Religious Conflict Through The Ages

.. two groups of people spanning borders and languages side themselves on religion alone. The First Crusade was called by Pope Urban II in 1095. Urban was a reforming, activist pope who according to Dr. Ellis Knox was looking for some great event or cause. Pope Urban II gave a speech, which directly leads to the first but not last lengthy battles of the Crusades.

Knox gives a summary of what Urban II says on his website page. Christians are being oppressed and attacked; the holy places are being defiled; and Jerusalem itself is groaning under the Saracenyoke. The Holy Sepulchre is in Muslim hands.The West must march in defense of the Holy Land. All should go, rich and poor alike. God himself will lead them, for they will be doing His work.

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There will be absolution and remission of sins for all who die here they are poor and miserable sinners – there they will be rich and happy, true allies of God. Let them march next summer. God wills it! (http://history.idbsu.edu/westciv/crusades/03.htm) The history of the Crusades is as dynamic and complex as all the battles and events that take place. A series of defeats and triumphs for both the Christians and the Muslims provide Europe with more of a Muslim influence and set the stage for the Middle East being the breadbasket for Islam. Knox, in the last page description of the Crusades in his website, brilliantly divulges: It is common for textbooks to talk about the results of the crusades: increased contact with the East, opening of markets, Arab influences on styles and customs, changes in military practice. While all these certainly came about at one time or another, crusades were preached from the end of the eleventh century on into the sixteenth century. One has to be cautious in assigning any sort of result to a movement that covers five hundred years. http://history.idbsu.edu/westciv/crusades/21.htm)O ne must be cautious in assigning any significant historic event or movement that evolved from the Crusades but the quote is included to show the how religion has played such a vital role in dividing people.

Knox further argues that making enemies of the church became such a commonplace activity that Crusading activity simply became a part of European culture. He also contends: In a sense, the religious wars of the Protestant Reformation are the logical result of this mentality; by the time Europeans had exhausted themselves in internal religious war, we hear no more about wars against the infidel. Exactly, the internal religious wars had become external which sets the historical stage for the Protestant Reformation. The third distinction outlined earlier discusses how religion in homogeneous societies can divide people. The Protestant Reformation perhaps is the best example of this occurrence. Unlike Ergamenes in the Ku*censored*e Empire and Akhenaton in the Ancient Egyptian civilization, King Henry VIII’s great matter altered the course of history forever and divided people along distinct lines.

Henry VIII, desperate for a son and believing that Catharine of Aragon could not provide him a son, seeks an annulment from their marriage on grounds that Catharine violated their marriage by consummating her first marriage to his brother who died. The Vatican in Italy did not support the King’s claim therefore he separates from the Roman Catholic Church and creates the Anglican Church of England. The ramifications that this move had on Parliament and the people of England were paramount. Parliament had new found power in that the Church money no longer flowed to the Vatican and the King needed to get Parliament’s permission for most funds. King Henry VIII, however, successfully starts the tradition of Protestantism in Europe, which ultimately leads to the rise of Protestantism as a major religious world force. England after the transition, however, faced constant threats of revolution and plot attempts on their king’s court.

The tragic rule of Queen Mary illustrates this point best. Like Akhenaton and Ergamenes she attempts to change her people’s religion but, unlike the previous two mentioned, Mary attempts to bring a religion that her people traditionally serve, Catholicism, back to England. Her reign was filled with people being burned at the stake with the charge of heresy. Queen Mary’s marriage to Philip II of Spain did not contribute in her endeavor of bringing England back to Rome’s control. Mary’s tragic reign ultimately ends in her death in 1558. She alone is responsible for the destruction and tragedy she brings to her people as Stuart E.

Prall in his book entitled Church and State in Tudor and Stuart England explains: The belief that the people and the monarch should share the same religion Was deeply ingrained throughout Western Europe. It was Mary and her advisors Who forced Cranmer and England to choose[Protestantism]. Once Mary Combined mass burnings at the stake with a pro-Spanish foreign policy, all In the name of the Roman church, the eventual triumph of a monarchial English Protestantism appeared to be inevitable.(68) The issue at hand with the Protestant Reformation is the a homogeneous people had deep religious divisions internally due to a shift in religious practice. Religion has both united and divided societies since the beginning of history. As demonstrated with the ancient Ku*censored*e, Greek, and Egyptian cultures, homogeneous societies use religion as a bridge further developing the interconnectedness of the group of people.

The second distinction made in discussing whether or not religion unites or divides is understanding the origins and plight of the Crusades. When two homogeneous groups of people with differing belief systems collide, the results are horrific. The Protestant Reformation provides a twist in the discussion. A homogeneous people with religion being problematic in that it divides them between their King and their God. Religion is at once dividing and uniting.

It serves as a means for humans to explain their existence and substantiate their place in this world, however, as demonstrated the impact of religion in world civilizations has been tremendous, and should continue to be. Sentence Outline Thesis: There are, however, three distinctions that can be outlined in the discussion of how religion divides or unites civilizations. Firstly, religion serves as a catalyst further unifying homogeneous civilizations such as the Greek, Ku*censored*e and Egyptian societies, secondly, religion serves as a primary focus of difference when two homogeneous societies, such as the Muslims and the Christians involve themselves in a conflict for spiritual dominance, and, thirdly, how religion, in some homogenous societies such as the Protestant Reformation of the late Tudor and early Stuart dynasties in England, serves to divide the people. I. In the Ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Kush and Egyptian empires religion serves as a catalyst further strengthening the bond found in such homogeneous societies. A.

In homogeneous societies religion serves to further bridge the culture together. B. The dynamics in determining whether religion unites or divides people are extremely complex especially when discussing civilizations from the Egyptians to the English dynasties. II. Religious observance in ancient civilizations serves to further bridge the connectedness that the people of those societies felt.

III. Religious observance in ancient civilizations serves to further bridge the connectedness that the people of those societies felt. IV. The third distinction outlined earlier discusses how religion in homogeneous societies can divide people. The Protestant Reformation perhaps is the best example of this occurrence.

V. Religion has both united and divided societies since the beginning of history. As demonstrated with the ancient Ku*censored*e, Greek, and Egyptian cultures, homogeneous societies use religion as a bridge further developing the interconnectedness of the group of people. Religion.

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