.. nts on religious or other conscientious grounds. However, students generally do not have a federal right to be excused from lessons that may be inconsistent with their religious beliefs or practices (Riley, 1998). Students have the right to celebrate or study religious holidays on campus (Brinkley, 2001). Music, art, literature, and drama that have religious themes are permitted as part of the curriculum for school activities if presented in an objective manner as a traditional part of the cultural and religious heritage of the particular holiday.
Students have the right to distribute religious literature on campus (Brinkley, 2001). The Equal Access Act allows students the freedom to meet on campus for the purpose of discussing religious issues. Students have a right to distribute religious literature to their schoolmates on the same terms as they are permitted to distribute other literature that is unrelated to school curriculum or activities. Schools may impose the same reasonable time, place, and manner or other constitutional restrictions on distribution of religious literature as they do on non-school literature generally, but they may not single out religious literature for special regulation (Riley, 1998). Religious rights of students only go so far, they do not include the right to have a captive audience listen, or to compel other students to participate. School officials should not permit student religious speech to turn into religious harassment aimed at a student or a small group of students. Students do not have the right to make repeated invitations to other students to participate in religious activity in the face of a request to stop.
Having religious rights is a healthy necessary means of expression for students. As Bill Clinton stated “..Schools do more than train children’s minds. They also help to nurture their souls by reinforcing the values they learn at home and in their communities. I believe that one of the best ways we can help out schools to do this is by supporting students’ rights to voluntarily practice their religious beliefs, including prayer in schools… For more than 200 years, the First Amendment has protected our religious freedom and allowed many faiths to flourish in our homes, in our work place and in our schools.
Clearly understood and sensibly applied, it works (Riley, 1998). Teachers are both individual citizens and agents of the state. Because of this, the 1st amendment serves to protect their freedom of speech and free exercise of religion, but also prohibits them, by the establishment clause, from soliciting or encouraging religious activity, and from participating in such activity with students (Staver, 2000). Teachers are limited by the Establishment Clause to actively endorsing or promote a religious viewpoint. Teachers do not have the right to pray with students or in front of students, whether it is student initiate and student led or not. Teachers may exercise the right to wear religious clothing and jewelry, but to a limited degree.
Like the students in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District, as it relates to wearing religious clothing or jewelry, a teacher has some restrictions imposed by the Establishment Clause. If the content of the message is not religious, a teacher probably has greater latitude to wear clothing with an inscribed message. However, the First Amendment Establishment Clause places certain restrictions on a teacher with respect to promoting religion. The more objective the writing without promoting a religious view, the more likely the teacher is able to wear the article of clothing or jewelry. If the school allows teachers to wear clothing with secular words or symbols or secular jewelry, then the school probably cannot prohibit a teacher from wearing clothing with religious words or jewelry with religious connotations. For example, if a school permits teachers to wear t-shirts on a particular day supporting the various student clubs, then the school must also allow teachers to wear t-shirts supporting Christian clubs with Christian words and insignia.
However, unlike a student who may consistently wear a t-shirt with the message, Jesus died for you, a school could probably prohibit a teacher from consistently displaying the same message except in specific circumstances (Staver, 2000). Teachers have the right to teach about religion. Public schools may not provide religious instruction, but they may teach about religion, including the Bible or other scripture: the history of religion, comparative religion, the Bible (or other scripture)-as-literature, and the role of religion in the history of the United States and other countries all are permissible public school subjects. Similarly, it is permissible to consider religious influences on art, music, literature, and social studies. Although public schools may teach about religious holidays, including their religious aspects, and may celebrate the secular aspects of holidays, schools may not observe holidays as religious events or promote such observance by students (Alley, 2000).
Teachers have the right to teach values. Though schools must be neutral with respect to religion, they may play an active role with respect to teaching civic values and virtue, and the moral code that holds us together as a community. The fact that some of these values are held also by religions does not make it unlawful to teach them in school (Doherty, 2001) Teachers may not lead a bible club. According to the Equal Access Act, schools may require student-initiated clubs to have a teacher sponsor. Schools may require a sponsor of religious clubs only if the same requirements are imposed on secular clubs. According to the Equal Access Act, the provision of a school sponsor, whether an employee, agent, or otherwise, does not mean that the school endorses the club.
A teacher or other school employee as thl and national trade associations. Most of these organizations have a wealth of information available on everything from details on your competitors to average industry sales figures, new products, services, and trends. If you are given a membership certificate or wall plaque, you should display these conspicuously on you office wall. Customers like to see such seals of approval and feel additional confidence in your business when they see them. Still another thing often overlooked: If at all possible, you should have your spouse work in the business with you for at least three or four weeks per year. The important thing is that if for any reason you are not available to run the business, your spouse will be familiar with certain people and situations about your business.
These people should include your attorney, accountant, any consultants or advisors, creditors and your major suppliers. The long-term advantages of having your spouse work four weeks per year in your business with you will greatly outweigh tgious expression or many forms, these rights are not taken away when in a public school zone. Students’ rights differ from teachers’ rights, and with good reason. The 1st amendment has transformed American education tremendously. Where once religion was acceptable and the practice there was mandatory, there is now caution and hesitance to intertwine religion and secular education.
Bibliography References: A Parents’Guide to Religion in Public School. (2001). The Freedom Forum First Amendment Center. Retrieved November 20, 2001, From the World Wide Web: http://www.familyeducation.com/article/0,1120,21-7 361,00.html Alley, Robert S. Without a Prayer: Religious Expression in Public Schools.
Amherst: Prometheus, 1996. Brinkley, J. Student’s Bill of Rights on a Public School Campus. (2001). Retrieved November 24, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.christianity.com/partner/Article Display Page/0,,PTID19000%7CCHID119761%7CCIID182578,00.htm l Doherty, E. (2001).
Religion and Values. American Atheists, 39 (9), 11. Freedom From Religion. (2001). Retrieved November 28, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.ffrf.org/ffrfquiz.cgi Gaylor, A. (2001, August).
What Do You Know About the Separation of Church and State?. Freethought Today, p.18. Holmes, O. (1999). First Amendment Court Cases. Schenck v. United States (1919).
Riley, R. (1998). Secretary’s statement on religious expression. Retrieved November 15, 2001, from, the World Wide Web: http://www.ed.gov/Speeches/08-1995/religion.html Staver, Mathew. Teachers’ Rights on Public School Campuses. Retrieved November 16, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.lc.org/OldResources/teachers rights 0900.html United States Supreme Court. (1993). Lamb’s Chapel v.
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