.. fers to communicate in creative ways. Table 3 shows words that are normally associated with each of these two preferences. How do you prefer to make decisions? Do you prefer on the basis of logic and objective considerations or on the basis of personal values? If it is on the basis of logic and objective considerations, it is called thinking, denoted by the letter T. If it is on the basis of personal values, it is called feeling, denoted by the letter F.
Table 4 lists words often associated with each of the two preferences. How do you prefer to organize your life? Do you prefer in a structured way, making decisions and knowing where you stand or in a flexible way, discovering life as you go along? If it is in a structured way, making decisions and knowing where you stand, then it is called judgment. If it is in a flexible way, discovering life as you go along – this is called perception. Someone whose preference is judgment prefers, in their lifestyle, to make decisions. This means that they prefer to make decisions about what to do, where to go, what to say, and so on.
As a result of these decisions, their lifestyle appears organized. Someone whose preference is perception prefers, in their lifestyle, to learn or experience new things. This means that they prefer to find out more, rather than making decisions, and are more comfortable when they keep their options open. As a result of this openness, they can appear flexible. Table 5 lists words often associated with each of the two preferences.
Combining these four preferences produces a personality type, such as ENFP (Extroversion, Intuition, Feeling, and Perceiving) or ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging). The model is useful for a wide range of applications, including: interpersonal skills development, self-awareness, career counseling, psychotherapy, team building and many other areas. However, as with all personality questionnaires, the results can be wrong. All questionnaires recognized by the psychological establishments have reliability and validity research, which shows how wrong on average, they can be. The questionnaire can provide valuable information, but the real value of the Myers-Briggs model of personality is in deciding your Myers-Briggs type for yourself. Everyone’s personality reflects all aspects of the Myers Briggs model.
You use extroversion as well as introversion, sensing as well as intuition, thinking as well as feeling, and judgment as well as perception. However, the Myers Briggs model implies that each person naturally tends to choose, where the opportunity allows, one of each of the four preferences, though the strength of that preference may vary. The letters that represent your preferences are combined to produce your Myers Briggs Type, such as ENTJ. An ENTJ prefers extroversion, intuition, thinking and judgment. The ENTJ is likely to feel energized by having lots of things going on (E). He will tend to interpret events by seeing patterns or overviews (N). He will tend to make decisions on the basis of logic (T).
And he organizes life on a logical basis (J). There are sixteen possible ways to combine the preferences, resulting in the sixteen MBTI types. The MBTI is appropriate for adults and high school students who can read at least on the eighth grade level. Translations of the test are being developed in a several other countries. Until carefully validated translations are available, caution should be used in interpreting the MBTI to non-English-speaking people (McCaulley, 1995). However, it has been reported that people in other countries have found the description of their type useful.
The MBTI is published in three forms. Form F consists of 166 items. Form G consists of 126 items. Form AV is the abbreviated version, which is self-scoring and only consists of 50 items. If you take the MBTI in a classroom setting you will most likely be taking Form AV.
It is designed for group situations. It is not recommended when an accurate assessment of type is needed. It consists of the first 50 items from Form G. It is self-scoring. About 75% of the time, people`s personality type comes out the same whether using Form G or Form AV.
Form G is the standard form of the test. Form F is only recommended when the counselor or researcher is willing to share their Form F answers. Form F is used in ongoing research of the MBTI. Basically the MBTI is self-administering. Most all instructions are found on the cover to the booklet.
Circles need to be filled in correctly, and only one answer given. There is no time limit but test takers should not study the items at length. If the question is not understood, omissions are permitted. Some people will have trouble finding the correct frame of mind for answering the MBTI. People have a work self, school self, ideal self, or other self that they may be referring to while answering the questions. McCaulley says that the frame of reference that is desired in respondents is what has been termed as the shoes-off self.
The shoes-off self- fosters an attitude in which one functions naturally, smoothly, and effortlessly, and is not going -against the grain-. The function of the MBTI is to provide the first step toward understanding one-s natural preference. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is now the most widely used personality test designed for normal individuals, with an estimated two to three million administrations annually (Carskadon, 1994). Advantages include a relatively modest expense; an intuitive appeal to a great many students and teachers- key concepts that are readily understood, communicated, and applied; abundant availability of supporting resources; relevance to and use in a broad range of fields, including education, counseling, business/management, communication, psychology, and religion; and a positive, non-pejorative emphasis?no type is conceptualized as globally -better- than any other, and usually everyone feels that he or she got the best one (Carskadon, 1994). Therefore, use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can help people to identify their current strengths and future growth potentials, as well as giving them a better understanding of personality so they can appreciate the differences between themselves and others.
Bibliography References Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Association for Psychological Type. (2000). What is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)? Retrieved April 7, 2000 from APT on-line database on the World Wide Web: http://www.aptcentral.org/aptmbtiw.htm Carskadon, T.G. (1994). Student Personality Factors: Psychological Type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
In Prichard, K.W. & Sawyer, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of College Teaching: Theory and Applications. (69-81). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
McCaulley, M.H. & Myers, I.B. (1985). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. State of Ohio. (1998, December).
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Retrieved April 8th 2000 from Director of Human Resources on the World Wide Web: http://www.state.oh.us/DAS/dhr/mbti.html.