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None provided It is difficult for a child to grow up without experiencing some form of gender bias or stereotyping. When in school, many of their ideas and beliefs are reinforced by their friends, teachers, and other adults. For example, when teachers ask their students to form two lines, there is usually one line for boys and the other for girls. When children play, they avoid playing with the opposite sex because they prefer the company of their own kind. The result is a self-imposed segregation between boys and girls. Research has been done on this phenomenon.

Many sociologists have been trying to explain gender roles and differences. Some say sex differences are biologically determined and some believe they are socially constructed. Children behave accordingly to their gender roles as early as two or three years old. From preschool on up to middle-school, children live in two separate worlds– girls and boys. Inside the classroom, children often chose to sit with others of the same sex.

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This separation is also seen outside of the classroom– boys played with other boys and girls with other girls. Barrie Thorne who wrote, Girls and Boys Together..But Mostly Apart: Gender Arrangements in Elementary Schools, states that the separate worlds exist as a result of deliberate activity (p. 140). Boys and girls have separate tables where they sit in the lunchroom. If a boy were to sit on one of the girls’ tables, he would be laughed at or called a girl by other boys. Thorne explains that teachers and aides use gender as a basis for sorting children and organizing activities.

They have math and spelling contests where boys compete with girls and sometimes children are lined up separately when walking down the halls. Other studies have distinguished between aspects of stereotypes by separately asking about what is typical in girls and boys versus what would be ideal. For example, Rothbart and Maccoby (1966) assessed parents’ opinions about differences that actually exist between boys and girls and differences that should exist. Similarly, Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) were interested in comparing parents’ beliefs about sex differences in young children with how desirable certain characteristics are for girls and boys. They reported that the characteristics perceived as being typical of boys and girls were quite different. Typical boy behaviors were being noisy, rough, active, competitive, defying punishment, and enjoying mechanical objects.

Typical girl behaviors were helpful, neat and clean, quiet, well-mannered, crying, and being easily frightened. In contrast, parents reported that it was important for both boys and girls to be neat and clean, helpful, to take care of themselves, not to cry, to be competitive, and to be thoughtful and considerate. These results lead Maccoby and Jacklin to speculate that parents may be trying to socialize children of both sexes toward the same goals. In my field research, I observed children in an elementary school in order to understand how gender roles are formed, especially at an early age. I went to Hollingworth Elementary School in West Covina, California.

This is the school I went to during my years in elementary. The school is only a ten-minute walk from my house in Los Angeles. The children I was most interested in studying were from the ages of six through eight– first and second graders. I took on the view from a distant position, being a complete observer. I went to the school during their lunch hour, observing the children during their recess time.

I only had a notebook and pen in order to write down what I observed. I situated myself on one o the planters located to the side of the blacktop, near the handball courts. Before starting my observation, I went to the principal’s office to inform them of my research project. They were very accommodating and told me I was able to observe the children from a distance. I did not spend five hours in one day observing the children.

Instead, I went to the school during the week and observed them about an hour each time. The role I took on as a complete observer did not pose any problems. A few children looked and stared at me, probably wondering what I was doing there, sitting alone on a planter. I was very comfortable where I was and had no problems, aside from the looks. I wondered if my being there caused the children to behave differently but after awhile, the children went on playing their games and did not seem to notice me anymore. There were no significant differences each time I observed the children.

The setting was the sameI sat on the same planter with my notebook and pen in hand. Through my observations, I have concluded that children learn to adopt to their gender roles at an early age. Through their many activities, games, and encouragements and discouragements from teachers, children experience the process of gender role socialization. There are always some sort of stereotyping of boys and girls, whether it be the expectation that boys are better than girls in math or the idea that only females can nurture children. The children I observed proved that at an early age, boys and girls unconsciously learn to behave according to their gender roles.

Their sense of self is a result of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs to which he or she is exposed. The teachers and aides who were watching the children during recess proved this point. For example, a boy who was playing kickball accidentally ran into another boy when he tried to get to the first base. The other boy then pushed him and the teacher ran out to the field. The teacher handled the boys aggressively, pulling them away from each other and telling them to stand on the blacktop for the rest of their recess.

Another instance was with three girls playing jumprope. One of the girls got caught on the rope and then fell down. The teacher rushed to her as the girl started to cry. She handled her with more care and spoke to her with a more comforting voice, unlike the situation with the boys. While playing their games, boys and girls tend to play with their own gender. I observed one situation where one boy started watching the girls playing on the twirling bars.

One of his friends came up to him and said, What are you doing? Thats for girls. Lets go. The boy looked a little embarrassed and quickly left with his friend to play kickball. There were a couple of instances where boys interacted with girls. That was when one boy was chasing two girls.

He chased her in the field while the girl started teasing him and chanting, Jason has cooties.Jason has cooties. When recess ended, everyone had to freeze until the teacher blew her whistle for the children to line up to their rooms. In front of each door, the children formed two linesone for the boys and the other for the girls. One teacher encouraged this by reminding them that the boys on the left side and girls on the right. As mentioned before, children learn to act according to their gender roles.

They are taught how to behave and how to act amongst their peers. One day, a teacher actually told a boy to stop crying because boys are not supposed to cry. I found this very interesting especially since she did not say the same thing to the girl who fell while playing jumprope. Children are then told how to behave according to their gender role. When observing the whole playground, I noticed that girls played nicely and boys more aggressively. The girls were more courteous when it came to letting others join in their gams. Boys tended to shout at other boys saying, You cant playyoure too lateyou have to wait till were done.

From this field research project I have learned that children do learn to behave according to their gender roles. Not only are their ideas and attitudes being shaped and reinforced by their teachers, but their friends as well. Teachers often act differently when interacting with boys than with girls. They are more aggressive towards boys and more comforting and closer to the girls. I also noticed that the girls played in areas that were closer to their teachers. The boys played out in the field, away from teachers who could easily discourage them from acting the way they want to act.

My field research was comparable to that of Barrie Thornes. In Thornes data, he sometimes found girls and boys playing together in kickball and other group games. When these children defined an activity to be a girl or boys game, whoever crosses the boundary, would risk being teased. This teasing, according to Thorne, is used to police or control gender boundaries. There was not much contrast with his observations compared to mine. In summary, boys take on a more aggressive and rough role than do girls.

They are not supposed to cry or show signs of feminine behaviors. Girls are handled more with care and they tend to behave more quietly and nicely than do boys. If I were to continue with this project, I would take it to another level and observe adolescents. I would then compare both results to see if teens also behave this way. I would want to know if adolescents are influenced to behave according to their gender roles by the friends they hang around with and by their teachers.

If I had more time on my hands, I would observe college students as well. In this case I would take on the role of a participant as observer.

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Quality and Six Sigma Quality Initiative
Sigma – ? is most common known as a Greek letter which is used in statistics as a measure of variation, or change. Most of the people, however, dont know that ? is not only a symbol but it is also a method of quality. 6? Quality (Six Sigma Quality) is a management philosophy which has to lead to better employee performance and therefore completely satisfy the customer.

Six Sigma Quality, or in the abbreviation 6SQ was first introduced in 1986, when Dr. Mikel J.Harry tried the first project in the Motorola Company. However, the idea if it is not new. The same, or a very similar concepts are known under different names such as Total Quality Management (TQM) or Zero-Mistake-Production. Nowadays, many companies adopted the Six Sigma Quality Philosophy, among them are General Electric (GE), BMW car producers in Germany, Navistar or Thermoking.
Six Sigma involves all the employees, from the basic ones, to the top management. 6SQ requires not only training, but also the cooperation from the employees. If a company achieves ? 1, it will have a yield of 31% that means the business operations will be error free in 31%. Sigma on the stage two means error freeness in 69.2%, number 3 – 93.32%. All this seems to be a big improvement, but as we will see later on, it is not enough to work on the level 3, or 4, even though both of them have a very high percentage of error-freeness. Sigma step number 4 in the real numbers means 99.37% error free operations. Most of the companies, which are working under 6SQ are operating somewhere between Sigma 3 and Sigma 4. Sigma 5 means almost perfect result. 99.97% error freeness, and this seems to be a dream for most of the companies. The highest Sigma level, Sigma 6 has the yield of 99.99966%. We can summarize it in a following table.

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As we may see, the improvement between each of the Sigma steps is incredible, the step ? 6 is 2000 times better than the ? 4.

What do this numbers mean in the real life? If there is a ? 4 which means 99.37 error free operations, it would mean for example that 2 planes at the Chicago Airport would be landing unsafely every day. 500 people per week would be suffering because there would be victims of the incorrect surgical operations. Or 22,000 checks would be deducted from the wrong bank accounts every hour. Therefore, it is very important that the companies approve their quality, so they can achieve at least ? 5.

What is quality and how the we achieve it?
Quality can be defined as anything that enhances the customers satisfaction. Of course, the company has to satisfy not only customers, but their employees as well. Employees can be satisfied, if their needs are satisfied. If we apply Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, we can see that peoples needs can be divided in five groups:
– where the basic needs are satisfied, needs such as food, sleep etc.

-where the needs of safety are have to be satisfied.
-each person has to be accepted by the others
-this is the drive toward self-fulfillment
How can be these needs applied to Quality? If the customers are satisfied, it is predictable that their job results will be better.Therefore, the CEOs of the Company have to be aware that they have to provide people with a good environment, and then they can except better results from their employees. For the easier understanding of the situation we can make a model Company which is called Monique Ltd. This company is producing perfumes and it has 1,000 employees. The CEO and the Work council have decided, after they saw their results from the last accounting period, that the quality as well the profit is not satisfactory. Therefore they decided to make a survey within the company how are the employees satisfied with their work conditions. Most of them said, that their salaries, as well as the social conditions are not satisfactory. Others were worried that the working place is not safe enough. A very small group replied that they dont have the chance to get promoted. The work council became worried, and the CEO was worried as well, because both of them saw,that they underestimated the situation. The needs of the individuals were not satisfied.Some improvements were introduced. The employees are not going to get paid according to a flat rate, but they will have as the benefit shares from the profit of the company, if the profit in the next year will be more than $1,000,000. There will be groups introduced and each group will have only one control point, not every group several. This however will require the cooperation of all employees. How to do that? Since the CEO heard about the Six Sigma Initiative and he decided to try it in his company.

As the survey showed, Monique Ltd operates error free between 70 and 75%, in 6 Sigma terms between ? 2 and 3. The CEO wanted to improve the number to ? 3-4, which means 93.3 and 99.7% error free operations. Since the new salary system was introduced, people started to be more satisfied. Still, there was some uncertainty. CEO believed that some training is needed. Six Sigma Quality has a training which is supposed to teach the people how to work efficiently and error freely.
Six Sigma Quality has a training which is divided into 5 parts.

1. Awareness part which should be for all of the employees
2. Improvement part which is for the team members
3. Black/Green Belt Training this is is the actual training for the team leaders. It has two parts. Part one is the Green Belt Training which deals with the basic quality and improvement issues, and Black Belt, which comes after Green Belt, which is also dealing with the quality and improvement, however it much more detailed.

4. Master Black Belts is the training for the team consultants
5. Champions last, but not least the training for the management.
All of these seemed to be a good idea, and therefore 3 days for each training was dedicated. The employees were asked to cooperate and sign up for this training. Most of the employees agreed and signed up. 850 from 1,000 completed the 3rd stage Green/Black Belt training, and 10 became Master with the Black Belt.

The training was not the only improvement in the Monique Ltd Company. People were involved in problem solving, and the power of the Work Council was stronger. Work Council proposed the flexible working time, which in reality meant that people could choose when it is convenient for them to come to work. The fixed times, however, could not be changed to flexible times, because it is important that someone is there in the major times, when customers could call. This times were between 9.30 and 14.30. Whenever a person arrived to work, there was a little card, which was there to be signed by the machine. In case, that the person is working longer hours that it is prescribed (8.5 hours daily) it was also noted at the card. These hours could be added and a free day could be taken, however, the further acceptance of the manager was needed.
At the end of the year the final results came. CEO founded out, that the profit increased rapidly. Of course he was very happy about that.

Increase in employees satisfaction, as we could see in our example, can lead to major improvements in the company. However there are some problems with that. In Slovakia, for example it would be very difficult to introduce low control organizations. I believe that people wouldnt work effectively, because they would know that there is no one who is going to control over their work. Six Sigma Quality is also trying to eliminate rework, preparatory work, as well as the external and internal transfer of materials. This would not be possible, or at least now not possible to introduce in Slovakia. Most of the people who are employed in the governmental organizations, are filling their working day with reworking, inspecting and transferring. If 6SQ would be introduced in Slovakia some people would loose their place, because no re-working, or a very small amount would be needed. There is also a problem with the flexible working time. If people could come to work, whenever they want to, sign the card and sign it again whenever they leave, I believe that they would let the card sign from the other colleagues, or they will sign it a day earlier.
Still, Six Sigma Quality doesnt have only positive elements. It is trying to involve all employees in the process of quality, there are seminars, where people are taught how to work effectively.They are taught about effective working, which, in most of the cases is the common sense. Alone the General Electrics Company (GE) is going to invest $550 M only in the year 1999 for the Six Sigma Program. (Manager Magazine, October 1999). Since GE had 293.000 employees in the year 1998, the cost for each employee comes up to $ 1.706. Since we have to consider that not all the employees are willing to take part on the seminar. Some of the people view that the Six Sigma Quality is forcing people to do lots of seminars on what is the common sense saying. Simply it is sometimes viewed as a pure waste of time, because the participation on these seminars takes a lot of time. The other disadvantages include another stress for the employees who are running the quality program and also for the employees who have to be in the program. Very often the idea is not bad at all, but the employees simply do not have time to complete the tasks.

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Barristers are highly qualified members of the legal practice who understand and interpret the law. Barristers in independent practice are sole practitioners. Barristers’ practice in-groups know as chambers, sharing clerks, essential services and office accommodation, but they remain in competition with each other throughout their careers. Barristers fulfill two closely related functions. The first is Advocacy for an enormous variety of clients in all courts and tribunals. The second is to provide specialist advice in specific areas of law such as criminal, family or commercial law.

The Barristers work comes from solicitors and also from other professionals such as accountants, surveyors, and from foreign lawyers. The principal function of barristers is to appear in court and represent clients and plead their cases and advice generally on legal problems. An essential rule of practice that every barrister complies with is that any work that is offered in a barristers field of practice must be accepted if the barrister is free to take it. Related Occupations to a Barrister would be a Lawyer, Crown Prosecution Service, Solicitor, lawyer, Central government, Lawyer, Magistrates court.

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The Barristers work involves understanding and interpreting the law, mastering briefs, researching points of law, writing opinions and advising solicitors and other professions. In litigation preparing cases, presenting arguments in court, examining and cross-examining witnesses. The key skills common to all barristers is to absorb information quickly, memorising complex facts and working under pressure. The job requires barristers to like dealing with people and helping them with their problems. The legal profession also requires them to be able to communicate a good standard of spoken and written English as well as able to take on responsibility. A high level of integrity and
Discretion is essential as they have access to sensitive information.

Typical working hours involves regular unsociable hours. The work place can be court, chambers or home. The work takes place in all major towns. Starting salary range is from 10,000 – 20,000 but at the age of forty the salary can be anywhere in the region of 99,000 – 150,000 the end salary depends on the nature of clients, Legal aid work pays less but earnings in London are likely to be higher.

They require an in house computerised database of both reported and unreported cases, which may be searched to enable relevant cases to be identified. E.g. Westminster C.C. v Haywood 1997 2 All E.R. 84, C.A.

The Barrister I interviewed said she would like in future to incorporate a relational database to make storing of data much more convenient and accessible for reference as well as for statistical analyst.

Another area she brought up as a concern to her was the financial, marketing, advertising, promotional and casework information management side of her profession. I suggested a computerised system to aid her with her casework and financial management. I suggested that an out of house agency to manage her Marketing, Advertising and promotional information management side of her business.
The general information needs of her profession are:
Case Information, profession service/details, reports, information and product protection, new laws and legislation in force, client history, and criminal records.

Implications for Information Management
The Barrister I interview for this assignment expressed a need for assistance in terms of information support. Especially with technology, she told me she lacked sufficient time in her working day and knowledge about computers to make effective use of the resources available. It wasn’t possible to take time away from her current work to start learning the very basics of some of the complicated new technology and software available on the market for law professionals. Having someone go and research for me what I want would be a great aid to me in my job.

The expense of on-line retrieval databases available commercially to the legal profession cost a great deal more, therefore practitioners tend not to subscribe to on-line services as tariffs charged and the time taken to search puts many practitioners off investing in this new resource. However the advantages of having up-to-date information at the tip of your fingers out weights the disadvantages.

Many Organisations have set up business to exploit this niche, by providing a service to solicitors and Barristers with evidence and information to achieve more positive results. An example of


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