.. port. In 1910 he made a farewell gift of $10 million, which brought his total contributions to the university to about $35 million. In withdrawing from further activity there, he wrote: I am acting on an early and permanent conviction that this great institution, being the property of the people, should be controlled, conducted and supported by the people. CORPORATE PHILANTHROPY Rockefeller recognized the difficulties of wisely applying great funds to human welfare, and he helped to define the method of scientific, efficient, corporate philanthropy.

The method was this.. To create charitable corporations and give them title to great funds, whose management and use would be governed by trustees and overseen by officers with, specialized training and experience. With both the trustees and officers being dedicated to continuous study of the opportunities for the best uses of the funds under their care. To help manage his philanthropy, Rockefeller hired the Rev. Frederick T.

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Gates, whose work with the American Baptist Education Society and the University of Chicago inspired Rockefellers confidence. With the advice of Gates and, after 1897, his son, John D. Rockefeller Jr., Rockefeller established a series of institutions that are important in the history of American philanthropy, science, and medicine and public health. THE ROCKEFELLER INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH In 1901, he founded the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now The Rockefeller University) for the purpose of discovering the causes, manner of prevention, and the cure of disease. From its laboratories have come cures for diseases, and new knowledge and scientific techniques, which have helped to revolutionize medicine, biology, biochemistry, biophysics, and other scientific disciplines.

A few of the noted achievements of its scientists are the serum treatment of spinal meningitis and of pneumonia; knowledge of the cause and manner of infection in infantile paralysis; the nature of the virus causing epidemic influenza; blood vessel surgery; a treatment for African sleeping sickness; the first demonstration of the preservation of whole blood for subsequent transfusion; the first demonstration of how nerve cells flow from the brain to other areas of the body; the discovery that a virus can cause cancer in fowl; peptide synthesis; and identification of DNA as the crucial genetic material. THE GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD (1902-1965) In 1902, Rockefeller established the General Education Board (GEB) for the promotion of education within the United States of America without the distinction of race, sex or creed. Between 1902 and its dissolution in 1965, the GEB distributed $325 million for the improvement of education at all levels, with emphasis upon higher education, including medical schools. In the South, where there was special need, the GEB helped schools for both white and African-American students. In addition, out of the Boards work with childrens clubs in farm arena grew the 4-H Club movement and the federal programs of farm and home extension.

ROCKEFELLER SANITARY COMMISSION (1909-1915) In Rockefeller combined his special interest in the South and his interest in public health with the creation of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease. Its purpose was to bring about a cooperative movement of the medical profession, public health officials, boards of trade, churches, schools, the press, and other agencies for the cure and prevention of hookworm disease, which was especially devastating in the South. From its headquarters in Washington, D.C., the Sanitary Commission launched a massive campaign of public education and medication in eleven Southern states. It paid the salaries of field personnel, who were appointed jointly by the states and the Commission, and sponsored public education campaigns and the treatment of infected persons. As part of this program, more than 25,000 public meetings were attended by more than 2 million people who were given the facts about hookworm and its prevention.

So successful was its work that a new agency was created as part of a new Rockefeller philanthropy to expand the work to other countries and to attack other diseases both in the South and abroad. THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION In 1913, Rockefeller established The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) to promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world. In keeping with this broad commitment, the Foundation through the years has given important assistance to public health, medical education, increasing food production, scientific advancement, social research, the arts, and other fields all over the world. The Foundations International Health Division expanded the work of the Sanitary Commission worldwide, working against various diseases in fifty-two countries on six continents and twenty-nine islands, bringing international recognition of the need for public health and environmental sanitation. Its early field research on hookworm, malaria, and yellow fever provided the basic techniques to control these diseases and established the pattern of modern public health services.

Th RF built and endowed the world’s first School of Hygiene and Public Health, at The Johns Hopkins University, and then spent over $25 million in developing public health schools in the U.S. and in twenty-one foreign countries. Its agricultural development program in Mexico led to what has been called the Green Revolution in the advancement of food production around the world; and the RF provided significant funding for the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. Thousands of scientists and scholars from all over the world have received RF fellowships and scholarships for advanced study. The foundation helped to found the Social Science Research Council and has provided significant support for such organizations as the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Brookings Institution, the Council on Foreign Relations, and Russian Institute at Columbia University. In the arts the RF has helped establish or support the Stratford Shakespearean Festival in Ontario, Canada, and the American Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Connecticut; Arena Stage in Washington, D.C.; Karamu House in Cleveland; and Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York.

OTHER ROCKEFELLER PHILANTHROPIC SUPPORT In addition to creating these corporate philanthropies, Rockefeller continued to make personal donations. Among others whose activities received his financial support were various colleges and universities, including Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Brown, Spelman, Bryn Mawr, Wellesley, and Vassar; theological schools; the Palisades Interstate Park Commission; San Francisco Earthquake victims; the Anti-Saloon League; Rockefeller Park and other parks in Cleveland; Baptist missionary organiz History Essays.


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