Psychology Theories

.. the superiority complex states mankind tries to better themselves in order to overcome our weaknesses. I agree with this because I am living proof. In everything I do I always try to make myself better. I don’t give up until I feel I have completely given it everything I have got.

On every weakness that I have especially when it comes to fitness I kill myself everyday to look my greatest and to feel the best that I can feel. This takes much hard work and dedication, but I do not even think about it when I think about how I am going to feel and look when I accomplish my goals. The second part of this theory is the inferiority complex which is when society measures us up to their standards. This is also when we begin to avoid our weaknesses instead of trying to overcome them. I have many examples when there is person who is not so good at an activity whatever the case may be, and completely get frustrated and give up instead of bettering themselves. I have even probably done this as well as most mankind which I feel is going to be the downfall of our society and our race.

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Alfred Adler’s entire theory I feel is a great one and I feel he has a great perspective on human behavior and I would agree with Adler on almost all of his theory. I feel he is the most accurate in his interpretation of human behavior. B.F. Skinner was a behaviorist which means he is neutral in his theories; all men start as blank slates. He believed that men are controlled by their environment and they can be molded.

All behavior is learned and conscious. Operant Conditioning is the idea that man is shaped by repetition and/or reinforcement. Reinforcement can be broken down into many different categories. First is primary reinforcement which meets biological and psychological needs. Next comes secondary reinforcement which is a conditioned reinforcer and it is a learned value. An example of this would be money. Positive reinforcement is the next part, and it is anything someone wants that increases positive behavior.

Negative reinforcement is oftenly mistaken for punishment which it is not. Negative reinforcement is basically avoidance or behaving in a way to avoid a negative stimulus or consequence. Escape is another part of negative reinforcement which is avoiding something that is already there. Punishment which decreases the likelihood of a negative behavior. Examples of this could be jail or other sorts of consequences. Punishment has limited effects.

There are short-term residual effects. Another part of Skinner’s theory is something by the name of Beyond Freedom and Dignity which says that man does not have free will. He is a product of reinforcement. Skinner says free will is an illusion and that man should have no pride. He also says that whatever mankind accomplishes he accomplishes because of a system which has certain limitations.

B.F. Skinner says that Man’s Biggest Problem is that mankind’s behavior is more easily influenced by small or immediate reinforcers than it is by large but distant and uncertain reinforcers. In other words Skinner feels that we will take immediate gratification and not look at the long-term results. He feels man is very short cited. The part of Skinner’s theory that I do not agree with completely is that he thinks that man is a blank slate and he can be shaped and molded by his society.

I feel that society should not take full credit for all of mankind’s behavior. Also I do not fully agree that all behavior is learned. I feel some is genetically inherited. Operant Conditioning is the part of Skinner’s theory I feel is pretty accurate because in daily life the more you do an activity the more it gets processed in your mind and becomes almost automatic. The idea that man has no free will I do not agree with because I believe all of mankind has freewill. When Skinner says that Man’s Biggest Problem is that he will take immediate gratification before looking into long term effects I completely agree with him on that.

People these days only think about what is going to happen now without thinking about what will happen in the future. Skinner’s theory of Man’s Biggest Problem is probably one of the most accurate theory’s I that I could ever agree with. Erich Fromm who is a liberal social psychodynamic psychologist who was also a student of Freuds’. He believes that man is innately good and society is the thing that corrupts him. He also feels that the conscious mind dominates over the unconscious.

Fromm says man is a social creature and he believes that mankind has social needs. He says life is a struggle and society makes our lives difficult. Fromm feels that the four needs of mans’ social life are relatedness, frame of reference, identity, and transcendence. Relatedness is a basic need and it states that man needs to feel connected to humanity whether it be friends, family, or activities. It also states that man has to be interacted with other in order to belong. The problems start when a person feels that they are not a part of something.

Relatedness is probably the most powerful need. Frame of Reference are common ideas and beliefs of looking at the world. This is when we seek out a belief system or a value system. We receive our frame of reference from where we find our relatedness. Without frame of reference there is no meaning to life. Identity is the next out of the four needs of mans’ social life which is when you know who you are and what you stand for.

With identity you have to establish your own uniqueness or identity. Recognizing differences in others help you to find your own identity. Next comes transcendence which is rarely achieved and this means to rise above societies conformities in order to be an individual. With transcendence there is a risk of losing your relatedness, and for this not to happen relatedness must allow you rise above society. A conflict of freedom and loneliness means that the more that we become transcendent the more we lose the relatedness. I agree with Fromm when he states that society corrupts man.

I also feel that the conscious mind dominates over the unconscious. I do not agree that man is 100% social either. When Fromm says that the four needs of social life are relatedness, frame of reference, identity, and transcendence I could not agree with more. Everyday you see people that have to be well connected in the social pipeline and without it I do not think they would function normally. There are plenty of people that have to be liked and be in a certain group in order to be mentally stable.

People think it is a bad thing when you are not in the popular group or not cool enough to be liked and accepted by a certain group. I also do feel that there are some people who know who they are and what they stand for. These are the people that survive the longest is the long run because they know who they are and they will not change for anything. Realizing other people’s differences also helps to boost your identity which in turn causes a person to create their own uniqueness. I think that I am a perfect example of a person who has all four needs met at all times and that I know exactly what I am and who I stand for. I would not change who I am and my behavior just to fit into the social pipeline. I have to plenty of parties where there has been everything from drinking to sex and I have never given in to the peer pressure of drinking, smoking or anything else while I was there, but I still had all the fun in the world.

The reason why I don’t give in is because I care about my health I have set values for myself and I like to follow them exactly like I planned. This way I will never do something that I would regret. All of Fromm’s theories are very accurate when it comes to social needs, but when it comes to human behavior in general I don’t feel that man is completely social. Michael Itsines is the next psychologist which is a mixture between a psychodynamic psychologist and a behaviorist. I feel that behavior is an upside down iceberg and consciousness is at the top and the unconscious is on the bottom.

I think that most behavior is conscious. Neither man or society is bad just at times it seems like one of the two influences a little more of behavior. I feel that man is both biological and social. The part that I think is biological is the part of Freud’s theory where he states there is an ID, Superego and an Ego. Another thing that I agree with is Freud’s theory of the Defense Mechanisms. I feel that mankind uses each one of them in everyday life.

Another thing that is a great example of man being biological is that at sometimes man can have animal drives and desires. The only thing that keeps us from behaving like an animal is the thing that man developed thousands of years ago and that is rational thought. This is the difference between human and animal behavior. That’s what separates man from animal. We do this in order to curb our human nature.

Another reason why I think man partially biological is because of Carl Jung’s theory of Archetypal complexes which are genetically transmitted response strategies and I feel that mankind has this. On the social side I feel that man is partially motivated by social needs such the four needs of man’s social life which are relatedness, frame of reference, identity, and transcendence. I agree with Fromm on this theory. This is probably on the most accurate examples of man being a social creature. Also Adler stated in his theory that social interests motivate us.

Social Interest is an innate drive to be social and to belong. B.F. Skinner states in his theory that behavior is driven by external rewards. Also he says that reinforcement plays a huge role mankind’s behavior. I feel that man is also driven by the idea of free will which to Skinner seems to be an illusion.

I think mankind has free will but maybe takes it for granted. Overall I feel that man can be both good and bad at times but then again so can society. Sometimes society has a great deal of influence on human behavior. An example of this would be that man pushes himself in order to be the best he can be and to reach the top. Mankind will stop at nothing in order to be number one. Selfishness and greediness are probably going to be the downfall of the human race.

If mankind could actually see differences in other people instead of making them look like something there are not everybody and everything would be much happier and they would live a much more fuller life. In my theory I think that mankind should be much more grateful and appreciative for the environment that is created and for what they have become due to their environment. Man’s behavior just can not be either biological or social because I feel that mankind also passes on behavior through genetic inheritance. Man has to be both according to my own theory and I stand by it.

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