Power, Propoganda In Communist China

Power, Propoganda in Communist China
Propaganda in China during the Cultural Revolution took on many
forms; there were mass Red Guard demonstrations in Tianamen Square in
support of Mao Zedong, pictures of Mao were put up in every
conceivable location from restaurants to the wallpaper in nurseries,
and pamphlets and books of Mao’s teachings were distributed to every
Chinese citizen. One of these propaganda publications Quotations from
Chairman Mao which later became known as the Little Red Book contained
quotes from Mao Zedong and was distributed to every Chinese citizen.
The history of the Red Book provides one of the best ways in which to
analyze Chinese propaganda during the Cultural Revolution and see the
ways in which the Chinese government was able to produce and
effectively indoctrinate the Chinese people with Mao Zedong Thought.
Official Chinese magazines from the period of 1967 to 1970 are filled
with many pictures of citizens holding, reading, and memorizing the
Red Book. This proposal will trace the rise and fall of images of the
Red Book in the official Chinese publication China Reconstructs. This
proposal will use a graphical analysis of pictures in this publication
from 1966 to 1973 to show that propaganda was not just a tool of the
Communist party but also a reflection of internal power struggles
within the party during the Cultural Revolution.

The Red Book was written several years before it became the
object of national adoration and a tool for the Cultivation of Mao’s
personality Cult. The history of the Red Book and its meteoric rise
from a hand book for military recruits to compulsory reading for all
Chinese citizens, is closely tied to its developer Lin Biao’s rise to
power. Lin Biao was born in 1907 and was fourteen years younger then
Mao; he joined the communist party in 1925 and until the communists
captured control of China was at various times in charge of resiezce
forces, and armies of communist soldiers. When the communists took
control in 1949 Lin Biao was behind Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou
Enlai, Chen Yun, and Deng Xiaoping in rank (Yan and Gao, 1996: 179).
But eighteen years later during the height of the Cultural Revolution
Lin Biao by winning favor with Mao by publishing and championing the
Red Book and the Cult of Mao became second only to the Chairman in
power and position (Ming-Le, 1983: 80).

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In 1959 Peng Dehua was dismissed as minister of defense and Lin
Biao was appointed in his place. At an armed forces meeting for high
cadres during September of that year Lin Biao, energetically started
promoting the Cult of Mao saying, “Learning the writings of comrade
Mao Zedong is the shortcut to learning Marxism-Leninism. Chairman
Mao’s writings are easy to learn and can be put to use immediately.
Diligent work will pay dividends many fold.” (Yan and Gao, 1996: 182)
His references to “shortcut” and “quick dividends” in his speech went
unnoticed at the time as few foresaw the effects of creating a
Cult around Mao. But looking back on the Cultural Revolution and Lin
Biao, we can see his using the Cult of Mao was indeed a shortcut that
produced huge dividends both for himself and for Mao.
Mao to the Chinese people was a symbol sovereignty and the
construction of socialism; to them praise for Mao was fitting with his
symbolic role in society. Starting in 1959 Lin Biao in front of
military audiences in order to help buildup support for the Cult of
Mao used such phrases as, “the dire necessity of acquiring Mao
Zedong’s thought,” “to study the writings of Mao Zedong with questions
in mind is to shoot arrows with target in sight,” “we must arm our
minds with Mao Zedong’s thought” (Yan an Gao, 1996: 181). Lin Biao’s
goal of building up both himself and the Cult of Mao lead him in
September of 1960 to pass a resolution at the meeting of the Military
Commission, which called for more political education among the armed
forces (Yan and Gao, 1996: 181)
“Mao Zedong Thought is the compass for the Chinese people’s
revolution and socialist construction, the powerful ideological
weapon against imperialism, and the powerful ideological weapon
against revisionism and dogmatism….. raise high the red banner
of Mao Zedong Thought, go further and mobilize the minds of all
officers and soldiers with Mao Zedong Thought, and resolve to make
sure that Mao Zedong Thought, and resolve to make sure that Mao
Zedong Thought is in command in all phases of work… Really learn
by heart the Mao Zedong Thought! Read Chairman Mao’s books, listen
to Chairman Mao’s words, follow Chairman Mao’s directives, and
serve as Chairman Mao’s good soldiers!”
Shortly after the passage of the resolution by Lin Biao, the fourth
volume of the selected works of Mao Zedong was published. On the
occasion of it being sold to the public Lin Biao wrote an article
calling upon all people in the military to read and study the works of
Chairman Mao and dedicate to memory Mao Zedong Thought (Yan and Gao,
1996: 183).

On April 1964 Lin Biao direct the military presses to publish a
selection of quotes from Mao in a Little Red Book. The book titled
Quotations From Chairman Mao was aimed at providing military recruits
a shortened version of Maoist thought (Yan and Gao, 1996: 183).
Military recruits before the publication of the Red Book were
encouraged to study the Selected Works of Mao Zedong. But this set of
books had grown so large (it’s four volumes contained over fifteen
hundred pages) many of the military’s recruits who were from peasant
backgrounds were unable to read its complicated articles. The Little
Red Book in contrast with its hand picked quotes and introduction by
Lin Biao was short with easy to read quotes. Before the publishing of
the Red Book the study of the Selected Works of Mao Zedong greatly
increased in the military this was in large part due to the
encouragement and directives issued by Lin Biao. In 1961 Lin Biao
while inspecting a contingent of troops said that the works of
Chairman Mao Zedong, were a guide to those in the military, “Every
lesson in political education must use the works of Chairman Mao
Zedong as an ideological guide.” (Yan and Gao, 1996: 183) Lin Biao
also directed the military press to publish sections from the Red Book
in the Liberation Army Daily the official publication of the PLA
(People’s Liberation Army). The Red Book provided many of the military
recruits who were mostly uneducated peasants with a grounding in
Maoist thought. The quotes selected in the Red Book such as, ” Carry
on the workers struggle, down with rightist revisionism” were
sufficient vague as to allow recruits to draw from the Red Book what
they wanted to. Lin Biao’s efforts to promote the study of Maoist
thought were done to win favor with Mao and increase his position in
the party (Tsou, 1986: 49).
Lin Biao’s cultivation of the Cult of Mao Zedong soon earned
him Mao’s notice. During a meeting in 1961 Mao applauded Lin Biao’s
work in the armed forces saying, “Recently comrade Lin Biao inspected
the forces as far down as the company level and showed underezding
of a good many things, including the problems of construction among
our forces, and he made very good suggestions about various tasks of
construction.” (Yan and Gao, 1996: 182) Lin Biao feeling that his work
at publicizing Mao’s teachings was paying off redoubled his efforts at
promoting Mao Zedong Thought. He insisted that quotes from Mao Zedong
could be used to accomplish tasks within the military and made the Red
Book required reading for all in the military (Tsou, 1986:50).
In January of 1962 the Part Central held an enlarged work
session called a seven thousand person meeting. This meeting was aimed
at rectifying the mistakes of The Great Leap Forward, and to promote
the economy. A large majority at the meeting criticized Mao Zedong;
but Lin Biao who believed that his future was inextricably linked to
that of Mao gave one of the lone speeches in support of Mao (Yan and
Gao, 1996: 182). Lin Biao said at the conference that the reason The
Great Leap Forward had not a success was because the dictates of
Chairman Mao had not been followed closely enough. After the economy
started to improve in 1963 and Mao gained back wide support Mao looked
back and remembered that Lin Biao was one of the few who had stood by
him and did not criticize him during the Party Central meeting. This
event shows how Lin Biao was a shrewd political thinker who saw that
his future was connected with that of Mao and winning Mao’s approval.
By 1962 Lin Biao’s chief tool at achieving this objective was the
promotion of Mao Zedong Thought (Dutt and Dutt, 1970: 63).
After May of 1961 the Liberation Army Daily followed Lin
Biao’s directive and printed selection’s from the Selected
Works of Mao Zedong. By May of 1964 with a further directive from Lin
Biao the general publication department of the Liberation Army, edited
and published the Red Book accompanied by the publication of the
selected reader of the workers of Mao suggested by Lin Biao (Yan and
Gao, 1996: 183). The Red Book had an inscription on its cover written
in calligraphy by Lin Biao that read, “Study Chairmen Mao’s writings,
follow his teachings, and act accordingly” (Kraus, 1991: 109). The
fact that the inscription on the Red Book was in Lin Biao’s
handwriting was significant in that it symbolized the connection
between the Red Book, Lin Biao, and the Cult of Mao. Both of these
publications were published in large quantities and distributed
among the armed forces. There now was a fervor for the studying of
works by Mao in military ranks, illiterate soldiers were able to
recite long passages from memory and military troops studied the Red
Book during their breaks. With such a backdrop Lin Biao recognized
that the time was right for increasing his position within the party.
The cultivation of the Cult of Mao had support from Mao Zedong and
when he started the Cultural Revolution in August of 1966 Mao saw that
Lin Biao’s thought education in the military could be applied to the
whole nation (Rodzinski, 1988:96).
The period before the Cultural Revolution provides some very
important insights into the development of the Red Book and of Lin
Biao’s connection to the Red Book. In the period before August of 1966
the Red Book was not read by those outside of the military. A
graphical analysis of pictures before 1967 shows that the Red Book was
not a widely used method of propaganda as it did not appear in many
pictures and the pictures it did appear in were of soldiers in the
PLA. Although studying Maoist thought was important during the period
prior to the Cultural Revolution in society as a whole it was not very
important. There are several reasons: First, there was no reason to
Cultivate the Cult of Mao Zedong Thought during this time, Mao prior
to 1966 was not trying to lead any mass movements in which he would
need popular support. The Great Leap Forward and the anti-rightist
campaign’s came during times in which Mao was powerful within the
party so he did not need wide spread support outside of the central
command. Second, Mao prior to the Cultural Revolution was more
interested in promoting communist economics then ideology. Mao
promoted The Great Leap Forward which was not a ideological campaign
but instead an economic campaign to promote industrialization
(Rodzinski, 1988:74). And in the period from 1961 to 1965 Mao was
chiefly concerned with getting the economy back on track following the
disastrous Great Leap Forward. But by 1966 the economy of China was
back on track and Mao had once more gained back the support of the
central leaders of the communist party.
The Cultural Revolution launched in 1966 lasted depending on
the author until 1971 or 1976 and was initiated by Mao Zedong to renew
the spirit of the Chinese Revolution. Fearing that China would develop
along the lines of the Soviet model and concerned about his own place
in history, Mao threw China into turmoil in a monumental effort to
reverse what Mao saw as a rightist movement within China.
During the 1960’s tensions with Russia increased and Mao
became convinced that the Russian Revolution had stalled and become
rightist, Mao feared that China was following the same path (Yan and
Gao, 1996: 7). Mao theorized that to keep China from becoming social
stratified and elitist the process of continuos revolution had to be
initiated by the government. To Mao the Cultural Revolution that he
initiated had four goals: to replace party members with leaders more
faithful to his thinking; to reenergize the Chinese Communist party
and Purge the rightists; to provide China’s youth with a revolutionary
experience; and to change society such that specific systems such as
education, healthcare, and cultural systems such as opera and music
became less elitist (Mitchell and Kua, 1975: 465).
Mao launched the Cultural Revolution at the Eleventh Plenum
of the Eighth Central Committee in August 1966. In the following weeks
Mao shut down the schools in order to allow young people to take part
in the revolution (Mitchell and Kua, 1975: xii). Mao also established
a national mobilization of the countries youth. They were organized
into Red Guard groups and encouraged to attack all tradition values,
symbols, and leaders who were rightist or bourgeois. Mao believed that
the attacks would both provide the youth with a revolutionary
experience thus continuing the cycle of continuos revolution and they
would strengthen the party by removing the rightist elements. Mao also
saw the Cultural Revolution as a way to strengthen his own political
base because the Red Guards acted to remove all who opposed Mao
Zedong. The movement quickly escalated; intellectuals party officials,
teachers, and the elderly were both physically attacked and verbally
abused made to wear dunce caps in the streets and to denounce
themselves. Temples, restaurants, and all signs of old values were
ransacked by the Red Guard youths. The Cultural revolution put middle
school and high school students in charge of the nation and like a
version of Lord of the Flies the nation fell into anarchy and
The Cultural Revolution also lead to changes within the
structure of the communist party. Before the Cultural Revolution
Liu Shaoqi was Mao Zedong’s designated successor, but during the early
stages of the Cultural Revolution Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping and many
others who Mao deemed as being rightists were removed from the party.
In their place Mao installed those who had been most loyal to him in
the past; one of those men was Lin Biao (Dutt and Dutt, 1970: 80).
…..Mao rightly saw that the best way to provide both direction
for the Red Guards and to make himself immune from their attacks upon
party official would be to foster a personality Cult. Thus under the
guidance of Lin Biao who after Liu Shaoqi was removed; become the
successor to Mao Lin Biao helped foster a personality Cult for Mao.
Lin Biao used the same types of techniques that he used in the army to
help foster this Cult of Mao. Lin Biao used the same organization to
disseminate propaganda that he had devised for the Army. Lin Biao
continued to head the army till his death in 1971 but his role was
expanded as he became the high priest of the Cult of Mao (Yan and Gao,
1996: 334). The reading of the Red Book was encouraged by both Mao,
party directives written by Lin Biao, Chen Boda, and Kang Sheng who
during the Cultural Revolution became Mao’s closest advisors. All
three of these advisors worked tirelessly to promote the Cult of Mao
because they saw it as their way to curry favor with Mao Zedong and
their efforts met with whole hearted approval. Mao in an interview
near the end of the Cultural Revolution commented that Krushchev could
have avoided loosing his power if he had created an appropriate Cult
for himself (Yan and Gao, 1996: 313).
Mao relied on the power of propaganda to enlarge his Cult
during the Cultural Revolution. The Red Book became his most powerful
weapon. Quotations from the Red Book replaced the usual front page
section entitled today’s important news in the People’s Daily. Various
other newspapers and journals increased their coverage of Mao Zedong
printing his speeches, pictures, and quotes. Some even retold stories
of his days fighting the Japanese and the KMT (Yan and Gao, 1996:
215). The major newspapers in June of 1966 started writing editorials
and stories encouraging the public to study the thought of Chairman
Mao by reading . On June 6 both the Liberation Army Daily and the
People’s Daily simultaneously published a front page article calling
on the Chinese people to study Mao Zedong Thought and reading Selected
Works of Mao Zedong. The headline read, “Raise high the Great Red Flag
of Mao Zedong, Carry to the end the great proletariat revolution.”
(Yan and Gao, 1996: 215) It was no coincidence that the Liberation
Army Daily and the People’s Daily both carried the same story about
increasing Mao Zedong thought study. It symbolized the rise in power
of Lin Biao who with the start of the Cultural Revolution and the
expulsion of Liu Shaoqi had increased his power within the communist
party. Lin Biao’s ideas of education and indoctrination into Maoist
thought had with the publishing of the story in the People’s Daily in
June of 1966 moved from the army to all of China. From this point on
until he lost favor with Mao in 1970 Lin Biao became the cheerleader
of the Cult of Mao directing the national frenzy that enveloped China
with its adoration of Mao Zedong (Dutt and Dutt, 1970: 80).
Under the leadership of Lin Biao the leading newspapers in
China printed stories urging readers to read the works of Mao. As of
yet the only books available to the public was the four volume long
Selected Works of Mao Zedong; the Red Book had not yet become
available to the pubic. In the fall of 1966 the People’s Daily
published such headlines as, ‘Mao Zedong thought is the red sun within
our bosom,” and stories in newspapers were filled with such lines as,
“Chairman Mao’s books are not gold, but are more precious then gold;
not steel, but stronger then steel.” (Yan and Gao, 1996: 183) Pictures
from this time depicted happy Chinese citizens reading pamphlets by
Mao such as the, “Man Who Moved The Mountain.” But as of yet the
number of pictures in 1966 that pictured Red Books was limited and
only included members of the armed forces. But the stories in the
newspapers and other propaganda put out by the government such as
radio broadcasts stirred up a great fever in support of Mao and the
study of Mao Zedong Thought. On August 12 following the Eleventh
Plenum of the Eighth party congress copies of The Selected Works of
Mao Zedong were distributed at major universities before they were
shut down to prepare for the Cultural Revolution. During the rest of
1966 newspapers reported daily on the sale on The Selected Works of
Mao Zedong. The government lowered the price of the set of books to
two yuan so that every person could posses a copy of the Selected
Works. Sales were brisk then starting in January of 1967 Lin Biao made
Quotations From Chairman Mao available to the public. Everyone
immediately wanted to buy it. Group study sessions of the book
became common. At many Red Guard rallies during the next several years
Red Guard troops set whole pages of the book to song (Yan and Gao,
1996: 248). Lin Biao ordered the presses of China to print millions of
copies of the Red Book and distribute them to the public. The Chinese
media encouraged the reading of the Red Book by printing stories
extolling the virtues of those who committed the book to memory. (Yan
and Gao, 1996: 249)
Granny Liu spent days and nights studying the works of Chairman
Mao. When she forgot, she called other to teach her.
Granddaughter Yuhzen slept with her and would thus be awakened
ten times a night. Even though the granddaughter could not sleep
well, Granny Liu would say endearingly to her, “Yuhzen, one more
word you can teach granny is one more measure of loyalty to
Chairman Mao and one more bullet for Liu Shaoqi.”….Granny Liu
also eagerly disseminated Mao Zedong Thought. For more than sixty
years she, had not known how to sing. Now, learning from her
daughter and granddaughter, she sang every where….Proudly
Granny Liu said, “This old women can’t really handle a tune. But
what I sing is my feeling for Chairman Mao. When I disseminate
Mao Zedong Thought, the more I sing the younger I get.”
Thus from January of 1967 to Lin Biao’s death and the end of
the Cultural Revolution everyone in China it seemed wanted to be a
Granny Liu; a person who worked for the greater glory of Mao Zedong
and China. The Red Book provided the Chinese people both with a basic
although cryptic introduction to Maoist thought and it also provided
them with a connection to their leader. Lin Biao was able to
successfully indoctrinate the entire nation not just in an idolization
of Mao but also in a frenzied studying of his quotes.
The period from 1966 to 1971 is marked by Chinese
publications filled with pictures of Chinese citizens studying the
Red Books on communes, in fields, in classrooms, at rallies, and at
ad-hoc study groups that met from along the Pearl River in the south
of China to the plains of Tibet. The number of pictures in China
Reconstructs of people holding Mao books increased from just a trickle
prior to 1967 to almost fifty percent of all at the Height of the
Cultural Revolution. Along with this upward trend in the number of Mao
books was an increasing number of flattering articles about Lin Biao.
One article in 1968 called him both a valiant fighter for the
revolution and a loyal follower of Mao. The irony of this quote was
probably missed by most readers at the time but looking back it was
Lin Biao who created the Cult of Mao to further his own goals within
the communist party and not Lin Biao’s goals of helping Mao. The
percentage of pictures of the Red Book and articles about Lin Biao
during this time reflected not just the frenzy over the Cult of Mao in
China but also the power of Lin Biao it was through his work that the
Red Book became a talisman for the Chinese people.
Chinese citizens read the Red Book because of the appeal and
aura that surrounded it. The Red Book connected individual Chinese
citizens with their leader. It enabled the average citizen who would
never meet Mao in their lifetime to possess a piece of him and his
words. During the Cultural Revolution Mao became a god in the eyes of
the Chinese people no criticism of him could be tolerated, nor the
slightest deviation from his instruction permitted. Every word he
uttered was taken as truth he became in effect a living Buddha, and
like Buddha his writings became like sutra’s. His quotes like passages
from the sutra’s were memorized, chanted, set to song, and reproduced
on billboards and on the beams of houses. (Rodzinski, 1988:121) The
Red Book became during the Cultural Revolution a holy sutra carried by
every citizen everywhere and studied endlessly. Some would say that
the Red Book became the bible of the Cultural Revolution but this
theory has several flaws. First, if this is true then the Mao would be
the Jesus Christ of his time, but Mao unlike Jesus reached
unquestioned power during his lifetime and unlike Jesus had no one
above him; Mao was god not the son of god in China. Second, the Red
Book is not parallel to the bible in its symbolism. The bible is not
committed to memory by most Christians unlike the sutras which
Buddhists learn long passages from. Mao followed in the footsteps of
the Buddhist framework of religious organization. Under the Cultural
Revolution Buddhism and Confucianism were wiped out, Red Guards
destroyed Buddhist temples and tortured monks; but in this religious
vacuum Mao placed himself as Buddha and his writings as Sutra’s.
The Red Book during the Cultural Revolution provided a
semblance of structure and unity in the chaos of the time. Even though
rival Red Guard factions frequently clashed and the nation was thrown
into turmoil the Red Book acted as a bond between the Chinese; they
were all followers of Mao even as their nation dissolved into anarchy.
The Red Book provided a framework in which for people to criticize
others and also a bond between citizens, the party, Red Guards, and
Mao. The study of the Red Book also provided a de-facto type of
education while the schools were shut down. People learned to read
in study groups while learning the Red Book’s quotes. In these ways
the Red Book was valuable in that it created a type of
order out of the chaos of the Cultural Revolution.
One of the fascinating things about the Red Book was that
nearly ever Chinese citizen possessed one but only a few of them could
read it. This was one of the things that made the Red Book so popular
was that it created with the idea that the Chinese populace was
educated while many remained illiterate. This was one of the reason
study groups were formed; so that a reader could read the Red Book to
a group of illiterate peasants who would then memorize long passages
so that they could feign literacy. In many places all other books but
those by Chairman Mao were banned. Reading in Chinese society was held
in high esteem even under communism and the idea of each citizen being
a scholar was an appealing idea to both the peasants and served the
purposes of Lin Biao who saw that the more widely the Cult of Mao and
Mao Zedong Thought was spread the more his power would increase.
But by 1970 the end of the Cultural Revolution had begun.
Many within the party believed the Cultural Revolution had gone to
far, destroyed to much, and were scared that they would become the
next party member to be openly criticized by Red Guards. Lin Biao’s
success in promoting the teachings of Mao made him the successor to
Mao starting in August of 1966 but his role was formalized in at the
Ninth Party Congress convened in April of 1969 (Ming-Le, 1983: 49).
After this Lin Biao tightened the grip of the military on Chinese
Society. Lin Biao maneuvered to take advantage of the Sino-Soviet
Border clashes in the spring of 1969 to declare martial law. Lin Biao
quickly encountered opposition to his growing power. Mao himself
became concerned about what he saw as a successor to eager to assume
power, and starting in the fall of 1970 Mao maneuvered to limit the
power of Lin Biao (Ming-Le, 1983: 47-52).
In August of 1970 a national conference was held called the
Second Plenum which was a conference of people chosen at the 1969
national conference to decide national policy. The Second Plenum was
held in Lushan and chaired by Mao Zedong. At this conference Lin Biao
maneuvered to make himself president of the republic. His clique of
followers which included Chen Boda circulated such statements as, “Lin
Biao is an uncommon genius he is one of the great teachers like Marx,
and Lenin and Mao” (Ming-Le, 1983: 50) Lin Biao saw that holding the
office of the presidency which became vacant after the death Liu
Shaoqi in 1969 was a tool by which he could assume control over China
and fulfill his lifetime ambition. On August 25, 1970 Mao convened the
conference and upon hearing of Lin Biao’s plan destroyed it in a
matter of two days. Mao did this in three ways. First, he sentenced
Chen Boda to self-examination, this was a clear warning to Lin Biao to
stop his grab for power. Second, Mao threatened the members of the
conference by saying that he would leave if they brought up the issue
of the presidency. Third, Mao wrote in a public letter called, “Some
Views of Mine,” a criticism of those who claim but do not really
underezd Marxism. This letter was clearly speaking about Lin Biao
although it did not say so directly. The conference at Lushan was a
turning point for Lin Biao is symbolized his fall from the graces of
Mao because of what Mao perceived as his impatience to become
president. Mao was able to effectively eliminate Lin Biao as a threat
by joining forces with Zhou Enlai and by isolating Lin Biao’s
assiezt Chen Boda. (Yan and Gao, 1996: 309) By January of 1971 Lin
Biao was no longer in Mao’s clique of advisors and Mao further
diezced himself from Lin Biao and his work at creating a cult of Mao
by saying in December of 1970 that he felt the cult created around him
had grown to large (Yan and Gao, 1996: 313), what happened between
then and Lin Biao’s death in September of the year is the object of
much speculation. The official Chinese government’s story is that Lin
Biao died on September 13, 1971, in an airplane crash in Mongolia as
he was fleeing to the Soviet Union after having plotted unsuccessfully
to overthrow Mao. According to this account during the whole of 1971
Lin Biao was organizing a coup among military officers. This account
is very much in doubt and their is much speculation that Lin Biao
after falling out of favor with the party leadership was assassinated
by communist party (Ming-Le, 1983:228). This has been reinforced by
Mongolian reports in 1990 that say that Lin Biao a was not on the
plane that crashed in 1971.

*** Please see the rest of this paper and the bibliography at ***
*** http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~dberger/papers/t1.htm ***


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