.. s, covering other industrial sectors for a complete phase out of ODS, as well build the capacities of the various national participants of this programme. Strategy related to transboundary air pollution is not elaborated yet since Lebanon is a not a signatory of the Convention on Transboundary Air Pollution, which is still restricted to European countries. Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement Scientists, university academicians and only one NGO (Association Libanaise pour la Maitrise de lEnergie) are highly involved in (1) the Steering Committees pertaining to Climate Change and Ozone Office, (2) research programmes and (3) technical consultants. Their role is rather advisory with a high participation level.
Industries are highly involved in the Ozone Office activities as (1) target groups in phasing out ODS substances and (2) decision-makers in participating to the formulation of regulatory and legal tools. Women, children and youth are rather included in awareness raising activities, with no effect on decision-making process. Programmes and Projects No measures have been introduced yet to the industrial and agricultural sectors, although greenhouse gas emissions in Lebanon mainly come from energy activities, responsible for 85% of all CO2 emissions. Recommendations were proposed in the Technical Annex to Lebanons First National Communication carried out in the framework of activities of the GEF/UNDP Climate Chang project (1999), the outcomes of this report are still awaiting to be studied by the concerned ministries. The CO2 emissions from energy use in manufacturing industries and construction represent 24% of the energy sectors total emissions.
According to data of 1994, Lebanese manufacturers consumed 39.15 million of gegajoules of fuel for heat and power, including both the fuel used directly and the fuel burnt remotely to generate electricity. In addition to being processed by combustion, CO2 is generated in the calcination of carbonates when manufacturing cement, iron and glass. However, the Technical Annex proposed mitigation scenarios for reducing CO2 emissions at 10% discount rate. Most of the mitigation options for the industrial sector are concerned with the improvement of energy efficiency, either in the use of electricity for motors and lighting or in cleaner combustion processes in boilers and furnaces through fuel switching or replacement with efficient systems. e.g., Bakeries fuel switching from Diesel to LPG, Natural Gas replacing fuel Oil, cement reduction 10-20% with pre-heat, and so on. Regarding the agriculture sector, the same report proposed some recommendations to be adopted at the governmental, private and individual levels.
These measures are: lower population growth, sustainable and economic water use, soil fertility conservation by land reclamation, less regulations to mitigate the disintegration of estate ownership, advanced agricultural techniques used and governmental subsidence policy for social reasons. These measures were suggested based on the increasing demographic pressure on the coast and inland, urban expansion on the expense of agricultural lands, and the changes in the agricultural practices. However, it is worth mentioning that the Climate Change Project paved the way for two major programmes that would reduce emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gas, these are: (1) the establishment of the Energy efficiency Center, and (2) the Elaboration of the thermal building energy efficient guidelines. Finally, it is worth mentioning that two international programmes are targeting the conservation of Lebanese forests in Lebanon. These are (1) the Protected Area Project (GEF) administered by UNDP and implemented at the Ministry of Environment, with aim to manage and protect three reserves (out of which two are forest, Barouk Cedar Reserve with 500 km2 and the Horsh Ehden Reserve), and (2) an EU assistance to forest protection along with support to the sustainable development of forested areas in Lebanon.
This programme aims at training forest guards and engineers of the Ministry of Agriculture and the elaboration of plans for sustainable forest management. Three pilot sites of sustainable forestry have been developed successfully in three different regions of Lebanon. Status Air pollution is considered among the most serious problems in Lebanon mainly due to its increasing impacts on health (asthma and other respiratory problems) although Lebanese inhabitants are still unaware of the linkage to be made between their healthy problems and the status of the surrounding environment where they live. This pollution is resulting from the high density of people living in urban areas (around 350 inhabitants/km2) lacking the minimum needs of green cover. In addition, more than a million cars are operational in Lebanon (more than 50% in Beirut Capital with an average of 3 persons per car). It is to note that more than 65% of industries are located on the coastline highest in terms of population growth.
After the war ended, environment was not considered a priority. Therefore, building infrastructure, establishing touristic complexes, constructing marinas, licensing industries and quarries as well as expanding residential complexes were achieved on the expenses of the vegetation cover estimated now to not exceed 6% of the total Lebanese surface area. Finally, it is not to forget the bad agricultural practices (high use of pesticides, bad irrigation techniques, de-weeding causing forest fires most of the time). All these factors exert an impact on the atmosphere, some of them reflecting an immediate negative effect, others will be more visible at medium and long term. A total of 75.000 ha of forest trees (65.000 evergreen and 10.000 deciduous), as well as 50.280.000 non-forest trees, according to estimates of the final report of Lebanons First National Communication (1994). The non-forest trees include (1) 49.794.000 farm and village trees (21.980.000 of evergreen fruit and olive trees and 27.814.000 of deciduous fruit trees) (2) 486.000 urban trees (450.000 evergreen urban trees and 36.000 deciduous urban trees).
However, the report noted that forests in 1994 constituted a minor source of carbon dioxide rather than a sink due to the increasing loss of woody biomass stocks and to forest fires. Finally the total amount of Carbon dioxide emission from land-use change and forestry was estimated to 200.413225kt. CFCs drop from 1 million tons (1990) to 150.000 tons (1998-1999). Very rough estimates indicate that this volume is decomposed into 75% of the total amount trapped into refrigeration and 25% go to aerosols and foams. Changes in Methyl bromide were noticed as 297 tons (1998) to 267 tons (2000) due to decreasing availability in the market and organizing awareness campaigns.
Annex 11 maximal values to be respected during oil incineration (Incinerators of thermal value greater than 3 MW). Element Maximal valuemg/m3 Cadmium (Cd) 0.5 Nickel (Ni) 1 Chrome (Cr) + Cupper (Cu) + Vanadium (V) 1.5 Lead (Pb) 5 Chlore in HCL 100 Fluor in HF 5 Dust – Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – Source: Decision 52/1 (1996) – Annex 11: Maximum value allowed for the emissions of air pollutants resulting for used burned oils. Values to be respected during incineration of domestic waste Incinerator capacity * 3 tons/ hour 1-3 tons/ hour * 1 ton/hour Element Max. value mg/m3 Max. value mg/m3 Max. value mg/m3 Total suspended bodies 200 100 30 PB + Cr + Cu + Mn – 5 5 Ni + As – 1 1 Cd + Hg – 0.2 0.2 Cl in HCl 250 100 50 F in HF – 4 2 SO2 – 300 300 Source: Decision 52/1 (1996) – Annex 12: Maximum value allowed for the emissions of air pollutants resulting from domestic waste incineration.
Limited allowed emissions from cement factories Total suspended bodies Max. limits (mg/m3) Existing furnaces 150 Furnaces under construction 50 Cooler (in case of lack of gas recycling) 100 Grounders 50 Other installations 50 Nitrogen Oxides (NO2) Limits (mg/Nm3) Furnaces operating through dry process with heat recuperation * 1200 Furnaces operating of dry or semi-humid processes * 1500 Furnaces operating on wet process (without additional heat) * 1800 Heavy metals Limits (mg/Nm3) Cd +Ti + Hg 0.2 AS + Co + Ni + Se + Te 1 Sb + Cr + Cu + Sn + Mn + Pb + Va + Zn 5 Sources: Decision 52/1 (1996) – Annex 13: Maximum value allowed for the emissions of air pollutants emitted from cement factories; Maximum allowed values for ambient air pollutants Pollutant Maximal value UG/m3 Exposure duration Sulfur dioxide (SO2) 35012080 1 hour24 hours1 year Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 200150100 1 hour24 hours1 year Ozone (O3) 150100 1 hour8 hours Carbon monoxide (CO) 3000010000 1 hour8 hours Total suspended bodies 120 24 hours Black suspended bodies less than 10 microns (PM*10) 80 24 hours Lead 1.00 1 year Benzene 5ppb 1 year Source: Decision 52/1 (1996) – Annex 14: Maximum value allowed for ambient air pollutants Apart from establishing national protected areas, no tangible measures were detected to land-used practices, whether in the Directorate General for Urban Planning or at the Ministries concerned by the transport system and the industrial sector. It is hoped that the Integrated Coastal Area Management Programme in Lebanon financed by the Mediterranean Action Plan and executed at the Ministry of Environment will assist in demonstrating an effective and integrated land-use planning that would reduce harmful effect on human and natural resources in the country (expected to be launched in early 2001). In 1992, Lebanon used 886.6 ODP Tons of ODS, equivalent to 0.23 kg per capita. In 1993, Lebanon imported and used 923.1 ODP Tons of ODS, equivalent to 0.24 Kg per capita. Between 1992 and 1998, the consumption decreased to 536.82 Tons equivalent to 0.13 per capita consumption. The main substances used are CFC 11, CFC 12.
There is no ODS production in Lebanon. Measures are being done to phase out ODS consumed in the industrial sector. Progress has been made in phasing out these substances from 41 refrigerator companies, 12 major manufacturers of domestic and industrial air-conditioning equipment, 9 foam companies, 8 aerosol companies. Some refrigeration and air-conditioning maintenance companies have already introduced some reduced ODP substances like HCFC 22 as refrigerants. Some foam producers in Lebanon have been starting to use water as a blowing agent. Some activities are taking place to protect forests and marine resources through the establishment of protected areas (five protected areas by-law, and other ten areas by ministerial decree) and regulating the fishery sector (e.g. ban of dynamite use). Unfortunately, these activities are still not widely applicable and lack an integrated strategy and an action plan to be put in place, adopted, implemented and above all, to be enforced by the concerned national authorities. The baseline for this strategy and the action plan are already proposed in the Technical Annex to Lebanons First National Communication.
This Annex pointed out to forest areas as the main proportion of land considered as greenhouse gas sinks. Based on statistics of the year 1994, forest land consist of land covered with forest with two levels of crown density cover (1) more than 40% and (2) from 10 to 40%, and wasteland where the crown cover is less than 10%. Wasteland includes woodlands and rangelands covering 60.000 and 147.000 hectares respectively in year 1994. To increase greenhouse sinks, the following mitigation options should be adopted: – The protection and conservation of natural forests and the improvement of forest management; and – Increasing the bio-mass density of existing and under-stocked forests, through increasing of the area of more than 40% crown cover from 32.000 ha in 1994 to 55.000 ha by year 2040; – The reforestation of 38.000 ha of woodlands up to the year 2040. Challenges The study made on Air pollution in Lebanon made by Harvard Institute in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment showed some measures on polluted air in Beirut. These results could be summarized as follows: – A severe pollution in lead reaching 8 micrograms/m3, while the maximum allowed international rate is 1.5 micrograms/m3, micrograms/m3, due to the fact that 85% of drivers are still using leaded fuel. – 44% of the blood samples taken at the American University of Beirut showed an amount of lead exceeding 16 micrograms/ deciliter, while the international allowed rate is 10 micrograms/deciliter; – pollution with particulates reaching the double; – pollution with ozone gas due to the transport system; – Pollution with other gases such as carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide.
On the other hand, the same study pointed out to some facts relative to health impact of air pollution in Beirut. According to the study, 1 million inhabitants live in Beirut (out of 3.5 million in Lebanon), and the estimated number of deaths is 28.700 per year in all of Lebanon and 8.200 persons in Beirut. Out of 150.000 health cases admitted to Hospitals in Beirut, 15% are admitted for diseases affected by air pollution. However no break down by age, sex or diagnosis is available. Finally, all studies on air pollution are still concentrated on cities rather than rural areas due to the severity of cases reached in urban areas.
The main problems could be summarized in the: *p class=MsoNormal style=margin-left:.25in;text-align:justify;text-ka shida: 0%;text-indent:-. Science Essays.