Running head: Instructional Supervision Training P

rocessInstructional Supervision Training Process
Clinical Supervision Case Study
Stacey J. Evans-Chretien
Tarleton State University
EDAD 5073-410

July 29, 2004
Table of Contents
Clinical Supervision Case Study
Pre-Observation Conference
Classroom Observation
Analysis of Data
Post-observation Conference
Summary Reaction

Book Review of Covey’s Seven Habits
Essential Points within the Book
In the book The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen
Covey, several paradigms, principles, and habits are explained and examined
that give the reader insight into ways to adapt and modify their thinking
patterns into ones that are more effective and efficient. What Covey is
talking about is a lifestyle thinking change. Covey also says the basic
principles to which all human beings have innately are: fairness, integrity
honesty, human dignity, quality, excellence, potential and growth,
patience, nurturance, and encouragement. These principles are the
guidelines for human conduct and have enduring power. (Covey, P. 35) Covey
suggests that the more closely our individual maps or principles are
aligned with these natural laws, the more functional they will be. Some
people have incorrect internal thinking maps and this book is designed to
relate to those individuals a new perspective in order to correct their
internal maps to one that is more effective in their personal and
interpersonal attitudes and behaviors. Covey discusses seven habits in
order to achieve this purpose. The first three habits deal with self-
mastery to move a person from a dependence framework to a more independent
one which are called “private victories” (Covey, p. 51). Habits 4, 5, and
6 deal with “public victories” or ones that deal with teamwork,
cooperation, and communication. The last habit deals with renewal which is
a balance of the four basic dimensions of life and encompasses all of the
other habits. It is the habit of continuous improvement that creates an
upward growth pattern of effectiveness. (Covey, p. 52)
Paradigms and Principles
Covey discusses several habits that he feels makes a highly effective
person. These seven habits are closely construed with several of the
fundamental principles of human effectiveness. Even though the habits are
basic, they are also primary and represent the correct and proper
principles of which happiness and success are based on. (Covey, p.23) In
order to understand how to implement Covey’s seven habits into a daily
lifestyle with meaning, one must first understand the meaning of a paradigm
shift. The meaning of a paradigm is seen in a multitude of ways; however,
Covey’s primary meaning is “the way we see the world in terms of
perceiving, understanding, and interpreting” (Covey, 1989, p. 23). Covey
puts it into very clear terms, “the more aware we are of our basic
paradigms or assumptions, and the extent to which we have been influenced
by our experience, the more we can take responsibility for those paradigms,
examine them, test them against reality, listen to others and be open to
their perceptions, thereby getting a larger picture and a far more
objective view” (Covey, p. 29). Covey states that the basis on paradigm
shifting is what he calls the “Aha!” experience. This is when someone
finally gets the point that is trying to be made as when a teacher explains
a concept several times and then the light goes on in her students’ heads.

Covey says the more a person is bound by their initial perception, the more
profound the “Aha!” experience. (Covey, p. 29) Whether a paradigm shift is
in the positive or negative direction they are still monumental because
they are changing and instant ways of seeing the world, attitudes, and
behaviors in a different way. Furthermore, Covey suggests that these
paradigm shifts are ultimately the sources of relationships with others.

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(Covey, p. 30)
Inside-Out. Inside-Out is the new way of thinking that Covey
exemplifies in his book. It is a principle centered and character based
backwards approach to personal and interpersonal effectiveness. The term
inside-out means to start first with the self or start with the most inside
part of your self-your character, motives, and paradigms. Inside-out is a
“continuous process of renewal based on the natural laws that govern human
growth and progress” (Covey, p. 43). It is also an “upward spiral of
growth that leads to progressively higher forms of responsible independence
and effective interdependence” (Covey, p. 43). Covey says that the inside
out process is a very powerful and dramatic paradigm shift for most people,
but most of the habits are already within most people but they must be
recognized, developed, and used to meet the deeper concerns of what makes
us effective. (Covey, p. 44)
The Seven Habits – An Overview. In order to explain the various
habits that Covey examines in his book, one must first understand the
definition of what a habit is. The definition of a habit as defined by
Covey is the intersection of knowledge, skill, and desire. (Covey, p. 47)
Covey (1989) states, “knowledge is the theoretical paradigm, the what to do
and the why. Skill is the how to do. And desire is the motivations or,
the want to do.” As stated above, the first three habits deal with self-
mastery, a move from dependence to independence. They are private victories
which are the essence of character growth and precede public victories.

(Covey, p. 51) Habits 4, 5, and 6 are considered the “public victory”
habits. They make up the framework of teamwork, cooperation, and
communication and are personality-oriented. (Covey, p. 51) The last habit
is the habit of renewal which is basically a regular balanced renewal of
the four dimensions of life. It circles all the other habits and lifts one
into an upward growth pattern of effectiveness with continuous improvement.

It lifts one to new levels of understanding and living each one of the
habits as when meeting them on individual planes. (Covey, p. 51) Covey
suggests that good relationships will improve, become deeper, more solid,
more creative, and more adventuresome and that by replacing old habits with
new, one will find new habits of effectiveness, happiness, and trust-based
relationships. (Covey, p. 61)
Private Victory
The concept of a “private victory” as Covey suggests is one that
encompasses the first three habits: Habit one-being proactive, habit two-
beginning with the end in mind, and habit three-putting first things first.

Private victories are the essence of character growth and come before the
public victories of habits 4, 5, and 6.

Habit One – Be Proactive. Habit one is about being proactive.

Proactivity as defined by Covey is more than just taking initiative but it
also means that humans are responsible for their own lives. That behavior
is a function of our decisions and not our conditions. Ultimately we have
the power to make things happen. (Covey, p. 71) Covey (1989) also suggests
that highly proactive people recognize responsibility and do not blame
circumstances, conditions, or conditioning for their behavior, but rather
their behavior is a product of their own conscious choice. That choice is
based on values instead of a product of their conditions that are based
upon a feeling. Human nature is to act and not be acted upon so taking
initiative does not mean being pushy, obnoxious, or aggressive but rather
recognizing responsibility to making things happen in effective ways.

Proactivity focuses on the circle of influence and working on the things
that one can do something about and that is within the reach of “do-
ability.” Covey says the energy is positive, enlarging, and magnifying
which in turn causes the circle of influence to increase. (p. 83) Reactive
people in comparison focus their efforts on the circle of concern and the
weaknesses of other people, the problems of the environment, and
circumstances over which they don’t have control over. (Covey, p. 83) Covey
suggests that at the very heart of the circle of influence is the ability
to make and keep commitments and promises to oneself and others and is the
essence of one’s proactivity. (Covey, p. 92)
Habit Two – Begin with the End in Mind. Habit two is about beginning
with the end in mind or seeing the big picture before one starts. Covey
(1989) suggests that one should, “begin today with the image, picture, or
paradigm of the end of your life as your frame of reference or the
criterion by which everything else is examined.” “What really matters to
you in the end should be the guide to what contributes to the vision you
have of your life as a whole” (Covey, 1989, p. 98). To begin with the end
in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your
destination…such as knowing where you want to go before getting to the
airport, or better yet, before you even pack! This habit is based on the
principles of personal leadership which is different than the next habit
which deals with management. Covey states that the most effective way he
knows to begin with the end in mind is to develop a personal mission
statement or philosophy/creed to live by. (p. 106)”Personal mission
statements focus on what you want to be and do and on the values or
principles upon which being and doing are based” (Covey, 1989, p. 106). To
write an effective mission statement one must start with the basic
paradigms such as security, guidance, wisdom, and power. Only after these
are presented does one go further in recognizing the alternate centers such
as spouse centeredness, family centeredness, money centeredness, work
centeredness, possession centeredness, pleasure centeredness, friend/enemy
centeredness, church centeredness, and self-centeredness. Those stated are
among the most common centers from which people approach their lives.

(Covey, p. 118)
Habit Three – Put First Things First. The last habit of independence
deals with the principles of personal management. It is “the fulfillment
and natural emergence of habits one and two and is the exercise of
independent will toward becoming principle-centered” (Covey, 1989, p. 147).

In order to make habit three effective one must first have habits one and
two in effect as a prerequisite before attempting to fulfill habit three.

Covey states that you can’t become principle-centered without first being
aware of your paradigms and understanding how to shift them and align them
with principles. (p. 147) Furthermore, “you can’t become principle-centered
without a vision of and a focus on the unique contribution that is yours to
make” (Covey, 1989, p. 147). Covey’s own personal rule is to manage from
the left and lead from the right. (p. 147) Covey suggests that effective
management is to put first things first, while leading secedes what first
things are. But it is the management that puts them in order of moment-by-
moment or the discipline of carrying them out. (p. 148)
Public Victory
In moving towards the paradigms of interdependence one must remember
that effective interdependence can only be built on a foundation of true
independence and private victory comes before public victory. (Covey,
p.185) Covey describes what he calls an Emotional Bank Account as a
metaphor for the amount of trust that has been built up in a relationship.

(p. 188) It is the “feeling of safeness you have with another human being”
(Covey, p. 188). If one doesn’t get deposits such as courtesy, kindness,
honesty, commitments, but instead gets discourtesy, disrespect,
overreacting, betrayal, and threats, the relationship will deteriorate.

Public victory takes into account the successes of working with other
people. Habits one through six work together to create “effective
interdependence.” Covey states that “we can see on an even deeper level
that effective interdependence can only be achieved by truly independent
people” (p. 203).

The public victory habits four through six are as follows: Habit four-Think
Win/Win, Habit five-Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood, and
Habit six-Synergize.

Habit Four – Think Win/Win. Stephen Covey puts this habit into
perspective when he says, “whether you are the president of a company or
the janitor, the moment you step from independence into interdependence in
any capacity, you step into a leadership role” (p. 206). He also stated
that you are in a position of influencing other people and the habit of
effective interpersonal leadership is “Think Win/Win,” (p. 206). Even
though Win/Win is the primary paradigm of this habit, there are other
interactions as well that are alternatives: Win/Lose, Lose/Lose, Win,
Lose/Win, and Win/Win or No Deal. Covey suggests though that in the long
run, if it isn’t a win for both, then we both will lose so that’s why
Win/Win is the only alternative in any interdependent reality. (p. 212)
Within the Win/Win agreement there is five elements that are explicitly
made and create a standard against which people can measure their own
successes they are: desired results, guidelines, resources, accountability,
and consequences. (Covey, p. 224) The Win/Win habit is a total paradigm of
human interaction that comes from a character of integrity, maturity, and
the abundance of mentality. (Covey, p. 234)
Habit Five – Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood. Covey
states that the single most important principle he has learned in
interpersonal relations is to seek first to understand and then to be
understood or empathic communication. (p. 237) He also states that this one
principle is the key to effective interpersonal communication. Covey also
stated that most people don’t really listen with the intent to understand
because they would rather listen with the intent to reply.They are
speaking or preparing to speak and are filtering everything through their
own paradigms. (Covey, p. 239) When you empathically are listening, you
are listening with your ears, but also with your eyes. (p. 241) Empathic
listening is also listening for meaning, feeling, and behavior. (p. 241)
Covey finally states that you sense, you intuit, and you feel. (p. 241)
The other half of habit five is to be understood. It also is equally
important in acquiring the Win/Win solution. Covey states that “when you
can present your own ideas clearly, specifically, visually, and
contextually, you significantly increase the credibility of your ideas” (p.

257). Habit five gives you greater accuracy and integrity because you
really understand and people really understand you.

Habit Six – Synergize. Habit six encompasses the principles of
creative cooperation. “Synergy is the highest activity in all life-the
true test and manifestation of all of the other habits put together”
(Covey, 1989, p. 262). Covey defines synergy as the whole that is greater
than the sum of its parts and that the relationship which the parts have to
each other is a part in and of itself. (p. 263) Synergy isn’t only a part
but the most powerful part of the whole because it is the part that unifies
the others and is the most exciting, according to Covey (p. 236). Synergy
is the essence of the principle-centered leadership and is also everywhere.

Synergy is two parts in which live or work together off on one another.

Within this chapter Covey describes a multitude of synergistic scenarios
such as: synergistic communication, synergy in the classroom, and synergy
in business. Covey suggests that when you see only two alternatives, one
being yours and the other being the wrong one, you can look for a
synergistic third alternative. One of which will be better for everyone
concerned (Covey, p. 284)
The renewal process is multifaceted. It involves preserving yourself
in four dimensions: physical, mental, social/emotional, and spiritual. It
means making yourself aware of your surroundings inner and outer related.

Covey states that it means exercising all four dimensions of our nature in
wise and balanced ways (p. 289). In order to do this Covey says one must
be proactive and take the time to sharpen the saw, which brings us to habit
seven-Sharpening the Saw.

Habit Seven – Sharpen the Saw. Investment in ourselves is what Covey
says is the single most important thing we can ever do for ourselves. (p.

289) He also states that we are the instruments of our own performance and
to be effective we need to recognize the importance of taking time to
sharpen the saw in all four ways. (p. 289) Sharpening the saw is a good
way of putting it when you are dulling in your attempts to be effective and
you need to stop, look, analyze, sharpen your tactics again, and go for it
again. Covey also suggests that although renewal in each of the four
dimensions is important, it only becomes optimal when we deal with all four
dimensions in a wise and balanced way (Covey, p. 302). He also states that
to neglect any one part of the four dimensions would be negatively
impacting upon the others. “Balanced renewal is optimally synergistic and
the things you do to sharpen the saw in any one dimension have positive
impact in other dimensions because they are so highly interrelated” (Covey,
p. 303).

Covey’s Seven Habits Implemented in the Clinical Supervision Process
Pre-observation Conference
Covey’s seven habits may be utilized in the clinical supervision
process with teachers in my school environment in a number of ways. The
first step in the clinical supervision process is the pre-observation
conference. During the pre-observation conference the teacher will meet
with the administrator to discuss what will be seen in the classroom, the
behaviors to be observed, and collect data in response to what is being
observed. Covey’s Habit two-Begin with the end in mind is what should be
focused on here. This is when the administrator must see as the big
picture what will take place in the classroom or what the teacher is trying
to portray.

Classroom Observation
The second step in the clinical supervision process is the actual
classroom observation. The administrator will look at the class as a whole
and view the interaction between the teacher and the students. Observation
as a whole is also taking place, the administrator must look at what it is
the teacher is trying to accomplish and if she is being effective. This
part of the clinical supervision is in parallel with Covey’s Public Victory
and the relatedness of one to the other such as in habit six or synergy.

The administrator is trying to see if there is a Win/Win relationship
taking place where what is being taught is being learned, as well as if the
students understand what the teacher is saying. The teacher is also aware
of her being critiqued and so she needs to have a perfect synergy within
her class while the administrator is in her room doing her observation.

Analysis and Strategy
The third step of the clinical supervision process is the analysis and
strategy of the observation. I can also see Covey’s sixth habit of synergy
within this step as the administrator or supervisor puts all her data
together to present to the teacher in a useful format when doing the next

Supervision Conference
During this supervision conference step, or fourth step, the
supervisor is using the public victory and bringing all points to be
discussed with the teacher to the table. Also during this step, habit
seven-sharpening the saw can have a place as to redirect efforts in
effectiveness by making the teacher aware of his or her weaknesses and
determining a game plan to alleviate the problems and make the teacher more
effective in the teaching process.

Post-conference Analysis
During the final step of the clinical supervision process, the post-
conference analysis, the supervisor reflects upon the previous four stages.

He or she will answer questions that are related to her own performance of
how she met the teacher’s needs, if she collected accurate data, was the
teacher able to benefit from the data they presented and if they could have
improved the process would they do it again. These questions are also in
relation to all the habits that Covey explained in his book. Does it all
fit together, is everything harmonized, did I begin with the end in mind,
was I proactive during the process, did I get the most important things
done first, was everyone in a win/win situation and if not did I try my
best to get them there, was there harmony in the comprehension part between
teacher and supervisor, was their synergy, and lastly did I need to go back
and revamp or sharpen the saw to make the whole process more effective for
everyone involved in the clinical supervision process.

Summary Reaction
Covey’s book definitely opened my eyes to becoming a more active
participant in the proactive process. Being proactive in my position means
to make things happen. I agree with Covey in this perspective because one
doesn’t have time to sit around and wait for things to happen. Another
area that I relate with was habit two and beginning with the end in mind.

When running a school one must keep the big picture in mind. What goals and
missions do we have to achieve before the end of the year. Everyone in the
school has a specific function in making the goals successful ones. Not
only does this habit work in the business realm of my life but it also
works in my personal one as well. I must keep the big picture in mind and
as a result everything such as work, family, and goals suddenly seem to
change as I look at the big picture.

When reading about putting first things first, what came to
mind was all the times I started something and put it on the back burner to
start something else before finishing what I first started. By keeping
things in order and in an organized fashion you can prioritize easier and
not get side tracked on less meaningful things that can be done later.

Covey, S. R. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people: Restoring
the character ethic. New York: Simon ; Schuster.

The seven habits of highly effective people: Restoring the character ethic.

(n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2004, from


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