Puerto Rican And Us

.. ional acculturation scales and included in each version of the questionnaire for validation purposes. Individual items concerning language use (both reading and speaking), cultural foods, music, holiday celebrations, and family celebrations were inspired by items on the Marin et al. (1987) and Szapocznik et al. (1978) scales. Parallel items were included to address actual cultural behaviors (e.g., How do you celebrate family events?) and individuals’ preferences for cultural behaviors (e.g., How do you prefer to celebrate family events?), yielding a total of 12 items added to each questionnaire.

Complementing the response format for the PAS items, these items were scored on a 9-point scale, ranging from 1 (only Spanish) to 9 (only English). Items pertaining to language reading and speaking were combined to create composite measures of language use (behavior items) and preferred language use (preference items); alpha coefficients of reliability were .90 for scores on the language use measure and .80 for scores on the preferred language use measure. Scores on the remaining behavior and preference items yielded low estimates of internal consistency and were examined individually in data analysis. Results INTERNAL CONSISTENCY Overall, the mean PAS score for this sample was 3.48 on the 9-point scale (SD = 1.38). Of the respondents, 64 chose to complete the Spanish version of the PAS and 42 chose the English version.

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Item scores on both language versions of the PAS were shown to be internally consistent, with alpha coefficients of .90 and .83 for the Spanish and English versions, respectively. Item total correlations from this sample ranged from between .55 and .81 for the Spanish version of the PAS and from between .36 and .67 for the English version. Because scores from this sample yielded high levels of internal consistency on both language versions of the PAS, responses to the Spanish and English versions of the scale were pooled for further data analysis. FACTOR ANALYSIS A principal components analysis yielded a single primary factor of psychological acculturation, which accounted for 51% of the variance. No additional factors were extracted beyond this factor because all other factors’ eigenvalues were below 1.0. Structure coefficients on this factor ranged from between .64 and .79 (see Table 2).

CONVERGENT AND DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY Migration history. Respondents born in Puerto Rico tended to have lower PAS scores (M = 3.3) than did respondents born on the U.S. mainland, M = 4.2, t(103) = -2.93,p * .01. Thus, individuals born in Puerto Rico tended to be more Latino-oriented than bicultural. Furthermore, psychological acculturation (as measured by the PAS) was correlated positively with percentage of lifetime in the United States, r(103) = .43, p * .01, such that greater time on the U.S. mainland corresponded with a more Anglo/American orientation.

Language use. Respondents who chose to complete the questionnaire in Spanish tended to have lower scores on the PAS (M = 3.1) than did respondents who completed the questionnaire in English, M = 4.1, t(104) = -4.22, p * .001. That is, respondents who chose the Spanish version tended to be more Latino-oriented than were those who chose the English version. Psychological acculturation also correlated positively with use of English at home during the respondent’s childhood, r(106) = .51, p * .01, indicating a greater Anglo/American orientation with increased use of English in the home. COMPARING MEASURES OF MIGRATION AND ACCULTURATION Individuals’ migration histories traditionally have been used as validation measures for acculturation scales. Although these measures may be useful, it is also important to acknowledge a qualitative difference between time spent in a culture and one’s sense of belonging and attachment to that culture.

Multiple regression analyses were conducted to address this distinction using psychological acculturation (i.e., respondents’ PAS scores) and percentage of lifetime in the United States as predictors of the adapted cultural behavior and preference items. A separate correlational analysis indicated that the two predictor variables bore a substantial positive correlation, r(103) = .43, p * .01. Under such conditions, the standardized regression coefficients that are obtained from standard regression analyses may be biased and relatively unreliable, as compared to other indicators (Darlington, 1990). To promote the accurate interpretation of our findings, semipartial correlations and structure coefficients instead will be reported. Structure coefficients were computed by dividing the correlation between each predictor variable and the criterion variable by the multiple correlation (see Thompson & Borrello, 1985, for a more detailed discussion of this procedure).

Results indicated that, together, psychological acculturation and percentage of lifetime in the United States accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in scores on most of the cultural behavior and preference measures (R[sup 2] values ranging from. 14 to .44). In particular, these variables were highly effective as predictors for behaviors and preferences associated with language use, although they were somewhat less effective as predictors for behaviors and preferences associated with cultural foods (see Table 3). Semipartial correlations and structure coefficients demonstrated high levels of association between psychological acculturation (i.e., respondents’ PAS scores) and scores on all of the cultural behavior and preference items (see Table 3). In contrast, semipartial correlations and structure coefficients suggested that percentage of lifetime in the United States is related fairly strongly to behaviors and preferences associated with language use and holiday celebrations yet has relatively weak relationships with respondents’ scores on the other cultural behavior and preferences items (see Table 3).

Thus, the general pattern of results demonstrates that psychological acculturation served as a stronger and more consistent correlate of respondents’ cultural behaviors and preferences than did their percentage of lifetime spent in the United States. Study 3 Study 2 replicated findings of high internal consistency and validity for respondents’ scores on the PAS with a large sample of Puerto Rican respondents. A third study was conducted to gather further validity evidence for PAS scores across two distinct age groups (adolescents and adults) and with two methodological modifications. First, an interview format was used rather than a self-administered questionnaire to examine the robustness of the scale across modalities of administration. Second, the response range was reduced to a 5-point scale because most respondents from Study 2 used only a portion of the response options from the 9-point scale.

Method SAMPLES AND PROCEDURES Puerto Rican adolescents and their parents were recruited through door-to-door screening, media advertisements, and community networks within the greater Boston area. Prospective participants who identified themselves as Puerto Rican were contacted as part of a larger study on Puerto Rican adolescent development. Respondents were given $10 for their participation, which consisted of face-to-face interviews in their homes. Respondents were interviewed in the language of their choice (i.e., either Spanish or English) by trained bilingual and bicultural interviewers. Informed consent was obtained from respondents prior to the interviews. Adolescent sample. A total of 247 Puerto Rican 13- and 14-year-old adolescents participated in this study (118 males and 129 females).

Of the participants, 98 were born in Puerto Rico and 146 were born on the U.S. mainland (3 were born in other places). Adolescents’ percentage of lifetime in the United States ranged from less than 1% to 100% (M = 80%). Parent sample. A total of 228 mothers of the adolescents also participated in this study, ranging in age from 27 to 57 years (M = 39 years). Of these mothers, 201 were born in Puerto Rico and 21 were born on the U.S. mainland (6 were born in other places). Parents’ percentage of lifetime in the United States ranged from 85% to 100% (M = 92%). MEASURES For both adolescents and parents, interview protocols included the same versions of the PAS and the items concerning migration history and demographic factors, which were used in Studies 1 and 2.

However, we observed that 80% of the respondents from Study 2 did not use Scores 8, 6, 4, and 2 on the 9-point scale and essentially worked with a 5-point scale. Therefore, the original 9-point response scales were collapsed to 5-point scales. Cultural behaviors and preferences. The same versions of the cultural behavior and preference items used in Studies 1 and 2 were included in the interview protocols for this study. To match the format of the other items, item responses were scored on Likert-type scales ranging from 1 (only Hispanic/Latino) to 5 (only Anglo/American).

As in the previous studies, behavior and preference items pertaining to language reading and speaking were combined to create composite measures of language use (behavior items) and preferred language use (preference items). Alpha coefficients were .87 and .86 for adolescents’ and parents’ scores on the language use measure, respectively. Alpha coefficients were .77 for both adolescents’ and parents’ scores on the preferred language use measure. In addition, items pertaining to cultural foods, music, holiday celebrations, and family celebrations were combined to create composite measures of cultural behaviors and cultural preferences. Alpha coefficients of reliability were .72 for both adolescents’ and parents’ scores on the cultural behaviors measure.

Alpha coefficients of reliability were .75 and .76 for adolescents’ and parents’ scores on the cultural preferences measure, respectively. Results ADOLESCENT SAMPLE Overall, the mean acculturation score for this sample was 1.57 on the 5-point scale (SD = .62). Scores on the PAS were shown to be internally consistent, with an alpha coefficient of .91 and item total correlations ranging from between .52 and .78. A principal components analysis yielded a single primary factor of psychological acculturation, which accounted for 55% of the variance. No additional factors were extracted beyond this factor, considering that the eigenvalues for all other factors were below 1.0.

Structure coefficients for items on this factor ranged from between .60 and .83 (see Table 2). Migration history. Respondents born in Puerto Rico tended to have lower PAS scores (M = 1.33) than did those born on the U.S. mainland, M = 1.72, t(241) = 4.98, p * .001. Psychological acculturation also was correlated positively with percentage of lifetime in the United States, r(247) = .25, p * .01, indicating a stronger Anglo/American orientation with more time on the U.S. mainland. Language use.

Respondents who chose the Spanish version of the interview tended to have lower PAS scores (M = 1.52) than did those who chose the English version, M = 1.99, t(243) = -3.75, p * .01. Psychological acculturation also correlated positively with use of English in the home during the respondents’ childhood, r(247) = .40, p * .01, indicating a stronger Anglo/American orientation with increased use of English in the home. PARENT SAMPLE The overall mean for mothers’ acculturation scores was 1.55 on the 5-point scale (SD = .61). Their scores on the PAS were shown to be internally consistent, with an alpha coefficient of .91 and item total correlations ranging from between .53 and .79. A principal components analysis yielded a single primary factor of psychological acculturation, which accounted for 56% of the variance.

No additional factors were extracted beyond this factor, and eigenvalues for all other factors were less than 1.0. Structure coefficients for the items on this factor ranged from between .61 and .84 (see Table 2). Migration history. Paralleling the adolescent sample, respondents born in Puerto Rico tended to have lower PAS scores (M = 1.46) than did respondents born on the U.S. mainland, M = 2.40, t(219) = 7.53, p * .001.

Psychological acculturation also was correlated positively with percentage of lifetime in the United States, r(221) = .45, p * .01, indicating a stronger Anglo/American orientation with more time on the U.S. mainland. Language use. Respondents who chose the Spanish version of the interview tended to have lower PAS scores (M = 1.50) than did those who chose the English version, M = 2.01, t(224) = -4.00, p * .001. Psychological acculturation also correlated positively with use of English in the home during the respondent’s childhood, r(227) = .41, p * .01, indicating an increased Anglo/American orientation with increased use of English in the home.

COMPARING MEASURES OF MIGRATION AND ACCULTURATION As in Study 2, analyses were conducted to address the distinction between time spent in a given culture and one’s psychological attachment to that culture. Multiple regression analyses were performed using psychological acculturation (i.e., respondents’ PAS scores) and percentage of lifetime in the United States as predictors of the cultural behavior and preference measures. Correlational analyses indicated that the two predictor variables were correlated positively in the adolescent sample, r(246) = .25, p * .01, and even more highly correlated in the parent sample, r(227) = .56, p * .01. Semipartial correlations and structure coefficients, therefore, will be reported to aid in the accurate interpretation of our findings (see Table 4). Adolescent sample. Overall, results from these analyses indicated that psychological acculturation and percentage of lifetime in the Unite.

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