Mozart

Mozart was born on January 27th, 1756. He was born to Leopold and Anna Maria Mozart. He had a sister named Maria Anna Mozart, who was also musically talented. Mozart was a young boy who showed talent from the beginning of his life. He never attended a proper school, which was a custom for children of that time. Instead of going to school, he was taught by his father who was a respectable man in Salzburg. His father held many professions such as concertmaster for the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg; violinist, composer and author. At the age of six, Mozart had become a performer on the clavier, violin, and organ. He was also skilled in sight-reading and improvisation. There are have piano pieces that were composed by Mozart when he was six years old and are still frequently played today. One of the pieces are “Twinkle Twinkle.” When he’s sister was at the age of ten and he at the age of six, their father took them to Munich and Vienna to play a series of concerts. In 1763, Leopold Mozart took a leave from his position at Salzburg court to take his family on a tour of Western Europe. Mozart and his sister performed in the major musical centers, including Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mainz, Frankfurt, Brussels, Paris, London, and Amsterdam. The family did not return to Salzburg until 1766. During that period of time touring, Mozart began to compose longer pieces with more structure and skill in them. He completed his first symphony at the age of nine and publishing his first sonatas in the same year. In 1769, Mozart and his father left the rest of the family to tour Italy for more than a year. They spent sufficient time in Rome, Milan, Florence, Naples, and Bologna. Mozart got to experience the taste of another culture. During those years, Wolfgang completed an opera called “Ro di Ponto,” which was celebrated in Italy. The same year, Mozart was appointed concertmaster to the Archbishop of Salzburg, and later in the same here, the Pope made him a chevalier of the Order of the Golden Spur. He also completed his first German operetta called, “Bastien une Bastienne,” in the same year. At the age of fourteen, Mozart was commissioned to write a serious opera. This work was called, “Mitridate, re di Ponto.” While Mozart was touring in Italy, the Archbishop of Salzburg died, and Hieronymus, count von Colleredo was the successor. This man cared little for music, and looked down upon Mozart. After five years of composing music for almost no money, Mozart obtained a leave of absence for a concert tour. In 177, he left with his mother for Munich. The courts of Europe ignored the twenty-one year old composer in his search for a more congenial and rewarding appointment. This was hard for Mozart, and at the same period of time his mother fell ill. His father, Leopold order his wife and Mozart to go to Paris. In Paris on July 1779, his mother died. He returned to Salzburg in 1779 and composed two masses and numerous symphonies, sonatas, and concertos. His work started to gain a unique style, and a completely mature understanding of musical media. In 1781, Mozart has a success of an Italian opera series called, “Idomeneo, re di Creta,” prompted the new successor to the Archbishop of Salzburg to invite Mozart to his palace in Vienna. A series of court intrigues and his exploitation at the hands of the court soon forced Mozart to leave. Friends rented the house in Vienna for him, Mozart hoped to sustain him by teaching. During this time, he composed a singspiel called, “The Adduction from Seraglio,” which was requested by Emperor Joseph the Second in 1782. When the Mozart family made their tip to Italy in 1769, they were introduced to the Webers. Franz Weber was a musician from Austria, living in Italy. He has a wife and two children who were named Constanze and Aloysia. Mozart loved this family, but his father disliked them for some reason. Mozart’s father didn’t want Mozart to be around this family, but Mozart dismissed his father’s wishes for and consorted with the two girls often. Being old enough to go off on his own, the trips made to Italy were partly because of the Weber girls. After many letters between Mozart and the Weber girls, Mozart decided to ask Aloysia Weber for her hand in marriage. Mozart’s father was furious at him and saying that the Weber girls would bring nothing but grief to his son, grief to his whole family. Mozart didn’t care about what his father said and asked Aloysia to marry him, and she said yes. The wedding day of Aloysia and Mozart came along, and many people came to the ceremony; including Aloysia’s sister Constanze, and Mozart’s father who came against his wishes. The wedding was looked like it could have gone perfect until Aloysia rejected the issued vows. Mozart was embarrassed, more so because his father had been proven right than because of his personal losses. For many years the Weber and Mozart families did not speak to each other. A year after the marriage incident, Mozart beings to once again visit the family, who have now moved to Vienna. On December 15th, 1781 Mozart informs his father on his marriage plans, and his father was enraged. He never liked his son’s acquaintance with the Webers. Mozart thinks his father is being unfair about the whole matter, and leaves Salzburg for Vienna to be married. On August 4th, 1782 Mozart marries Aloysia in St. Stephen’s Cathedral. Mozart’s father refuses his son’s invitation to the wedding, so does Aloysia. The couple moved into a house in Vienna together and had six children, two of which survived. The two surviving children were named Franz Xavier, and Karl Thomas Mozart. Sickness and poverty plague the family until the day of Mozart’s death. Seven years after Mozart’s death, Constanze married another man. Mozart and his family moved often in Vienna. Prior to his marriage, Mozart moved to the house called, “Zum roten Sabel,” where he had lived as a twelve-year old. A few months later, he lived at Wipplingerstrasse 14, at Kohlmarkt 7, and at Judenplatz 3-4. In 1784, Mozart moved to one of the most representative houses in Vienna called, “Trattnerhof.” At the ceremonial hall of the Trattnerhof house, Mozart’s piano concertos K449, 450, and 451 were premiered. Mozart’s only home in Vienna preserved until today is the “Figarohaus,” which is located behind St. Stephen’s Cathedral. Mozart lived there from October 1784 until April 1787. It’s where he played his most mature compositions. Joseph Haydn paid visited here; Mozart dedicated six string quartets to him. Mozart Becomes a Freemason In December 1784, Mozart became an “apprentice” in the Masonic lodge called, “Zur Wohltatigkeit.” In this lodge, he became a “visiting brother.” After a month, he became a “journeyman.” His “Masonic compositions” are his contributions to certain Masonic celebrations. From January 1786, Mozart was a member of the lodge called, “Zur Neugekronten Hoffnung.” The Death of a Genius: Mozart was an extremely talented man who died at a very young age. Many different rumors were circulated about his death. Many of people even accused his long time rival Aontonio Salieri of murder. These allegations were not pursued, but to this day, no one knows the cause of his death. Some scientists say that he had Typhoid fever, others claim that “rheumatic inflammatory fever” was the cause of his death; but the secret of his death will never are known. The key to Mozart’s death was buried with him on December 5th, 1791, in an unmarked grave, as was customary for those of his social standing, in Vienna. Maria Anna “Nannerl” Mozart: Born: Salzburg, July 30/31 1751 Died: Salzburg, October 29, 1829 Maria was a gifted musician whose abilities were quickly overshadowed by her younger brother, Mozart. At first, Maria was seen as the musical equivalent of Wolfgang, half of a sister-brother act that toured the capitals of Europe. In 1765 in London, she received top billing in concert advertisements written by her father. That changed when the children grew older. Because Mozart was the younger of the two, and because he preformed his own compositions, Mozart became the star and Nannerl the supporting player. Mozart thought highly of his sister’s ability. In September 1781 he wrote to her from Vienna: “…believe me, you could earn a great deal of money in Vienna, by playing private concerts and giving piano lessons. You would be very much in demand — and you would be well paid.” But it was not to be. Nannerl indeed became a piano teacher, but in “this dull Salzburg,” as she called it. In the wake of her brother’s perceived rebellion, she surrendered control of her life to her father — even her choice of suitors who, one by one, were turned away by Leopold. In 1784, she married the magistrate John Baptist Franz von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg and moved to St. Gilgen; but she returned to Salzburg to give birth to her first son, and left the newborn there in Leopold’s care. Nannerl eventually grew more distant from Mozart, especially after his marriage to Constanze Weber. Their next time they met where after Leopold’s death, there affections for each other had all disappeared. Mozart’s brief letters to her dealt almost exclusively with the disposition of their father’s estate. After her husband’s death, Maria Anna returned to Salzburg and supported herself once again by giving piano lessons. When she died she was buried in the family plot next to Leopold where 13 years later Constanze would join her. Leopold Mozart: Born: Augsburg, November 14, 1719 Died: Salzburg, May 28, 1787 History has not been nice to Leopold Mozart. Biographers criticize him for being an overprotective and exploitative parent. Psychoanlysis detected a darker pattern of manipulation in Leopold’s relationship with his children, especially his relationship with his son. On stage and screen, scriptwriters present a picture of a narrow-minded, domineering old man. “On Whit Monday the 28th, in the year 1787, early, died our Vice Kapellmeister Leopold Mozart,” wrote family friends Dominicus Hagenauer in his diary. “He was born at Augsburg and spent most of the days of his life in the service of the Court here, but had the misfortune of being always persecuted here and was not as much favored by a long way as in other, larger places in Europe.” Musicologists are less willing to criticize Leopold. If his famous son had not overshadowed him, he would still be remembered as a talented composer and a gifted teacher. His treatise on musical instruction, Volinschule, was first published in 1756, eventually translated into several languages and became a standard test throughout Europe. He was also Mozart’s first and most influential mentor. Everything he knew, he taught to his son. Leopold was born on November 14, 1719, the son of Johann Georg Mozart who was a bookbinder, and his wife, Anna Maria, in the city of Augsburg. Leopold received his early education from the Jesuits in the Gymnasium and Lyceum. He may have been destined for a career in the church; but he abandoned it upon the death of his father and in 1737 enrolled at the University of Salzburg. His studies there got off to a fine start. He passed a difficult examination at the end of his first year and was commended for his work. But perhaps the change to a secular course of study, and the move from Augburg, wasn’t enough to satisfy Leopold’s rebellious spirit. His academic performance slipped, and in 1739 he was expelled from the university. He made his own way in life by entering the service of Count Johann of Thurn-Valsassina und Taxis, a canon of the cathedral, and was given the tittle of Kammerdiener, or valet de chambre. But his duties were one of a musician. Within a few years, he was accepted as a chamber musician into the orchestra of the Prince-Archbishop. Being assured of a steady income, he married Anna Maria Partl in the cathedral on November 21, 1747 when he was 28 years old and his bride was 27. These two were a good match because years later it would be recalled that, “The two Mozart parents were in their day the handsomest couple in Salzburg.” Leopold would write from Italy on the occasion of their silver anniversary: “Today is the anniversary of our wedding day. It was twenty-five years ago, I think, that we had the sensible idea of getting married, one, which we had cherished, it is true, for many years. All good things take time!” The Mozart had seven children, five of which died in infancy. The two that survived were called Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia and Johann Chrysostom Wolfgang Gottlieb, proved to be a musical prodigy. Leopold’s own musical activity decreased as he became aware of his children’s talents and assumed the multiple roles of parent, teacher, collaborator and manager. He stopped composing and neglected his professional duties altogether to devote himself more fully to his children’s musical development. Of the five prince-archbishops that Leopold would serve in his 44 years in the court orchestra, two would greatly affect his career and that of his son. Count Sigismund Christoph Schrattenbach was fond of music. He appointed Leopold vice-Kapellmeister in 1763 and gave him much freedom to promote his son’s career. Agreeing with Schrattenbach’s blessing, Leopold and his family embarked on several trips including a “grand tour” of more than three years that took them as far as Paris and London. Count Hieronymus Colloredo elected archbishop in 1772, was personally very fond of music but slow to rationalize its use in his court and church. He also had a dictatorial temperament and booked no criticism. He treated the court musicians as servants, and would make no exceptions. This didn’t go well with Leopold, who by nature was resentful and suspicious of authority. His overriding goal became to secure employment for his son outside of Salzburg. In 1777, Colbredo refused to give Leopold leave to accompany his son on a job-hunting trip to Germany and France. Leopold made every effort to manage the tour by letter from Salzburg; he soon began to lose control of events. First, in Mannheim, Mozart tarried and fell head over heels in love with Aloysia Weber. Leopold saw this love a threat and urged Mozart to continue on to France. Second, in Paris, Anna Maria became ill and died. Leopold had a hard time comprehending his loss. He wrote: “It is mysteriously sad when death severs a very happy marriage — you have to experience it before you can realize it.” Third: the bond between him and his son been damaged. Leopold made it clear that he held Mozart responsible for Anna Maria’s death. Yet after his wife’s death, he realizes that he needed his son more than ever. After Mozart returned to Salzburg, he would do everything in his power to keep him there. Mozart was defying his father as well, a fact that became clear when he courted and married Constanze Weber against Leopold’s advice. At last, Leopold gave his consent, but he and his son both knew that is was only a matter of form. Mozart, who usually closed his letters to his father with the words “I am your most obedient son,” virtually stopped writing to him, because he became very busy with his own family and career. In his letters to Nannerl, Leopold stopped referring Mozart by name but by calling him, “my son” or “your brother.” In the fall of 1783, Mozart and Constanze went to see Leopold to set things right, and there is some evidence that Leopold’s attitude towards his son and daughter-in-law softened somewhat when he visited them in early 1785. In Vienna Leopold was able to experience Mozart’s popularity at its peak. “We never get to bed before one o’clock and I never get up before nine,” he complained in a letter home to Nannerl. “We lunch at two or half past. The weather is horrible. Every day there are concerts; and the whole time is given up to teaching, music, composing and so forth. I feel father out of it all. If only the concerts were over! It is impossible for me to describe the rush and bustle. Since my arrival your brother’s fortepiano has been taken at least a dozen times to the theatre or to some other house.” Earlier, Leopold had proudly recounted a conversation with Fraz Josef Haydn, one of the most respected composers on the continent: “: “Haydn said to me: ‘Before God and as an honest man, I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name. He has taste and, what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition.’ ” Shortly before Leopold’s departure from Vienna, he was admitted to Mozart’s Masonic lodge. Now they were more than father and son, they were like “brothers,” and it was in this spirit that Mozart would write to Leopold as he lay dying in Salzburg: “”This very moment I have received a piece of news which greatly distresses me, the more so as I gathered from your last letter that, thank God, you were very well indeed. But now I hear that you are really ill. I need hardly tell you how greatly I am longing to receive some reassuring news from yourself. And I still expect it; although I have now made a habit of being prepared in all affairs of life for the worst. As death, when we come to consider it closely, is the true goal of our existence, I have formed during the last few years such close relations with this best and truest friend of mankind, that his image is not only no longer terrifying to me, but is indeed very soothing and consoling! And I thank my God for graciously granting me the opportunity (you know what I mean) of learning that death is the key which unlocks the door to our true happiness. . . . I hope and trust that while I am writing this, you are feeling better. But if, contrary to all expectation, you are not recovering, implore you by . . . not to hide it from me, but to tell me the whole truth or get someone to write it to me, so that as quickly as is humanly possible I may come to your arms. I entreat you by all that is sacred — to both of us.” Mozart would never see his father again. On Whit Monday, May 28th, 1787, this intelligent and complicated man died at the age of 68. He has lived long enough to witness his son’s brilliance, and he probably understood that he himself had long been eclipsed. His greasiest success was at once his own most bitter personal failure. History has not been kind to Leopold Mozart, it is because it has never forgiven him. Anna Maria Mozart: Born: St. Gilgen, baptized December 25, 1720 Died: Paris, July 3, 1778 She was baptized on Christmas Day, 1720, in the parish church of St. Gilgen. The entry in the church register duly notes that she was the daughter of Eva Rosina and Nicolaus Pertl, deputy prefect of Hildenstein. Some years later, an anonymous hand would add: “Mother of the famous Mozart.” Despite her being the son of famous Mozart, she remains an unknown quantity, a background presence that rarely takes center stage in accounts of her son’s life. Her name has been the cause of some confusion. Whether through carelessness on the part of parish scribes, or because names once were more malleable than they are now, she is just as likely to be referred to as Maria Anna Mozart. She married Leopold Mozart on November 21, 1747. Five of their children died in infancy. The strongest survived six months, the weakest six days. Though back then, there was a bigger rate of in fact deaths, so it wasn’t surprising to have 3 children die. The two children who survived were Maria Anna Walbuga Ignatia and Johann Chrysostom Wolfgang Gottlieb. The children’s father was a composer and on internationally recognized violin instructor, nothing could possibly have prepared the children’s mother for what was to come. Their prodigious musical talents — and Leopold’s prodigious promotional talent — would carry Anna Maria far from Salzburg. She and her family visited the courts of Europe and got to be with with the royalty: Maria Theresa and her son, Joseph, of Austria; Louis XV of France; and George III of England. Even though she was left behind during her son’s three tours of Italy, circumstances led to her accompanying him on his fateful job-hunting expedition to southern Germany and Paris: because the Archbishop of Salzburg would not grant Leoplod leave to accompany his son, Anna Maria went instead. They left for Salzburg for Bavaria in September 1777. In her letters home, Anna Maria becomes suddenly tangible. They reveal an intelligent, optimistic woman possessed of a wry, self-deprecating wit. They also give us a good indication of the origin of Mozart’s fondness for scatological humor. From Munich, she wrote to Leopold: “Addio, ben mio. Keep well, my love. Into your mouth your arse you’ll shove. I wish you good-night, my dear, but first xxxx in your beaded make it burst. It is long after one o’clock already. Now you can go on rhyming yourself.” When things did not work out as planned in Germany, Leopold urged his wife and son onto Paris. Anna Maria agreed, and they left Mannheim in the spring of 1778. In Paris, the incessant rounds of socializing, teaching and job hunting meant that Mozart had to leave his mother alone for days at a time. She did not speak French. Neglected and isolated, she kept up a brave front. ” I don’t get out much, it is true, and the rooms are cold, even when a fire is burning,” she wrote on May 1. “You just to get used to it.” Her health began to deteriorate. A letter of June 12th is full of gossip but shorter than usual because, she reported, she had been bleeding the day before and couldn’t write much. Her last words to Leopold are in the postscript: “I must stop, for my arm and eyes are aching.” Three weeks later, Anna Maria was dead. “Her life flickered out like a candle,” wrote her son to a family friend. She was buried the next day in the churchyard of the parish of Saint-Eustache in Paris. The register read: “On the said day, Marie-Anna Partl, aged 57 years, wife of Leopold Mozart, maitre de chapelle at Salzburg, Bavaria, who died yesterday at Rue du Groschenet, has been interred in the cemetery in the presence of Wolfgang Amedee Mozart, her son, and of Francois Heina, trumpeter in the light cavalry in the Royal Guard, a friend.”
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Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was baptized in Salzburg Cathedral on the day after his
birth as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus. The first and last given
names come from his godfather Joannes Theophilus Pergmayr, although Mozart
preferred the Latin form of this last name, Amadeus, more often Amade, or the
Italiano Amadeo. Whatever the case may be, he rarely-if ever-used Theophilus in
his signature. The name Chrysostomus originates from St. John Chrysostom, whose
feast falls on the 27th of January. The name Wolfgang was given to him in honor
of his maternal grandfather, Wolfgang Nikolaus Pertl. He was the seventh and
last child born to musical author, composer and violinist, Leopold Mozart and
his wife Anna Maria Pertl. Only Wolfgang and Maria Anna (whose nickname was Nannerl)
survived infancy. He was born in a house in the Hagenauersches Haus in Salzburg,
Austria, on the 27th of January, 1756. The paternal ancestry of the family has
been traced back with some degree of certainty to Fndris Motzhart, who lived in
the Augsburg area in 1486; the name is first recorded, for a Heinrich Motxhart
in Fischach, in 1331, and appears in other villages south-west of Augsburg,
notably Heimberg, from 14th century. The surname was spelled in variety of
forms, including Moxarth, Mozhrd and Mozer. His mothers family came mainly
from the Salzburg region, but one branch may be traced to Krems-Stein and Wien.


They mostly followed lower middle-class occupations; some were gardeners. 2
Though Mozart did not walk until he was three years old, he displayed musical
gifts at extremely early age. At the age of four, he could reproduce on the
piano a melody played to him; at five, he could play violin with perfect
intonation. According to Norbert Elias, it took all of thirty minutes for Mozart
to master his first musical composition. The work , a scherzo by Georg Christoph
Wagenseiil, had been copied by his father into Nannerls notebook. Below it
Leopold jotted: “This piece was learned by Walfgangerl on 24 January 1791, 3
days before his 5th birthday, between 9 and 9:30 in the evening”. (68) Mozart
and his sister never attended school because their father dedicatedly and
instructed them at home. Besides music, he taught them German, Italian, Latin,
history science, mathematics and law. According to Ruth Halliwell, recognizing
his childrens special abilities, Leopold began to devote extra effort to
their education-with an emphasis on musical instruction. He became a loving, but
exacting, taskmaster. Some time later, he would somewhat ruefully describe to
correspondent how from a very early age Nannerl and Wolfgang had learned to wear
the “iron shirt” of discipline. The children themselves probably never
relaxed that life could be any different. Wolfgang, no doubt, enjoyed the extra
attention and found great pleasure in learning-and in pleasing his father. It
was the start of relationship that he would never quite break free of, and the
beginning of a career that would consume him altogether.(38} When the
six-year-old Wolfgang had provided his extraordinary talents at the keyboard,
Leopold was keen to exhibit those talents along with those of his gifted
pianists daughter, Nannerl. Thus Leopold undertook a four month tour to
Vienna and the 3 surrounding area, visiting every noble house and palace he
could find, taking the entire family with him. Mozarts first know public
appearance was at Salzburg University in September of 1761, when he took part in
theatrical performance with music by Eberlin. Like other parents of this time,
Leopold Mozart saw nothing wrong in exhibiting, or in exploiting, his sons
God-given genius for music. He took Walfgang and Nannerl to Munchen, for about
three weeks from January 12th, 1762, where they played the harpsichord before
the Elector of Bavaria. No documentation survived for that journey. Later ones
are better served-Leopold was a prolific correspondent and also kept travel
diaries. The next started on September 18th, 1762, when the entire family set
off for Wein; they paused at Passau and Linz where the young Wolfgang gave his
firs public recital at The Trinity Inn, Linz, on October 1st, 1762. Soon
afterwards, he amazed the Empress at Schonbrunn Castel and all her royal guests
with fascinating keyboard tricks; playing with the keys covered with a cloth,
with his hands behind his back, and so on. (Anderson 120). There is also one
funny statistic about Mozart , while in Vienna age the age of six, Mozart
appeared before the Empress Theresa. When he slipped on the floor, the
empresss daughter Marie Antoinette, who was only two month older then Mozart,
helped him up, whereupon he immediately proposed to marry her. She apparently
waited for better offer. As young Mozarts reputation grew, his father
realized the financial opportunities then could arise from increased exposure of
his sons talents. From than time on, Wolfgang and his sister spent much of
their childhood traveling through Europe. The 4 rulers of Europe and England
were astounded by Wolfgangs abilities of composition, improvisations, and
sight reading. During a large European concert tour (1763-66) the Mozart
children displayed their talents to audiences in Germany, in Paris, at court in
Versailles, and in London (where Wolfgang wrote his first symphonies and was
befriend by Johann Christian Bach, whose musical influence on Wolfgang was
profound). In Paris, Wolfgang published his first works, four sonatas for
clavier with accompanying violin (1764). In 1768 he composed his first opera, La
finta semplice, for Vienna, but intrigues prevented its performance, and it was
first presented a year later at Salzburg. Toward the close of 1769, the Mozarts
made their first journey to Italy by horse carriage, a journey crowned with
glory and partly financed by Prince Archbishop of Salzburg. In Mantua, they
attended a concert of the Philharmonic orchestra, which performed a few of
Wolfgangs compositions in his honor. In Milano, Wolfgang was commissioned to
compose an opera seria for the following year. Their next stop, Bologna brought
Mozart into contact with the great Martini, who welcomed the young genius with
open arms of admiration and respect. Martini gave the young boy lessons in
counterpoint and he also becomes a member of the Society Academia Philharmonic.

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In Roma, there took place that phenomenal proof of Mozarts genius, which has
frequently been quoted. Young Mozart attended a performance of the celebrated
Miserere of Allegri, which could be heard only in Roma during Holy Week
performed by the papal choir. By papal decree it was forbidden to sing the work
elsewhere, and its only existing copy was guarded slavishly by the papal choir.


Any attempt to copy the song or reproduce it in any form 5 was punishable by
excommunication. Mozart, however, had heard the work only ones when, returning
home, he reproduced it in its entirety upon paper (this pies is long and
extremely complex, with double-orchestra, organ and conflicting choral parts.)
No one has ever been able to dream of duplicating this feat, even on a much
smaller scale. This incomparable feat soon became the subject of awed whispers
in Roma. The Pope summoned Mozart, but instead of punishing the young genius, he
showed praise upon him and gave him handsome gift. A few months later, Pope
Clemens XIV bestowed upon Mozart the Cross of the Order of the Golden Spur.


Although he achieved much fame and even become honorary conductor in Verona, his
fathers efforts for employment in Italy fail. (Schenk 189). Also, during his
tour in Italy Mozart met an English boy Thomas Linley, they were much alike and
felt like brothers. Thomas too was prodigy, whose father manage his and his
older sisters music career. Thomas and Walfgang become very closed. They were
very famous in Italy and called “The young Geniuses of the Age”. Thomas
played the violin so brilliant that Wolfgang often dreamed of them touring
together as adults. Tragically, Wolfgangs friend drowned in a boating
accident when he was only fourteen years old. After returning home for a short
stay, Mozart were back in Italy to fulfill his commission for Milano and bring
to complete his opera seria, Mitridate, re di Ponte. At the performance of
Mitridate, re di Ponte on Christmas day of 1770, the work was a phenomenal
success. According to Otto Erich Deutsch, one of the soprano arias, contrary to
all precedent, was encored. Cheers greeted the diminutive composer as he reached
the 6 stage. The newspapers commented upon then “rarest musical grace” and
that “studied beauty” which seemed to be Wolfgangs intuitive idiom. (44).


Except for two brief intermissions, Mozart remained in Salzburg whose limited
intellectual world chafed him considerably. The political and social changes
resulting from the installation of the new Archbishop of Salzburg forced Mozart
to lead a highly restricted life, which in turn generated friction between the
young compositor and the strict Archbishop. Moreover, his musical labor at the
Court of the Archbishop was an endless humiliation. He was the principal
composer and virtuoso at the Court, but his salary was so meager and his work so
unappreciated that each day was a test of his patience and willingness to
tolerate insult. His fellow musicians at the Court were dissolute scoundrels,
whose musical tastes were vulgar and whose interests centered upon gambling and
drink. Mozart traveled for third time to Italy, mainly because of the premier of
the opera “Lucio Silla” in Milan. During the carnival of 1773 the work was
performed a staggering 26 times. After this the family returned to Vienna, as
the Mozart still could not obtain a secure position at court. Disappointed and
downtrodden, the Mozart return home to Salzburg, where he wrote countless
symphonies, serenades, divertimento, five concertos for violin, “II Re
pastor”, as well as part of “Idomeneo”. (Zaslaw 281) In the fall of 1774
Mozart composed the opera buffa “La finita giardiniera”. The work was
premiered in Munich on January 13, 1775 under Mozarts baton: however, there
were only two more performances. It was, therefore, with a yearning heart that 7
Wolfgang dream of escaping from Salzburg. A new extensive tour was planned for
Mozart in 1776, but the music world was this time not so easily conquered by
Mozart. He was now twenty years old-child prodigy no longer. The music world had
in the past lavished its adoration upon a little pug-nosed child who could
achieve miraculous musical feast and dazzle them with specially crafted parlor
ticket. Now that child had entered manhood, he had lost his great apparel.


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was one of the greatest composers the world has ever
see. Mozart is much in evidence today. His music is heard in TV commercials and
he has entered our pop mythology as the crass innocent of Peter Schaeffers
Amadeus. His music is reputed to make one smarter.


Bibliography
Anderson, Emily, ed. The Letters of Mozart and His Family. New York, 1985
Deutsch, Otto Erich. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford, 1965 Elias,
Norbert. Mozart: Portrait of a Genius. Berkeley, 1993 Halliwell, Ruth. The
Mozart Family: Four Lives in a Social Context. Oxford, 1998 Schenk, Erich.


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