reviews issues of applying CMC to publishing and
interpersonal communication on national scales (Britain, France).

* Thompson (1975) describes idea of “electronic hallway” as facilitating
group formation and operation.

* Turoff (1989)
* Korzenny (1978) presents a theory for electronic closeness in

* Alexander, Penley, and Jernigan (1991) explores the effects of
differences in how managers choose media.

* Ebadi and Utterback (1984) describes how communication affects
technology use.

1.4.1 Critical Mass Theory
A threshold model that explains how use develops in a community.
* Markus (1987) describes diffusion and adoption of interactive media
systems in terms of critical mass.

* Markus (1990) describes critical mass theory for interactive media,
which directs attention away from the individual to the community level
of analysis.

* Oliver, Marwell, and Teixeira (1985) explains critical mass theory.

* Valente (1991) describes thresholds for critical mass in innovation

1.5Information/Media Richness
Reduce ambiguity through media selection.
* Daft and Macintosh (1981)
describes information richness theory in organizations.

* Daft and Lengel (1984) applies media richness theory to organizations.

Main point: p. 194 “organizational success is based on the organization’s
ability to process information of appropriate richness to reduce
uncertainty and clarify ambiguity.”
* Daft and Lengel (1986) describes theory of media richness used in

* Daft, Lengel, and Trevino (1987) uses media richness model applied to
message equivocality and media selection.

* Trevino, Daft, and Lengel (1990) describes the use of symbolic
interactionism to understand managers’ media choices in terms of message
equivocality, contextual determinants, and media symbolism.

* Trevino, Lengel, Bodensteiner, Gerloff, and Muir (1990) p. 176 “This
article proposes a new thesis about the role of individual differences in
managers’ media choice behavior.” Main point: Media preferences operate
when equivocality is low; in high equivocality situations, there is an
imperative to use rich media.

* Trevino, Lengel, and Daft (1987) describes media richness theory in

* Rice and Shook (1990a) explores job categories and organizational levels
and communication channels, including email.

* Lengel and Daft (1988) gives guidelines for managers selecting media.

* Duncan (1972) explains characteristics of an organization versus
perceived environmental uncertainty
1.6Social/Psychological Factors
* Kiesler, Siegel, and McGuire (1984) describes social and psychological
affects of CMC.

* Boshier (1990) discusses social/psychological factors in electronic
networking, focusing on email role in adult education, identifying research
and theory. Main point: Electronic networks can help adult education
and lifelong learning because they help increase interaction, provide for
equal opportunity, and create a noncoercive, nonhierarchical, reciprocal

* Cathcart and Gumpert (1985) communicating through computer creates
interpersonal communication dyad (user & computer).

* Kling and Gerson (1977) explores social context features of CMC
affecting communities of users.

* McGuire (1983) describes contextualism as a counterpoint to

* Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) describes social presence theory for
analyzing mediated communication. Main point: p. 65 “We hypothesize
that communications media vary in their degree of Social Presence, and
that these variations are important in determining the way individuals
1.7Social Presence Model
* Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) describes social presence theory for
analyzing mediated communication. Main point: p. 65 “We hypothesize
that communications media vary in their degree of Social Presence, and
that these variations are important in determining the way individuals
* Bales (1950)
* Short (1974) compared FTF, sound only, and CCTV communication to
test social presence hypothesis about persuasion.

* Johansen (1977) uses social presence model to examine social aspects of

1.8Reduced Social Cues (RSC) Approach
Basic Thesis: CMC features (reduced social/context cues) lead to
psychological states (reduced impact of social norms and constraints)
which undermine social, normative influences leading to deregulated
* Kiesler (1986) describes how the social effects of computers
may be greater and more important than you imagine. Main point: p.

46 Computers have social effects, cut down hierarchies, cut across norms
and organization boundaries.

* McGuire, Kiesler, and Siegel (1987) explores influence of group
communication and group decision processes on group decisions.

* Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986)
* Sproull and Kiesler (1986) analyzes e-mail use and characteristics in an

* Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986)
* Rutter (1987) describes “cueless model” for communicating by

* Morley and Stephenson (1977) discuss bargaining, test out cueless

* DeSanctis and Gallupe (1987) apply cuelessness to study of GDSS.

1.9Social Identity Theory and De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model
* Spears and Lea (1992) explores the social/psychological dimensions of
CMC: email and CC vs. FTF via Social Identity Theory and
De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model.

* Spears, Lea, and Lee (1990)
* Diener (1980) discusses de-individuation in groups.

* Festinger, Pepitone, and Newcomb (1952) describes de-individuation in
a group.

* Lea and Spears (1991a)
* Lea and Spears (1991b)
1.10Social Information/Influence/Context Model
Media perceptions and use are socially constructed.
* Fulk, Schmitz, and
Steinfield (1990) proposes a model for technology use which is based on
social context effects: social influence model of media use. Main point:
p. 121 Basic assumption of social influence model of media use: media
perceptions are subjective/social constructed.

* Fulk, Schmitz, and Schwartz (1992) develop CMC context themes and
propose a perspective on social context and context-behavior relations.

* Fulk, Steinfield, Schmitz, and Power (1987) explores social information
processing as a model for media use.

* Bem (1972) describes attribution theory.

* Chesebro (1985) describes CMC used in interpersonal contexts by
studying a BBS.

* Feenberg and Bellman (1990) social factors model posits that distinctive
organizational features guide the design of CC systems.

* Feenberg (1989) asserts that types and use of CMC systems must be
based on the sociology of the group.

* Feenberg (1992) traces the success of the French Teletel (Minitel)
videotex system in France.

* Gattiker (1992c) suggest directions for future research in
technology-mediated communication.

* Georgoudi and Rosnow (1985) describes contextualism from the
perspective of the nature of context (as opposed from mechanistic
assumptions). Main point: Contextualism is marked by recognizing
communication as a process embedded in a constantly changing, cultural,
cognitive, and social context.

* Hellerstein (1986) presents study of social uses of CMC at
UMass-Amherst; CMC mediates and facilitates social life.

* Schmitz and Fulk (1991) describes media richness, social influence
theory applied to organizations.

* Matheson (1991) examines the extent to which social perceptions in
CMC are influenced by social information availability and based on
internalized social expectations.

* Salancik and Pfeffer (1978) describes social information processing

* Smilowitz, Compton, and Flint (1988) CMC changes the way people
interact, accomplish comm. tasks.

* Lea (1992) introduces book on contextual influences on CMC.

* Martin, O’Shea, Fung, and Spears (1992) surveys ‘flaming’ phenomenon
in CMC.

* Bandura (1986) describes social learning theory.

* Montes (1992) questions social presence theory, suggests interaction to
be creator of context.

* Perry (1988) discusses use of contextualist approach to media effects.

* Thomas and Griffin (19XX) reviews literature on social information
processing model.

* Tushman and Nadler (1978) puts forth an information processing model
for organizations.

1.11Language Aspects/Rhetorical
* Baron (1984) describes CMC as a force in language culture.

* Ferrara, Brunner, and Whittemore (1991) describes interactive written
discourse (IWD, the written language occurring in simultaneous
terminal-to-terminal typed dialogues.)
* Finnegan (1988) describes how literacy and orality are affected by
communication technology.

* Lakoff (1982) Oral is becoming more valued than literacy, writing
imitates oral.

* Murray (1991) describes the composing process for computer

* Ochs (1989) explores language use and culture.

* Ong (1977) Technology changed culture and thought.

* Ong (1982) Thought and expressed changed in the shift from orality to

* Shank (1993) argues network communication is not oral or written but

* December (1993a) compares net discourse in USENET newsgroup with
characteristics of orality as defined by Walter J. Ong. Main point: The
discourse on the Internet brings back pre-literate characteristics; it is a
tertiary form of orality (the first two being, pre-literature culture and
widespread radio and tv broadcasting).

* Shaver (1990) describes measures of reliability and validity of attitude
measures of writing with a computer.

* Spitzer (1986) describes writing style in computer conferences.

* Tannen (1982) Oral/literate continuum = focus: involvement & context
v. content.

* Thompson (1988) describes how interactive networking can be used for
speech, writing, and composition.

* Black, Levin, Mehan, and Quinn (1983) describes real and non-real time

* December (1994) discusses and analyzes the strategies communicators
can use to exchange information on global computer networks. Main
point: The communicator’s task in creating and structuring information
has always included considerations of purpose and audience. In
communicating over networks, however, the communicator’s task includes
considerations of the nature of the medium_distribution, access,
information-sharing practices, and social context.

1.12Media Characteristics / Media Evolution
* Fowler and Wackerbarth (1980) studies audio teleconferencing in
comparison with FTF conferencing.

* Innis (1972) explores roles of media as used by different civilizations.

Main point: Media use and forms (bias and emphasis) contribute to
civilization and political structures of societies.

* Harnad (1991) asserts that the fourth cognitive revolution is electronic

* Havelock (1986) traces how writing transformed Greek culture from
orality to literacy.

* Levinson (1986) describes McLuhan’s ideas with regard to computer

* Levinson (1990) sees CMC as an ongoing evolution of media: speech,
writing, printing, telecommunications.

* McLuhan and Powers (1989) describes the idea of the global village
transforming life and media.

* McLuhan (1964) explores the extensions of people through media. Main
point: Media’s characteristics create and operate in a social and historical
context; electric technologies create an emphasis on effect and total

* McLuhan (1965) Technology revises the linearism of print. Main point:
“The Gutenberg Galaxy is intended to trace the ways in which the forms
of experience and of mental outlook and expression have been modified,
first by the phonetic alphabet and then by printing.”
* McLuhan and Fiore (1967) asserts that media extends consciousness.

Main point: p. 26 “All media work us over completely. They are so
pervasive in their personal, political, economic, aesthetic, psychological,
moral, ethical, and social consequences that they leave no part of us
untouched, unaffected, unaltered. The medium is the massage. Any
understanding of social and cultural change is impossible without a
knowledge of the way media work as environments.”
* Rice and Associates (1984) summarizes research dealing with computers
and communication.

* Schement and Lievrouw (1987) describes assumptions of information
society research.

* Smith (1980) traces development and transformation of newspaper
markets and audiences.

* Stewart (1992) describes a study of voice mail (VM) revealing innovation
reasons. Main point: Need to have user involvement in development,
prototype, selection, planning, and implementation of an innovation.

* Thomas and Miles (1989) describes the development of telematics in the
United Kingdom.

* Vallee (1982) presents perspectives on the network revolution.

* Williams and Rice (1983) talk about personal relationships in CMC.

2Studies and Applications of Computer-Mediated Communication
* Komsky (1991) p. 310 “examines factors that differentiate among
frequent and occasional users of electronic mail, for the purpose of
developing a profile of users to help organizations develop strategies for
increasing system usage.”
* Hiltz and Turoff (1978) surveys effects of CMC on people.

* Hiltz and Turoff (1993) surveys effects of CMC on people, revised
edition of 1978 edition.

* Chesebro and Bonsall (1989) describes computerized communication as
widespread, altering human communication patterns and culture.

* Dennis, Nunamaker, and Vogel (1990) compares laboratory and field
research in the study of electronic meetings.

* Steinfield (1986a)
* Adkins (1991) shows that recipients of email messages did not perceive
the sender as self-absorbed (egocentric-like).

* Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1988) reports questionnaire study of COM
system showing how COM system showed spontaneity, aggression; judged
efficient as a tool for sending and receiving simple messages.

* Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1991) reports study which shows FTF
communication induced more conformity and opinion change than CMC.

* Anderson and Jay (1985) uses network analysis to examine the adoption
of a computerized information system by physicians.

* Beals (1990) studied transcripts of computer conferences on Beginning
Teacher Computer Network (BTCN).

* Bresler (1990) found significant differences between males and females
in a high school electronic communication.

* Finholt, Sproull, and Kiesler (1990) examines use of electronic mail in
student work groups, where groups had similar tasks but used email to
different degrees. The paper speculates on the larger organizational

* Gerola and Gomory (1984) studied engineer’s use of networks, found no
improvement in work.

* Grint (1989) explores issues in CMC participation: fear of public
ridicule, status, gender, technical expertise.

* Guallupe and McKeen (1990) investigates use of decision support
systems for face-to-face versus remote meetings.

* Hartman, Neuwirth, and Kiesler (1991) describes patterns of social
interaction and network technology effects on learning to write.

* Hiemstra (1982) describes teleconferencing and organizational culture.

* Hiltz and Johnson (1989) measures acceptance of CMC systems in
terms of use, subjective satisfaction, and benefits. Main point: “The
findings suggest that future studies of CMCS’s in particular, and perhaps
computer-based information systems in general, should not assume that
usage alone or subjective satisfaction alone are adequate measures of
successful implementation.”
* Hiltz and Johnson (1990) Measures user satisfaction with CMCs.

* Hiltz and Turoff (1981) explores behavior of users in CMC systems.

* Hiltz and Turoff (1985) describes how to structure CMC systems to
avoid information overload.

* Hiltz, Turoff, and Johson (1981) describes the effects of task and
individual attributes on consensus in computer conferences.

* Hiltz (1989) measures acceptance of CMC systems.

* Johansen, Vallee, and Spangler (1979) presents how electronic meetings
can extend communication.

* Kerr and Hiltz. (1982) analyzes CMC systems’ acceptance and affects.

* Kiesler, Obrosky, and Pratto (1987) describes the effects (attentional,
social contact, belief) of computer use.

* Kiesler and Sproull (1987a) describes social effects of computer use:
more interaction, broader social
* Kiesler and Sproull (1987b) describes computing as a combination of
social+cultural+tech and its effects indirect, unpredictable.

* Kiesler and Sproull (1987c)
* Kiesler, Zubrow, Moses, and Geller (1985) findings show that CMC,
“rather than provoking emotionality per se, elicits asocial or unregulated
* Lea (1991) presents results that “suggest that the group of users
construed CMC mainly in terms of its attributes as a medium for
conversation and social interaction.”
* Lerch (1988)
* Mabrito (1991) describes email for peer response and compares high-
and low-apprensive writers.

* Mason (1989) presents findings showing CMC is marginally beneficial
for some students but very valuable for others in getting information and
maintaining contact.

* Matheson (1992) examines the social psychological impacts of CMC on

* Matheson and Zanna (1988) describes impact of CMC on self-awareness.

* McCreary (1989) describes how users experienced positive contribution
of CMC, but not unequivocal.

* Rafaeli (1986) explores, through surveys and content analysis, BBS use.

* Rice (1982) describes a longitudinal study of group roles and system
structure for a computer conferencing system.

* Rice (1988) uses network approach to gether data from communication
system networks.

* Rice and Borgman (1983) discusses issues in collecting data from CMC

* Rice and Case (1983) describes use and utility of computer-based
messaging in a university.

* Riedl (1989) discusses patterns in computer-mediated discussions.

* Riel and Levin (1990) describes success and failures in forming electronic
communities, suggests a set of guidelines for creating online communities.

* Rojo (1991) describes patterns of CMC usage and explores ways to
describe users; explores dynamics of online communication.

* Safyeni, Lee, and MacGregor (1988)
* Shamp (1991) discusses perception of CMC partners.

* Smeltzer (1992) evaluated electronic messages for structure, length,
complexity, and readability.

* Smolensky, Carmody, and Halcomb (1990) shows how task type, group
structure, and extroversion affected uninhibited speech in CMC.

* Steinfield (1986b) concludes that email use is best predicted by
infrastructure, positive orientation, and need.

* Thorn and Connolly (1987) explains why people contribute to a public

* Trevino and Webster (1992) discusses flow in CMC, focusing on email
and voice mail.

* Turoff and Hiltz (1988)
* Vallee, Johansen, obert Randolph, and Hastings (1974) describes social
effects of group communication via computers.

* Vallee (1984) describes computer messaging systems.

* Weedman (1991)
* Wilkins (1991)
* Williams (1977) describes different models for communication, including
rational choice/media use models.

* Zimmerman (1987) analyzed disturbed adolescents’ communication
patterns; CMC was positively expressive of feelings and interpersonal
issues and diminished gender differences.

* Boshier (1990) discusses social/psychological factors in electronic
networking, focusing on email role in adult education, identifying research
and theory. Main point: Electronic networks can help adult education
and lifelong learning because they help increase interaction, provide for
equal opportunity, and create a noncoercive, nonhierarchical, reciprocal

* Markoff (1993) describes Internet Talk Radio, a broadcast show on the
Internet, available in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. Main point: The
Internet is large and growing fast and using new media: a broadcast
sound show has started.

* Coombs (1993) reflection on experiences using CMC in teaching.

* Archee (1993) reports on using computer conferencing to teach small
group communication and writing/rhetoric.

* Day (1993) describes computer-mediated software design (CASE).

* Loperfido (1993) studies how the introduction of an email system affects
ways in which employees in an organization communicate.

* Herring (1993) explores computer discussion lists for occurrence of
gender differences in participation. Main point: While CMC promises
equal participation, domination by males was observed in discussion lists.

* Olaniran (1993) “investigates how perceived computer mediated
communication (CMC) system attributes and individual characteristics
(e.g., gender) affect users’ perception of five communication outcome
variables (user satisfaction, decision confidence, immediacy, effectiveness,
and ease of use of the system) across three CMC systems.”
* Phillips and Eisenberg (1993) studies email use in a research institution.

* Shedletsky (1993) explores the use of computer-mediated
communication (CMC) to augment seminar participation and active
thinking in a college seminar.

2.1.1 Comparing CMC with FTF
* Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1993) compares face-to-face and CMC with
regard to memory of texts.

* Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and Sethna (199X) talks about status effects in
CMC versus FTF decision-making groups.

* Short (1974) compared FTF, sound only, and CCTV communication to
test social presence hypothesis about persuasion.

2.1.2 Socioemotional Content in CMC
Socioemotional content in CMC
* McCormick and McCormick (1992)
explores content of undergraduate electronic mail.

* Rice and Love (1987) indicates that CMC systems can facilitate
socioemotional content and network roles don’t differ in percentage of
socioemotional content.

* Walther and Burgoon (1992) describes relational communication in

* Walther (1992) asserts that CMC is expressive/relational: by
accumulated verbal, textual cues.

* Hellerstein (1985) describes social use of CMC in a university.

* Phillips (1983) finds there is emotion (love/hate, spontaneity, creativity)
in CCs.

2.2Computer-Mediated Scholarship/Education
* Amiran and Unsworth (1991) explains development of Postmodern
Culture: design decisions, considerations for integrity and needs of

* December (1993b) explores current use of CMC for scholarship, suggest
three possible approaches: systems, tools, and ad hoc. Main point: The
directions for CMS include: 1) recognizing CMC and NIR tools as a
progression in media evolution; 2) identifying needs and level of
commitment to CMS; 3) matching these needs and commitment to
technology using a systems-oriented, tools-oriented, or ad-hoc approach;
and 4) supporting research in CMC and related user-interface issues.

* Harasim (1989) asserts that the CMC domain is unique (asynch, geo
independence, many:many) and needs new mindsets for use.

* Harasim (1990a) introduces online education.

* Harasim (1990b) asserts that current CMC systems help communicate
and generate ideas; but we need tools for linking ideas.

* Harrison and Stephen (1992) describes how Comserve provides a model
for ways of on-line scholarship.

* Harrison, Stephen, and Winter (1991) maintains that an electronic
journal has to fit its disciplines practices and needs.

* Hiltz (1992) describes the Virtual Classroom(TM), a CMCS for
collaborative learning.

* Kaye (1989) asserts that CMC is a new educational paradigm- and
presents a resource approach to its use in distance education.

* King (1991) describes the impact of networking on the delivery of
scholarly information.

* Lynch (1992) presents ideas about the crisis in scholarly communication
and networked information. Main point: p. 111 “My personal view is
that our primary objective must be to make the transition to a networked
information environment.”
* Mason and Kaye (1989) describes how CMC can be used in distance

* Mason and Kaye (1990) describes a paradigm for distance education.

* Michelson and Rothenberg (1992) trends in info technology and
scholarly practices demand new services from the archival community.

* Okerson (1991) explores the electronic journal.

* Okerson (1992) describes publishing on the network.

* Rawlins (1992) there are opportunities for electronic publishing to lower
costs and speed up distribution.

* Reich (1992) describes a discipline-specific literature base.

* Strangelove (1993) observes that ejournals are becoming more
widespread; trend toward simultaneous print and electronic versions of
* Turoff and Hiltz (1982) presents a progress report on electronic journals.

* Bailey and Rooks (1991) discusses role of librarian in providing access
to electronic resources.

* Dillon (1993) describes result of project for library services on the

* Duggan (1991)
* Paulsen (1993) six features must be considered in developing a DE
program based on CC: freedom of time, space, pace, medium, access, and

* Piternick (1991) presents human factors likely to influence adoption of
electronic journals.

* Powell (1993) describes a simply-implemented UNIX system for
supporting electronic journals.

* Pullinger (1986) describes how computer conferencing supports scientific

2.3CMC Infrastructure
2.3.1 Forums and Tools
* Bush (1945) describes memex, a personal system for information.

* December (1992) describes sources of information about: the Internet
and services, information services/electronic publications, societies and
organizations, newsgroups, and a selected bibliography. Main point:
There is a variety of information sources about the Internet and CMC.

* December (1993c) describes sources of information about: the Internet
and services, information services/electronic publications, societies and
organizations, newsgroups, and a selected bibliography.

* December (1993d) summarizes Internet NIR tools, CMC forms, and
Services, giving a summary, action using described notation, pointer to a
demonstration, and pointer to documentation.

* Banks (1992) tells how easy it is to have portable PC communications
over networks.

* Bowman, Danzig, and Schwartz (1993) describes issues of supporting
future information infrastructure: current tools (Archie, Gopher, etc) are
not ready for larger data volume, user base, and data diversity.

* CERN (1992) describes the WWW project.

* Foster, Brett, and Deutsch (1993) presents a report cataloging
Networked Information Retrieval (NIR) tools. Main point: There are a
variety of tools available.

* Hahn (1993) summarizes use of UNIX with computer communication
and Internet services.

* Kapor (1991) explores legal issues of networks.

* Kehoe (1992) describes basic Internet services and the background of
the Internet.

* Kerr (1986) presents a guide for moderating an online conference.

* Krol (1992) describes the uses of Internet tools as well as Internet

* Meckler (1993) describes Electronic Journals, Newsletters, Books, and
Discussion Lists on the Internet.

* Negroponte (1991) Networks will free us from space and time

* Rapaport (1991) presents comprehensive overview of CMC Systems
from design and implementation perspective.

* Rose (1993) describes Internet mail and network issues in general.

* Schwartz, Emtage, Kahle, and Neuman (1992) presents a taxonomy of
approaches to resource discovery giving insight into problems of
organizing, browsing, and searching for information.

* Smith (1993) describes tools for discover (archie, gopher, vernoica, wais,
www, hytelnet) and how these are being used together.

* Stephen and Harrison (1989)
* Sudweeks, Collins, and December (1993)
* Yanoff (1993) describes telnet, ftp, and finger information services on
various subjects on the Internet.

2.3.2 Networks
* Cerf (1991) describes how networks are growing larger and faster.

* Malamud (1992a) describes the people and networks on the Internet the
author encounters in three round-the-world trips.

* Malamud (1992b) This book looks at the question of interoperability in
computer nets/how to turn components into a computing environment
through tailoring.

* Dern (1992) The Internet is now widespread, growing larger.

* Dertouzos (1991) describes how fusing computing with communication
infrastructure can transform society.

* Glossbrenner (1990) Tells details of how to access and about PC online

* Gore (1991) describes his vision for an information infrastructure.

* Hancock (1990) Technical details of computer network communication.

* Kahin (1992) describes how to build an information infrastructure
through the NREN.

* Kahn (1992) describes infrastructure for national information.

* LaQuey (1990) describes global computer networks.

* Lottor (1992) describes the growth of the Internet from 1981 to 1991.

* Lucky (1991) We have a dream to join collectively, electronically, to
create a global “town commons… a virtual coffeeshop.”
* Lynch (1993) summarizes the evolution of the Internet.

* Mabrito (1990) lists 49 resources for CMC research, showing findings,
pedagogical approaches, and theory.

* McClure, Bishop, Doty, and Rosenbaum (1991) presents an overview of
the NREN research, policies, and technologies.

* Quarterman (1990) describes how the metanetwork of computer
networks will be as pervasive as the phone network (p. 3).

* Maule (1993) discusses structural and organizational issues of CMC

* Dunning (1992)
* Grycz (1992) describes economic models for
networked information. describes infrastructure for information society.

* Codex (1992) presents an introduction to computer communication and

* Sitzler, Smith, and Marine (1992) describes how to build a network
information infrastructure.

3Organizational Communication
* Morgan (1986) presents metaphors for organizations: machine,
organism, brain, culture, political system, psychic prison, flux and
transformation, instrument of domination. Main point: You can view an
organization in many different ways built on images, assumptions, and

* Euske and Roberts (1987) examine implications for organizational
communication contained in seven categories of organization theory:
classical, human relational, behavioral decision theories, systems theory,
resource dependency, population ecology, and institutional. Main point:
Organizations are dynamic processes that interact with their

* Perrow (1979) discusses complex organizations.

* Putnam and Pacanowsky (1983) describes interpretive approach to
organizational communication.

3.1.1 Structure/Functions of Organizations
Organizations studied in terms of function and structure, focusing on
power, authority, and legitimacy.
* Weber (1947) describes classical
organizational theory.

* Farace, Monge, and Russell (1977) describes a systems approach to
communicating in organizations.

3.1.2 Human Relations
Tenents: productivity determined by social norms, non-economic rewards
are important, workers react as group member versus individuals,
leadership is important, communication as facilitator of decision making.

* Fulk and Boyd (1991) describes theories of communication in

* Likert (1967) describes communication and human relation perspective
of organization.

* Peters (1992) describes how empowering people helps (human relations

* Peters (1982) describes how empowering people helps (human relations

3.1.3 Communication as Process of Organization
Communication is organization.
Weick (1979) describes how to look at
and think about organizations. Main point: An organization is because of
its organizing process.

* Galbraith (1977) describes horizontal view of information processing in
organizations. Main point: Information exchange should take place in
organizations to reduce uncertainty because of diversity, task variability,
or interdependence.

* Daft and Weick (1984) describes a model for organizations as
interpretation systems in four modes: enacting, discovering, undirected
viewing, and conditioned viewing. Main point: p. 294 Organizations can
develop workable information from scraps.

* Zuboff (1984) describes computer use and changing technology, in the

* Manning (1992) describes organizational communication theory and
field studies from an organizing (reducing equivocality through
interlocking behaviors) perspective.

3.1.4 Adaptive Structuration Theory
There is a mutually causal relationship between context and action.

* Contractor and Eisenberg (1990) explores the interplay between
social environment
and application of communication technologies in organizations.

* Poole and DeSanctis (1990) Describes adaptive structuration theory in
group decision support systems.

* Poole, McPhee, and Seibold (1982) interaction is creator of context in
communication, not medium
3.1.5 Organizations as Cultures
Organizations create a shared reality, produced by interactions, practices,
ways of understanding.
* Smircich (1983a) discusses organizations as
systems of shared meanings. Main point: Organizations are systems of
shared meanings created by symbolic processes.

* Smircich (1983b) explores organizations as cultures. Main point: People
enact their organizational reality through shared meaning; studying this
requires using empathy, involvement, and use of self as research

* Pacanowsky and O’Donnell-Trujillo (1982) describes organizations as
organizational cultures; explores how theory and research constrains
questions, describes organizational perspectives questions and utilities.

Main point: Communication is the way organizations create a web of
interlocked actions.

3.1.6 Network Analysis
* Rogers (1987) uses network analysis approach to look at relationships
and electronic communication technologies.

* Monge and Contractor (1987) describes how to identify and measure
information flow between people, about a variety of topics, using a variety
of media.

* Monge and Eisenberg (1987) examines how emergent communication
networks influence and are influenced by new media in organizations.

* Rice (1990) discusses CMC as a process of convergence and interaction
using the network convergence paradigm.

* Rice and Aydin (1991) describes structural, relational and physical
proximity among groups in CMC.

* Rice and Barnett (1985) describes how to study group communication
in a network environment using metric multidimensional scaling.

* Tichy (1981) uses metrics to measure networks.

* Wellman (1988) describes network approach to analyzing social

* Wigand (1988) describes procedures and methods for analyzing
communication networks in organizations.

3.2Studies of Organizations
* Kent and McGrath (1969) explores task and group characteristics that
influence performance.

* Sanders and Baron (1977) describes social comparison theory applied to
group shifts.

* Harrison (1987) describes writing in organizational contexts.

* Steiner (1972) describes theory of process loss and gains.

* Tang (1991)
3.3Technology/Communication in Organizations
* Steinfield and Fulk (1987) describes the role of theory in research on
information technologies in organizations.

* Steinfield and Fulk (1990)
* Allen (1984) describes goal of volume: to
“provide foundation for theory development on information technology in
organizations” p. 15. describes the flow of technology in organizations.

* Beniger (1990) describes a theory of information technology as
organization, and organization as information technology.

* Conger (1992) studies relationship between task complexity, culture
toward technology and coordination methods (meetings, phone, email,
etc) by studying finance personnel.

* Gattiker (1992a) summarizes this volume on technology-mediated

* Gattiker (1992b) introduces this book series on technology-mediated

* Hiemstra (1983) describes use of info tech in organizations.

* Hullin and Roznowski (1985) describes how technology effects

* Markus and Robey (1988) explores social effects in theory and research
in information technology and organizations.

* Markus (1983) describes interactionist theory for humans confronting

* Nass and Mason (1990) considers broad base of technologies in the
organization/technology interface.

* Orlikowski (1992) explores concepts of technology in organizations.

* Rogers (1988) describes how logical expectations for media use are not

* Zmud, Lind, and Young (1990)
* Clement (1988) surveys office automation and control of information
workers. Main point: p. 218 Information workers are subject to greater
managerial control through information systems.

* Allen and Hauptman (1987) describes the influence of communication
technologies on organizational structure for providing state-of-the-art
information and coordination across technical specialties.

* Allen and Hauptman (1990) demonstrate how organizational info
processing can be modified to account for new communication options in
R&D settings.

* Feldman and March (1981) describes how management reflects need to
appear competent and legitimate.

* Keen (1988)
* Leifer (1988) describes how to match communication information
systems with organizational structures.

* Papa and Tracy (1988) discusses CMC communication network features.

3.4Organizational CMC
* Steinfield (1992) describes directions for theory and research in CMC in

* Danowski and Edison-Swift (1985) describes effects of
intraorganizational computer communication.

* Hiltz, Johson, and Turoff (1986) surveys experiments in group decision
making; compares group problem-solving for FTF and CMC for
qualitative and scientific rankings test.

* Huber (1990a) we need to re-examine theory for small group interaction
in computer-supported context.

* Huber (1990b) analyzes capabilities of new decision technologies and
how these are relevant to existing organizational theories.

* Johansen and DeGrasse (1979) describes effects of computer-based
teleconferencing on working patterns.

* Johansen, DeGrasse, and Wilson (1978) describes effects of group
communication via computers on working patterns.

* Nunamaker, Dennis, Valacich, Vogel, and George (1991) describes
electronic meetings in support of group work.

* Nunamaker, Applegate, and Konsynski (1987) presents experiences with
group support systems for facilitating creativity.

* Rice (1980) reviews CMC research conducted in the 1970’s.

* Rice (1987) asserts that CMC provides organizations ways to enhance
resourcefulness and responsiveness.

* Rice (1989b) explores use of CMC in organizations, finds more exchange.

* Rice and Shook (1990a) explores job categories and organizational levels
and communication channels, including email.

* Rice and Steinfield (1990) describes new forms of organizational
communication by email and voice messaging.

* Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986)
* Valacich, Dennis, and J. F. Nunamaker (1991)
* Zachary (1986)
* Zmud (1979) describes individual differences approach to explaining
human behavior when confronted with technology.

* Crowston, Malone, and Lin (1988) presents a case study of
organizational design for computer conferencing.

* Finholt and Sproull (1990) re-examine theory of small groups when
using computer support.

* Murphy (1992) describes a case history illustrating how
information-processing system fits organizational requirements.

* Applegate (1991) sets theory foundation for group work in organizations.

* Galegher and Kraut (1990) sets forth the research and design issues of
cooperative work.

* Greenberg (1991a) defines groupware and CSCW and introduces volume
on CSCW and groupware.

* Acker (1992) describes a GDSS which facilitates collaborative fiction.

* Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Craighill, and Lang (1988) explores MOSAIC, a
model for CSCW providing a share view.

* Greenberg (1991b) presents annotated bibliography and description of
information sources for CSCW and groupware.
* Grief (1988) presents readings in CSCW
* Gutek (1990) describes how group must fit technology to task structure.

* Hiltz, Turoff, and K. (1989) presents experiments in group decision
* Hiltz (1984) describes the complex technological and social variables in
CMC acceptance.

* Johansen (1988) describes groupware for business teams.

* Johnson-Lenz and Johnson-Lenz (1982) defines the term groupware.

* Kraemer and L (1988) describe group decision support systems,
evaluate experience, benefits, barriers.

* Opper and Fersko-Weiss (1992) describes how technology can enhance
productivity for teams in organizations.

* Rice and Shook (1990b) describes how group must fit technology to task

* Rothschild and Whitt (1986) describes cooperative work.

* Sproull and Kiesler (1991b) describes how networked communication
and information will transform organizational behavior.

* Sproull and Kiesler (1991a) asserts that CMC leads to more discussion,
equality, emotions, creativity.

* Stefik, Foster, Bobrow, Kahn, Lannry, and Suchman (1988) describes
computer support for collaboration and problem-solving in meetings.

* Stodolsky (1993) describes the USENET comp.groupware newsgroup.

* Turoff (1991)
* Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein (1991)
* Pinsonneault and Kraemer (1989) describes empirical research into the
impact of technological support for groups.

3.5.1 GDSS
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technology to task structure. Main point: There is a lack of research in
group processes support.

* DeSanctis and Gallupe (1987) apply cuelessness to study of GDSS.

* Smith and Vanecek (1988) describes computer conferencing and
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