Research Paper

Research Paper ESSAY OUTLINE FORM Main (Controlling) Idea of the essay: Three main points of argument (1)(2)(3) INTRODUCTION: [Introduction should start on a general level with lead-in statements and gradually focus in on the specific topic of the essay. In the introduction, the reader should find the main idea of the essay expressed in the thesis sentence. Also in the introduction, the reader should be able to tell what specific points about the main idea will be discussed and in what order they will be developed. The lead in statements could (1) make a striking assertion, (2) use a split anecdote ( a story that is begun in the introduction and is finished in the conclusion), (3) use an interesting detail, statistic, or quotation, or (4) ask a provocative question. The introduction should make the reader want to continue reading.] Lead-in statements: Thesis (which includes points of argument): BODY: [Each topic sentence should be a major point of argument which supports the thesis statement.

Primary support sentences are general statements which support the topic sentence. The secondary support sentences (or concrete illustrations), which support the primary support sentences, provide specific details, quotes, statistics, or real-life examples.] Body Paragraph 1 (develops first point of argument): Topic sentence Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Body Paragraph 2 (develops second point of argument): Topic sentence: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Body Paragraph 3 (develops third point of argument): Topic sentence: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: CONCLUSION: [The concluding paragraph should include a general summary statement which recaps the thesis, a sentence which restates the major points of argument, and a wrap-up statement. The conclusion could also contain the end of a split anecdote which would finish the story begun in the introduction. The wrap-up statement could contain insights of the essay writer, encourage the reader to take action, emphasize the importance of one of the points of argument, or create a solid sense of finality.] General summary statement which recaps thesis: Recap major points of argument: Wrap-up statement (consequences and insights): Handouts Bibliography ESSAY OUTLINE FORM Main (Controlling) Idea of the essay: Three main points of argument (1)(2)(3) INTRODUCTION: [Introduction should start on a general level with lead-in statements and gradually focus in on the specific topic of the essay. In the introduction, the reader should find the main idea of the essay expressed in the thesis sentence.

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Also in the introduction, the reader should be able to tell what specific points about the main idea will be discussed and in what order they will be developed. The lead in statements could (1) make a striking assertion, (2) use a split anecdote ( a story that is begun in the introduction and is finished in the conclusion), (3) use an interesting detail, statistic, or quotation, or (4) ask a provocative question. The introduction should make the reader want to continue reading.] Lead-in statements: Thesis (which includes points of argument): BODY: [Each topic sentence should be a major point of argument which supports the thesis statement. Primary support sentences are general statements which support the topic sentence. The secondary support sentences (or concrete illustrations), which support the primary support sentences, provide specific details, quotes, statistics, or real-life examples.] Body Paragraph 1 (develops first point of argument): Topic sentence Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Body Paragraph 2 (develops second point of argument): Topic sentence: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Body Paragraph 3 (develops third point of argument): Topic sentence: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: Primary Support: Secondary Support: CONCLUSION: [The concluding paragraph should include a general summary statement which recaps the thesis, a sentence which restates the major points of argument, and a wrap-up statement.

The conclusion could also contain the end of a split anecdote which would finish the story begun in the introduction. The wrap-up statement could contain insights of the essay writer, encourage the reader to take action, emphasize the importance of one of the points of argument, or create a solid sense of finality.] General summary statement which recaps thesis: Recap major points of argument: Wrap-up statement (consequences and insights): Handouts.

Research Paper

Research Paper Magic: The Gathering “You can always get the lands untapped, so just let them accumulate counters until you know you need them, then use the Druid to untap them. You can also use the Druid to keep counters from accumulating on your opponent’s storage lands. . .” (Wylie 47). The confusing series of exchanges above are from a simple strategy-combination of a card game. This card game, though only a little more than two years old, is not only taking our nation by storm, but also all over the world.

The card game is Magic: The Gathering. Magic, a collectible card game manufactured by Wizards of the Coast, is a fun and challenging game that involves two or more players (depicted as planes walker-wizards) dueling each other out with many different types of these such cards (which represent the many colorful magical spells). Magic: The Gathering is truly the first of its kind, and its success has everyone, even the designer, greatly surprised. Magic: The Gathering was developed by a mathematician named Richard Garfield. Garfield was always fascinated by games in general, and in the stages of developing Magic, he derived Magic from many other games. Since this collectible- card game genre was the first of its kind, Wizards of the Coast and Garfield had to take lots of risks designing it.

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After months of designing and play-testing the game, Wizards of the Coast finally created the Alpha version of Magic, and released it to the public in 1993. When it was first released, however, it didn’t get quite the reputation it deserved. Unfavorable opinions ranged from, “Big Deal. I didn’t know how to display them [display boxes of Magic cards] in the store. So I threw them on the back shelf” (Binder 44), to “They were begging people to take their stuff [Magic cards] during conventions” (Kardon 34).

However, after a few months, Magic card sales started to skyrocket. Thus, Wizards of the Coast had to make more and more revised editions of different sets of Magic cards to satisfy the demand for these cards. Crazed Magic consumers often might have paid as much as $200 for a Black Lotus card (argued as the best card for Magic), and also other single cards, topping off around $100! People started to say “Do I [get] gas or do I get Magic Cards?” (Binder 44). With all the popularity Magic had obtained, Wizards of the Coast decided to name their world of Magic–Dominia, and it has expanded at an incredible rate ever since. A game of Magic places two (or more) players against each other.

Each of the players starts out with 20 life points. The main objective of this game is to be the first person to reduce his opponent’s life points to zero or less, thus “killing” him. There are a number of ways to accomplish this. One can summon creatures to help the players do battle against each other, cast other damaging spells to destroy the creatures or one’s opponent, or cast other spells that can help the caster in the outcome of the battle. Although the basic rules sounded simple enough, the strategies of how to defeat one’s opponent are almost impossible to master. Since there are many pools of cards available, “to beat your opponent with your carefully constructed cards,” (Baxter 7) becomes a quest for every Magic player.

With its infinite possibilities in each duel, “Magic continues to grow and is quickly becoming recognized as one of the most elaborate strategy games in history” (Baxter 5). There are five colors in Magic from which to choose in order to build one’s playing deck. They are as follows: Black, White, Green, Red, and Blue. Each of these colors have their own unique advantages and disadvantages in their usage. These colors are the backbone of every Magic playing deck.

Let’s start with black. Black is mainly centered on evil necromancy magicks and dealings with the evil and the demonic. Black cards are also closely tied in with the undead, such as skeletons zombies, ghouls, and vampires. Magic players often depict black spells as: “. .

. The nights in Dominia are full of power, as shadows and black magic traverse their way across the fetid swampsand bogs” (Baxter 30). Black’s primary enemy, white, represents the holy side in the world of Dominia. White harnesses powers of healing and holy creatures such as Angels, Paladins, and noble soldiers and knights. The spells and creatures of white tends to “[Preserve] life and work their magic to heal and protect the weak and the helpless” (Baxter 31). White’s ally is the color green. Green, in Magic, is the color of life and nature.

Green includes many mythical woodland creatures, such as the fairies, elves, and sprites, as well as other creatures of the woods, including bears, walking trees, and sometimes powerful dragons. White’s other enemy and the ally of black is the color red. The essence of red is chaos, fire, and total war. Red spells contain huge fireball blasts and flashes of lightning bolts to incinerate their opponents. Red also controls the elements of fire and earth.

In Magic, “Red is a color of obvious and immediate power and its use is perhaps the easiest to master” (Baxter 35). The final color in Magic is the color blue. Ally to black and white and enemy of green and red, blue magic is the magic of deceit, illusion, trickery, and deception. Blue also controls elements of air and water. Sample blue spells include creatures such as Illusionary Forces and air and water elementals.

Together, these five colors combine the essence of Magic: The Gathering, and its world, Dominia. Magic: The Gathering already has reached worldwide recognition. Its popularity has not only reached the four corners of the United States, but also countries such as France, Spain, England, Belgium, and most other European countries. Places all over the country often run Magic tournaments to test each player’s skills at deck construction, deck tuning, and deck play. And once a year, there is a big World Tournament where the best Magic players represent their country in duels to see who is the best Magic wizard in the world for the year.

Not only are these Magic cards playable, they are also very much tradeable and collectable. Since every Magic player values each and every Magic card differently, trading is an important aspect in Magic. So, much like baseball, basketball, football, and hocky cards, Magic players can often be seen not only dueling, but also bartering for cards. Conversations such as “I’ll trade you a Cyclopean Tomb for a Timetwister” seems to coincide with comments about sport cards such as “I’ll trade you a Michael Jorden rookie card for a whole set of . .

.” Garfield once said that, “. . . Magic turned out to be one of the best economic simulations I had ever seen. .

. which really surprised me. . .” (Garfield 14). Magic has also affected its players in their everyday lives.

It is a great stress- reliever, a great game to play during lunch break, and it enables people to interact with each other easier, thereby forming many friendships. Magic also somehow narrows the generation gap, as kids who play Magic often play along with their parents or grandparents. Also, with its amazing sales records, its sales help saved many hobby stores that were in jeopardy of going out of business. All in all, “. . .

the game has brought vastly more good than bad. . .” (Baxter 2). Magic: The Gathering is truly the first phenomenon if its kind. Its own unique playability has already caused millions of Magic players all over the world to praise its existence (including me).

With its multi-verse, Dominia, expanding each and everyday as it acquires more and more planes walkers, the power of Magic seems to reach the unlimited. To satisfy these power-hungry planes walkers, Wizards of the Coast also created expansion sets ( more variety of different types of cards) to continue to evolve Dominia. To sum it up, I recommend the reader to travel into the expanding world of Dominia as soon as possible.

Research Paper

Values and Beliefs of an American People
Long before America received a name, there existed a dream of a good land that man might discover for himself, a land full of material riches and spiritual hope. The prospect stirred mans vivid imaginations as well as their explorations, and they were willing to sacrifice for their visions and ideals. The earliest of American writings were solely concerned with the dream of a new world and the sacrifices necessary for the first attempts at its realization.

During the course of the American Revolution the Thirteen Colonies declared their independence from the mother country. As a result of their victory in the fighting and sacrifice that followed, the United States of America came into being. With the Declaration of Independence, the United States proclaimed that it was a nation based on the values and on the beliefs of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And the people stated in one loud voice that they would sacrifice their lives for these ideals for a greater cause.

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The United States today is far different from the country newly become independent in 1776. At the birth of the Republic, an underlying layer of strong religious beliefs shaped the attitudes of the population. People were more sure of their moral standards and values, and they understood that these ideals were certainly more important than any single man. As an example of the importance placed in beliefs, the coin still bears the motto In God We Trust. On every dollar bill the great seal of the United States reads Annuit C?pits (He has Our Undertakings). Also, on the great seal the olive branch and the arrows held in the eagles talons reflect both the nations commitment to peace and its willingness to fight if necessary. These all symbolize the importance of fighting for ones beliefs. Yet modern Americans rarely think about the phrases on the money the handle daily, and few understand why the founding fathers put them there. Few actually believe that the Deity takes a particular interest in their country. In the nineteenth century, science became a rival of and then victor over religion. Beliefs and values became obsolete as an increasing demand for facts and reality arose. The intervening centuries have seen to many changes in the surrounding world to leave intact the ideas the words express.

The importance of mans firm values and beliefs have become less important as an understanding of man and of his role in the universe has emerged. Man used to play the central role in a divine cosmic drama. His ideas were certainly worth dying for since the divine intention had the universe created with the deliberate purpose of providing man with a stage on which to play his part in a life eternal. Now science has reduced him to an insignificant point in space. Successive discoveries in physics, astronomy, geology, and biology revealed the ancient age of the earth and the immense spaces of the universe within which the is but a tiny speck.

Far from being the purpose of creation, man is now only an insignificant, quite recent, occupant of a small planet in one of many solar systems floating about in the unimaginable distances of immense galaxies. Man now realizes himself as but one of many beings, a product of a blind process of natural selection, a species like others that briefly passes across the face of the spinning globe.

Contemporary Americans, like our ancestors of 1776, still feel the will to believe. They long avidly to find a purpose in life in general and in their existence as a people in particular. But, unlike our ancestors, we are by no means clear to what we can believe. The men that believed in the Declaration of Independence had taken up arms, they said, to defend certain natural and unalienable rights, with which all men, created free and equal, had been endowed by their Creator. Among those rights were those to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness and history has taught us that many men died for their belief in these rights.

Modern Americans are no longer visionaries and have no great mission. We are now a nation of consumers. Now the use of leisure time has become an important status symbol for many Americans. Americans have responded to changing times by withdrawal from society. Why need have a cause when you can have I Love Lucy on a fifty-inch television sitting in your oversized recliner? There is no longer an effort towards, but rather an outright rejection of prevailing cultural values and life-styles. This is fabricated as the exclusive residential suburb which constitutes an effort to establish a sanctuary from the problems of the outside world. As once problems were sought in order to be fixed, even where sacrifice was necessary, they are now avoided and ignored. People are now afraid to sacrifice and are uncertain of values. The materialism of modern culture and the nationwide decline in moral standards has left man pondering, What should I die for, when I am unsure of what to live for?
Category: English

Research Paper

In the history of the United States, African Americans have always been
discriminated against. When Africans first came to America, they were taken
against their will and forced to work as laborers. They became slaves to
the rich, greedy, lazy Americans. They were given no pay and often badly
whipped and beaten. African Americans fought for their freedom, and up
until the Civil War it was never given to them. When the Civil War began,
they wanted to take part in fighting to free all slaves. Their opportunity
to be soldiers and fight along side white men equally did not come easily,
but eventually African Americans proved themselves able to withstand the
heat of battle and fight as true American heroes. The road to freedom from
slavery was a long and hard for the African Americans. In the northern
states the Civil War began as a fight against the succession of the
Confederate states from the Union. Abraham Lincoln, who was President at
this time, wanted to save the nation by bringing the southern states back
to the Union, but this “Great Emancipator” ironically did not have much
intention of freeing the slaves. His greatest interest lies in preventing a
war from occurring. However, even he could not stop the outbreak of the
Civil War (Fincher). With the war just beginning, ex-slaves and other
African Americans wanted to get in on the action. They wanted to fight
against those who had enslaved them and their families for generations.

They began volunteering and trying to enlist, but everywhere they went they
were rejected. “In general, white soldiers and officers believed that black
men lacked the courage to fight and fight well” (History of African-
Americans in the Civil War). Even some abolitionists believed putting them
in the battlefield would be putting African Americans higher than they
should be. They said that though blacks should not be enslaved, they should
not be equal to the white male. The African Americans, however, refused to
give up their fight to be allowed to defend their country with pride.

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Pressure from blacks eager to fight, from abolitionists and from a few Army
officers who needed men, as well as changing circumstances, eventually
altered Lincoln’s policy. Along the way, convoluted legal questions
involving the Constitution and slaves as property had to be got around
(Fincher).

President Lincoln was being bombarded with pressure to let free African
Americans fight in the war. At the same time, pressure to abolish slavery
was put on the President. Finally, in the summer of 1862, with the
realization that the war would not be won without the end of slavery,
Lincoln drew up the Emancipation Proclamation (Fincher). This document
freed slaves in all areas who rebelled against the Union. This began a
rippling effect to many other aspects of the war and led to the enlistment
of African Americans in the Union Army and Navy. On July 17, 1862, Congress
“repealed an act of 1792 barring black men from serving in state militia”
(Smith 308). A new Militia Act permitted the enlistment of free black men
and ex-slaves. Now after the long hard fight to be allowed to serve in the
Union Army, African Americans would finally have their chance to prove
themselves as worthy soldiers. They would serve America proudly and fight
to free their fellow brothers who were still enslaved. Enrollment began in
September of 1862 (Allen 225). Thousands of black men enlisted. They would
be commanded, led, and trained by all white officers. There were not to be
any black officers commissioned and all African American soldiers were to
be regarded as laborers. They would receive less pay than a white soldier.

Instead of $13 plus clothing expenses, they would only receive $10 without
clothing expenses (The American Civil War: A Multicultural Encyclopedia
55). When word of African Americans enlisting in the Union Army got out,
the Confederate Army lashed out many threats. They …warned that Union
officers recruiting and arming slaves were ‘outlaws’ and would be subject
to execution as felons when President Davis gave the order. And all ‘slaves
captured in arms’ would be handed to state officials (Allen). These
soldiers would be treated like fugitives and would face life imprisonment
or the death penalty (Smith 307). However, this did not stop African
Americans from flocking to enlist. It was hard enough dealing with the
Confederates threats of execution, but African American soldiers were
constantly being discriminated against by many of the white soldiers in the
Union Army. They refused to consider the idea of fight along

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