Role of Parental Motivational Practices in Childrens Academic Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement (Gottfried)
I chose to write my journal article research paper on the role of parents in childrens academic motivation and achievement. The article relates the parents role and at home practices, and the effect of these practices on the childs performance and motivation.
In the longitudinal study of children ages 9 and 10, two types of motivational practices were assessed:
Parental motivational practices that encourage pleasure in the learning process, curiosity, persistence, and task endogeny are positively related to childrens academic intrinsic motivation and achievement. (Gottfried 105)
Task-extrinsic parental motivational practices that emphasize external control, diminished autonomy, or devaluation of competence are negatively related to childrens academic intrinsic motivation and achievement. (Gottfried 105)
The data observed and given in the article from mothers also provided
information on which motivational practices are used, such as provision of rewards, help with schoolwork, encouragement, punishment and negativity for unsatisfactory achievement.
It is important to note that although the conceptual model was derived from theory and research pertaining to parents in general, the data collected in the article were solely on mothers. The findings of the research were that the predicted variables were proven positive, and there was a high correlation between parental motivational practices and a childs academic intrinsic motivation and achievement. The studys findings also proved that mothers provisions of task-extrinsic consequences had a negative effect on childrens academic intrinsic motivation, and were directly related. The study findings also showed that there were indirect effects on subsequent motivation and achievement through their effects on earlier academic intrinsic motivation.
After reading the aforementioned journal article, I can only remark upon the fact that to me, this study seemed to only validate the obvious. I am in agreement with the findings to a point. I do believe that if you make children interested and motivated in what they are doing then they will have a higher achievement rate then children who are bored with school. I believe that most parents have the knowledge of what they should and should not do to help in their childs academic performance but fail to achieve this task for many reasons.
I do take into consideration, however; that although it may be detrimental to a students intrinsic motivation, in some cases to give rewards or encouragement, in other cases it is the only way some parents feel that they can achieve any form of motivation toward academic excellence in their child. After reading the article I understand that extrinsic motivation has a correlation to the lowering of intrinsic motivation in the child. I agree with the positive methods of a parents motivational practices but take into consideration the day and age of our time, in the explanation of why these practices are not followed. In our fast-paced society, most parents struggle to stay afloat and the de-structuralization of our families has had a dramatic effect upon parent and child relationships. In addition, the average child has to struggle with added emotional problems such as, single-parenting, peer pressure, and abuse or violence. Typical parents have substituted their childs intrinsic motivation, interest, and natural curiosity in exchange for higher academic grades. Most parents today cannot find the time to sit down and eat with their children let alone spend the time to teach, and guide them with simple elementary academics. The patience needed to help struggling children with their academics, seem to have become non-existent in most parents and this is why I believe that most parents would rather give out simple, minute rewards then spend the time needed to instill intrinsic motivation.
Correlation of the journal article to the textbook
The correlation that I saw between the textbook and this journal article had to do with chapter 11 on Motivation. As the article touches upon the role of parental practices in motivating children, the book similarly talks about the teachers role in motivating the student and talks in a greater depth of how to motivate the student and the pros and cons of extrinsic motivation. The textbook also goes further on to talk about what exactly intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are, and gives examples of some students motivational influences, and/or lack of influences by focusing on five basic questions (Woolfolk 366)
Contrary to the article, the textbook condones the attempt to motivate students by extrinsic means of incentive, rewards, or punishment, while the journal article sees such aspects from a more humanistic approach, where the student should focus on intrinsic forms of motivation, and such rewards and incentives are detrimental to the students success.
Article 2 – Current Uses of Corporal Punishment in American Public Schools (Rose)Summary
This article talks about the present use of corporal punishment in American public schools, and describes the pros and cons of its implementation. A school survey form was mailed to 324 principals in 18 randomly selected states representing the nine U.S. Census districts. (Rose) From this survey, results indicated widespread use of corporal punishment with students at every grade level in virtually all regions of the United States. (Rose)
Corporal punishment is a topic that has been a major controversy in schools for many years. At times it was supported and condoned, and yet at others it was condemned. Punishment has been defined as a procedure in which an adverse stimulus is presented following a behavior, resulting in a reduction in the rate of behavior. From the definition alone begins the controversy. According to the definition, when a student does something inappropriate an adverse stimulus should follow. The argument begins because most corporal punishment, in reference to the article, occurs in the principals office and therefore, allows for a delay between the inappropriate action and the reprimand itself. Also the punishment may cause the student to withdraw from his academics. The student may feel isolated from the class and may emulate the acts of aggression upon him/herself onto other students.
The article does, however, illustrate the benefits of corporal punishment as providing a rapid reduction of inappropriate behavior, and also deterring similar behavior in peers. Corporal punishment may also be favored because it is quick, easily available, and apparently effective. (Rose)
After reading this article I was surprised to discover that corporal punishment was still in use in school, I had always assumed it had died in the ’50s era. I will say on behalf of those who still practice it that I am in full support of these actions. I believe that we might not have some of the problems that we have today in the classroom, if corporal Punishment were still used frequently and consistently.
I remember when I was a Corporal in the United States Marine Corps stationed in Korea, and started my second job as a part-time English teacher. I had walked into the school for the first time and thought of myself as a substitute that would get little respect, and wondered how difficult it was actually going to be to teach students. Much to my surprise a well-disciplined class greeted me. Later on in the semester, I can remember only one time I had a problem with a child, and had to report it to the principal. When I told the principal of the situation he came into my class the next day and grabbed the child out of the seat, screaming at him in Korean while he maintained a firm grasp on the students upper arms. I was in culture shock for sure, but later on after class when the student returned with his parents I thought I was going to jail for child abuse right along with the principal. To the contrary, the students parents who had a look of true disappointment and embarrassment met me. They apologized to me for their sons misbehavior several times. From this case I have always supported corporal punishment in the classroom, because that student not only never acted up again in my class, but tried even harder to make up for his mistake by taking a more aggressive role in the classs academics.
Correlation between the textbook and the journal article
The journal article correlates to the textbook (Woolfolk) when we examine the material contained in Chapter 6 on behavioral views of learning. The textbook gives examples of reinforcers and adds to many of the ideas given in the article for why corporal punishment should not be used but gives different methods of reprimand such as social isolation, or personal non-public reprimands.
The textbook attempts to focus on all forms of reinforcement, be it positive or negative. The textbook offers reinforcement systems like the token reinforcement system, self-management systems and group behavioral games. The correlation put simply between the article and the textbook is that both approach misbehavior with ideas on how to correct it.
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles, Fleming, James S., and Gottfried, Allen W. Role of parental motivational Practices in Childrens Academic Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement. The Journal of Educational Psychology 86 (1994): 104-111
Rose, Terry L., Current Uses of Corporal Punishment in American Public Schools. Journal of Educational Psychology. 76 (1984): 427-441