Networking

Networking THE PEARL by John Steinbeck. Written in 1940 and published in 1947, The Pearl is another of Steinbecks novels, which tells the great American dream. The English he uses, as in most of his books, is fairly simple. The message that he attempts to put through to the reader, which makes this short and effortlessly understandable. Steinbecks protagonists comprise of Kino, a young Mexican fisherman, and his poverty-stricken family, consisting of Juana (his wife) and Coyotito (his baby boy). The story begins set in the bare darkness of the interior of Kinos mud hut, where the family awakens before the dawning of each day to perform their retual of preparing and eating corn cakes-the familys staple.

Their living quarters is situated next to the Gulf of Mexico, where Kino would go out to dive for oysters and catch his familys next meal. Every single day he dreams of finding the great pearl, whom everybody believes, will make him rich. It is the incident of his sons illness that puts the fire and sense of urgency in his heart to search for the prized object. The author drawn comparison to the American dream: To gain material wealth, obtain success. Ironically, when Kino does find the Pearl, it is to his great disappointment, too large and virtually worthless.

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Kino, as a character, is represented by Steinbeck, as the general American public of his day, where innocent victims compromise their moral values. His dream blinds him to greed and suspicions of his neighbors. Even Juana, is unable to temper his obsession and the events leading to tragedy. Kino eventually comes to realize that material wealth is nothing when you vision of good and evil. John Steinbeck was able to write The Pearl in the style of a folktale by keeping it short.

By doing that, he made it is easier to keep in the memory, to pass it down to the next generation. Storys characters are common everyday people. They are not in the upper class, but they are hard working-class laborers, it makes the story closer to people. They are able to relate to the characters and how the characters feel. Also it provides a moral lesson which gives parents a reason to pass it down to their children. Steinbeck himself said that in The Pearl, ..perhaps everyone takes his own meaning from it and reads his own life into it.

That means that it does not matter who hears the story, they will each get something out of it. Steinbeck made it exciting, which appeals to the listener and keeps them focussed on the story and wanting to hear more. By using these simple techniques, Steinbeck achieved his goal in writing a true folktale. In The Pearl, Steinbeck kept referring to songs. These were songs that Kino learned as a boy in the camp that they created for everything they saw, thought or did. There were songs for every aspect of his life: family, evil, the enemy, and eventually the pearl.

They represented the good and the evil. But the Song of the Pearl was different. At the start of the story Kino said, but no new songs were added. However, the Song of the Pearl was added, and Kino placed in it whatever he could see in the pearl. At the start he saw in the pearl his family and all the things he could buy for them when he sold the pearl.

So because of what he saw, the Song of the Pearl became the same as the Song of the Family. But soon the song changed. As Kino began to doubt and became afraid after he could not sell the pearl, the Song of Evil slowly took over and replaced the Song of the Family inside the pearl. Kino could not even see his own nice visions in the pearl, but all he saw was his own death. Evil was brought into the story very early on as the scorpion stung the baby.

Good won over again as the swelling diminished with Juanas love and the seaweed remedy. After Kino found the pearl, evil began to take over. Greed, jealousy, arose in the town as everyone wanted the pearl and its money for them selves. Kino and Juana tried to get away from the evil but found that the evil was in the pearl. It had brought out the worst in everyone, even Kino as he struck his wife for trying to throw it away. Evil had won until the ultimate sacrifice was made and Kino and Juana lost their child, the very thing they were trying to protect.

Not until the pearl had been thrown away did the evil die down. I believe that the book had the greatest impact on my life. The Pearl changed my thinking about life. It taught me that money is not everything, it is practically nothing. Family is more important that any material possession could ever be. Although it seems odd to say money isnt everything, it is true. It is true that you cannot live without money, but your life revolves around your money, you might as will not live.

No one can truly live with only money. The Pearl taught me to always love my family dearly, also to never let my love for something material be greater than that for my family. Those statements are bold ones that I believe are true about this Novel and real life. If you do not have any love for you family, how can you love anything at all? How could you possibly love something material more that your family? As unconceivable as they sound, they are both very good questions without an answer. The Pearl helped me look at what is really important in life, not money and objects, but people and family. Bibliography John Steinbeck.

The Pearl. John Steinbeck 02/14/2000 http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/johnstei.htm.

networking

networking: Ever since the days of the Pony Express, people have looked
to getting information, whether personal or business, to its intended receiver
as soon as possible.
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networking
Ever since the days of the Pony Express, people have looked to getting
information, whether personal or business, to its intended receiver as soon as
possible. The computer has evolved as a communications super-tool, enabling
people to do just that. Networking has given individuals the power to transfer
ideas, reports, and files quickly and efficiently. Networks also grant the power
to business professionals and families to conference with voice and video from
their individual offices or homes. These abilities have made networking
invaluable to many people in many different areas; however, networking can be
limited to a small geographic region or even a single building and still have
tremendous benefits. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network of interconnected
workstations sharing the resources of a single processor or server within a
relatively small geographic area. LANs can be found in offices, schools,
throughout whole buildings, and even dispersed throughout several buildings.

Throughout these local networks, people are able to share files of information,
communicate, and connect different departments to maximize efficiency. A LAN is
comprised of several pieces of hardware that enable connectivity of the network;
these include network interface cards, servers, bridges, repeaters, and hubs. A
LAN can be comprised of all of these parts and more, but can also be constructed
of less hardware. The hardware components of a specific network depend on the
needs of the network. A network interface card physically connects a computer to
a transmission medium used on a network and controls the flow of information
from the computer to the network. A network interface card has its own unique
hardware address that is embedded upon its manufacturing. The hardware address
is used to identify each NIC when information is being sent or received over a
network. These cards are installed directly into the expansions slots of a
computer and in the case of portable computers require a specialized device
called a network adapter. Network interface cards have ports that are used to
connect the card to the transmission medium used throughout the network.

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Different types of cards are designed to accept a certain type of transmission
medium or network cable, which in turn determines the amount of information and
the speed at which that information can be sent. The NIC also contains a
transceiver, which converts the computer output signal into a signal that can be
transmitted over cable. In some instances a network interface card may also
contain a boot chip, which enables a drive-less computer to access a network.

Different cards are designed for different purposes, one type of card can be
used by a client workstation solely to connect that computer to a network, while
others are used by network servers that are specifically designed to transfer
large amounts of information. A hub is a device used to concentrate and organize
network wiring. There are two basic types of hubs, active and passive. A passive
hub is simply a device that allows wiring connections in an orderly way. It
requires no power, and does no processing or regeneration of the traffic coming
through it. Another type of hub is an active hub, which contains circuitry that
can filter, amplify and control the traffic going through it. Hubs may also
contain additional utilities, such as bridging, manageability, and repeaters.

Active hubs are based on an extension of the network repeater. It does this by
accepting network traffic on its input side, and then amplifying the signal on
its output, allowing it to travel farther. A hub is a multi-port repeater.

Physically, it appears as a box with one input port and a number of output ports
that are typically wired to end-user workstation connections, although servers
and other devices can be attached as well. Signals on any port are transmitted
to all the other ports. Although a basic hub provides a way to organize cable
wiring, it does not segment or organize network traffic in any way. Hubs are
used in the design and implementation of a coherent and easily managed network
cabling system. In a typical design, a company may run cabling from a wall plate
in each user’s cubicle to a central wiring closet on each floor of the building.

These cables, known as station drops are each connected to a port on the wiring
hub. The hubs on each floor are then connected to the network backbone, which
runs from floor to floor in each wiring closet. This divides the network into
logical and physical groupings that simplifies troubleshooting and network
growth. Because of the signal boosting performed by the hub, it can also extend
the physical scope of the network. A recent innovation is the concept of the
switching hub. A switching hub basically bridges the output as well as the input
ports on the hub. With this arrangement, traffic from a port will not pass to
the hub unless it needs to access a different port than it came in on. If it
needs to pass across the hub to reach its destination, it only passes between
the two ports it needs, and is isolated from the rest of the ports. This cuts
down unnecessary traffic on all network segments attached to the hub, improving
the capacity and speed of the network. A bridge is used to interconnect two or
more similar LANs or to divide a large network into smaller more manageable
ones. Splitting of a large network with a bridge increases the efficiency of the
network and reduces the chances of an overload. A bridge is able to increase
effectiveness of two connected networks because it only passes information is
bound for the “far side” of the bridge if necessary. There are two
types of bridges, simple and learning. A simple bridge receives packets of
information and retransmits them to all ports until that packet reaches the
correct one. A learning bridge reads, stores, and learns the addresses of each
computer on the network. The learning bridge then constructs a table to
efficiently route packets to the correct port, without wasting resources sending
each packet to every port. If a packet comes through the bridge intended for a
destination not recorded on the bridging table, the bridge sends the packet out
to all ports and records the accepting destination. A repeater is a device that
extends the length of transmission media over which network information is
passed. A repeater accepts network input, amplifies the signal, and retransmits
the information. Repeaters are especially useful when a network is cabled
throughout a large building, over several floors. They are also able to filter
out interference or distortion before retransmission, but are unable to operate
efficiently when attempting to transfer huge amounts of information. A repeater
is a simple device contained in a stand alone box or within a hub
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Networking

Networking For my independent study, I have created a network in my house. A network by definition are more than one computer that are linked together electronically via a protocol (common language) so the computers can communicate and share resources. This network improves the day-to-day life by adding value and usefulness to the computers. The processes and ideas that I have learned thru this experience can be applied directly into today’s rich electronic business environment. Identifying the needs of the user is the first step for building a well-designed Network.

A professional installation was needed to maintain the aesthetics of the rental house. Most of the wires are run in the attic and then down plastic conduit attached to the wall. The conduit is run all the way to the wall boxes where the Ethernet ports are located. Every wire is clearly labeled and included in an easy to read schematic of the house. This way future tenants will have the ability to utilize the network.

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Next, every room needed to have access to the network. In order to minimize the overall use of wires, hubs were placed in strategic locations. An 8-port 10/100-megabit auto-sensing hub is located in the computer room and a 5 port 10-megabit in the sound room. There, needed to be docking stations, so laptop users or visiting computers could easily plug into the network and utilize the pre-existing monitor, keyboard, and mouse. These are the basic needs that have been put into the design of the network.

Each computer setup is unique with certain strengths and weaknesses. The network takes advantage of the strengths of each individual computer and makes them available to all users. A network essentially expands the capabilities of each computer by increasing functionality thru resource sharing. In the house, there are a total of four computers and two laptops. Processing speed and an abundance of ram is not essential for a server with such low traffic.

Thus the most antiquated computer was elected for this function. Between all the computers, we have several extra pieces of hardware such as a zip drive, CDRW, DVD ROM, scanner, and multiple printers. Each piece of hardware is dispersed between the computers. There were several immediate efficiencies that occurred when the network went operational. The zip drive is located on the server while the CDRW is located on one of the individual workstations.

Previously, if the need arose to burn some information stored on the zip disk to a CD, the individual computers were practically worthless for this task. However, with the network, one can map a network drive on the computer with the CDRW to the zip drive on the server. This allows information to be efficiently transferred from the zip drive to a CD. In addition, the server also has a scanner attached to it. The problem is that the server is too slow to handle sophisticated photo editing software. Now an image can be scanned on to the server and then a faster computer can be used to edit it. There are 3 different printers, each varies in quality, speed, and maintenance costs.

The most expensive one is reserved for only making color photos, and the other two are used for everyday printing, one of which is much faster and has more reliable paper feeding. A user can easily choose a printer depending on their needs. This network takes full advantage of each computer through resource sharing which ads tremendous value for its users. In Business it is important in any network to be able to restrict access to individuals private files or directories. Security would demand that not all users would be allowed access to highly confidential information.

There is other information that would be made available to other users on a read only basis. The same is true of the users in my network. Microsoft developed NT to be very secure. Most of this security is devoted to protecting network resources and the filing system (NTFS). The administrator decides who gets access to which resources by setting up users and user groups. Each person is asked to choose a user name and password.

Then the administrator identifies the needs and privileges of each individual user. Next the administrator grants users either full access, modify, change, read only, or no access at all to directories and resources on the network. In the house each roommate, trusted friend, and guest is given a user name and rights to the resources he/she needs. Roommates, as a profile group, have access to the Server’s C drive, which contains the core o/s. They are also given access to all directories on the D or storage drive except for the individual User and private directories.

The User’s Folder has a directory for each user to store personal files on the Server. The read and write rights are given only to that user, so the data in that directory is secure. A Guest account is set up for anybody to use. This account is given minimal access to resources with no ability to adjust system settings or cause adverse affects. There were four operating systems to deal with on this project.

Two laptops and one of the PC’s use windows 98 while another pc runs 2000 Advanced server, and the server uses NT 4.0 SP 6 with a dual boot of Linux Red Hat 7.0. Microsoft developed windows 98 for the home user and did not include adequate security with the FAT32 filing system. When a user logs onto a machine utilizing the windows 98 o/s, they have access to all the information on that computer and have the ability delete, change, or modify directories. In any event the server still secures the rest of the network and only grants access to the pre-determined resources. The NT and 2000 machines can be set up to allow different levels of users access inside that machine, and also restrict rights to others on the network.

On these operating systems A guest account would be denied most write privileges so they couldn’t accidentally delete important files. It is a security flaw in the network that cannot be fixed without upgrading the operating systems on machines that run windows 98. Most businesses store their vital records in the form of digital data. Keeping this data secure is a key issue. Many problems may arise that can cause the loss or corruption of data. A virus attack, system crash, hardware failure, or a natural disaster are just a few potential problems that could cause loss of information and in turn devastate a company.

It is imperative for a business to consider these possibilities and make sure they back up their data. As college students living in the technology age, we too have lots of important data stored on our computers. This information ranges from term papers to financial records that would be devastating if lost. This is even a bigger worry with laptops as they go thru the daily rigors and abuse of being transported and connected to many different networks. It only takes one bad bump (over 14 to 17 G’s of force) to break a hard drive arm and/or data reading heads to render it useless.

Possible virus threat, accidentally transmitted thru email, could corrupt a hard drive and render the O.S. useless and trash the hard drive. For all the above reasons we needed to put a system in place to back up all of our information. One of the benefits of the network is that backing up data is both fast and convenient. For example, the users in my network back up their data onto their user directory located on the server. Once a month, the user directory is burnt onto a CD.

This back up is then stored in a fireproof lockbox, where it is guaranteed to be safe. Getting into the habit of such practices is imperative for today’s I.T. professional. Connecting a network to the Internet can bring tremendous improvements in productivity, but not without posing major security issues. A network always has to be on the defense, making sure the information and systems that lie within are protected. Anybody can hack right into an unprotected network with just a little bit of knowledge.

Once inside, a hacker can access confidential information, read, write, install a virus, or delete whatever he/she sees fit. In order to prevent such attacks over the Internet, a firewall needs to be installed. A firewall is powerful defensive software that blocks unauthorized intruders from entering a network. There are many ways to configure a firewall. Generally, a firewall locks down all ports except for ports being managed by secure communication programs, such as email. It also does not allow in coming request from the Internet for network resources. Sybergate Personal Firewall has been installed on the network to protect it from outside attacks.

Once configured, I tested it at http://scan.sygatetech.com. It scans all the ports and tries some Trojans to ensure that the network is protected. Overall I view the project as being successful. The network is up and running and all the users are able to be more productive. The ability to access all the different peripherals is a real money saver for the budget conscious college student.

Personally I found the setting up of the security features and the installation of the software to be the most rewarding part of the experience. My next step in my ongoing process to improve the network is to install and configure Apache. This gives a unique opportunity to see first hand how Unix manages a network as compared to Windows. I have learned marketable job skills that I intend on applying in the interview process. I am even now considering becoming a network specialist as a career.

Computers and Internet.

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