Mark Twain

Mark Twain Greed for Power, and Cruelty: Making Followers In Animal Farm, George Orwell demonstrates the danger of unquestioning acceptance of ideas and actions that are “supposed to represent” a better way of life. Throughout the book there are many examples of hatred and evil undermining what sounds like a great utopia when introduced, but not when they are lived. The ideas are very familiar because they are based on those that drove the Russian Revolution, and what went wrong with it. The difference between a nice Utopian idea and what goes wrong in real life has to do with human nature. Greed is real, in that it drives people to do things.

There is greed for power, greed for food, and greed for whatever a greedy person might want. While not everyone is greedy, some people are very much so. The very greedy people make life difficult for the rest of us. This is not such a big problem in democracies, which are constructed to balance any action with the ideas of many groups and rights. In a dictatorship, like the Soviet Union, a person like Stalin can determine every key aspect of most individuals’ lives.

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The more violent a Stalin is, the more power a Stalin has; and the farther from Utopia are the lives of the common people. Napoleon’s ideas and actions in Animal Farm were similar to those first of Lenin and later of Stalin during the development of the Soviet Union, which resulted in the deaths and terror that deeply affected the lives of tens of millions of Soviet citizens. For example, Napoleon had made other high-status animals confess to things they had never committed. When the eggs of the three hens were crushed really by Napoleon’s dog, they were forced to confess, ” .. Snowball had appeared to them in a dream and incited them to disobey Napoleon’s orders” (93). The dogs were then murdered, making Napoleon the only ruler. Even though Napoleon clearly killed the hens’ eggs, they still confessed to something that was untrue, which made Napoleon’s “appearance” better to those who had no direct knowledge of the incident.

Joseph Stalin had appointed government officials, controlling their income, what they said, and often their death. Soon he made them confess to things that were untrue, such as being spies. Government officials were exiled, thrown in jail, or killed. Soon Stalin was the one, true ruler of Russia. The system of making supporters and then destroying them was also dangerous for the common people, who often died or lived in terror because of their dictator’s unchecked power.

This system was guaranteed to make the lower animals in Animal Farm and Soviet citizens hate their single ruler. It also made them so fearful that they were powerless to stop him from ruining their lives. The survival of each person and family depended on appearing to perfectly support this terrible system, not replace it. A second example is by telling nice sounding lies, dictators can become more secure by increasing cruelty. Napoleon’s idea of keeping all the apples and milk for himself and other high-status animals won him the backing of ruthless supporters.

This was acceptable because he cleverly said, “Never mind the milk comrades .. The harvest is more important,” (44). He then made food hard to get for the lower animals, starving many of them, ” .. the production of every class of foodstuff had increased by two hundred per cent, three hundred per cent or five hundred per cent, as the case might be,” (99). Stalin had taken over all the farms in his country, reserving much of the wheat and other crops for high government officials. Millions of Soviet citizens died of starvation because of Stalin’s ideas.

The pigs of Animal Farm and government officials in the Soviet Union took the food made by those of lower status, increasing their immediate need to appear to support bad leaders. Starvation proved Napoleon’s and Stalin’s ideas to be dangerous, yet made them more powerful, which satisfied their greed. A third example had such cruelty, when combined with propaganda and silencing those who interfere with official stories makes dictators even more secure. Napoleon purging and killing Snowball. Snowball created commandments that said all animals were equal, and helped to get the animals to be happy and trust each other. He created the idea of making a windmill.

Napoleon wanted all the credit so he sent dogs to kill Snowball; ” .. nine enormous dogs wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed straight for Snowball .. he was out of the door and they were after him,” (67). Once Snowball was pushed out of Animal Farm, everything changed, including the commandments.

In the end, his writing was corrupted into, “All Animals are created equal, but some animals are more equal than others,” (133). Stalin exiled Trotsky and later killed him. Trotsky tried to create a Utopian society, but when he was exiled, Stalin enforced rules that no one else could veto. The dictator then stood unchallenged both in his cruelty and power. The animals of the farm firmly believed Napoleon was a great ruler regardless of the suffering they endured due to their unquestioning acceptance of ideas. For example, no one noticed when Snowball’s idea was English Essays.

Mark Twain

Mark Twain
Mark Twain’s works are some of the best I’ve ever read. I love the way he
brings you into the story, especially with the dialogue used, like in Tom
Sawyer or Huckleberry Finn. Mark Twain is my favorite dead author.

Mark Twain was never “Mark Twain” at all. That was only his pen name. His
real name was Samuel Langhorne Clemens. Samuel was born in Florida, Missouri in
1835. He accomplished worldwide fame during his lifetime for being a great
author, lecturer, satirist, and humorist. Since his death on April 21, 1910,
his great literary reputation has further increased. Many writers such as Ernest
Hemingway and William Faulkner have declared his work-especially Huckleberry
Finn- a major influence on 20th-century American fiction.

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Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, a town on the Mississippi river.

After the death of his father in 1847, Twain joined his brother Orion’s
newspaper, the Hannibal Journal. During this time he became accustomed with
much of the frontier humor of the time.

From 1853 to 1857, Twain worked in many cities as a printer, and wrote
articles for his brother’s newspapers under various nicknames. After a visit
to New Orleans, he learned how to pilot a steamboat. That became his job until
the Civil War closed the Mississippi River, and
it set him up for “Old Times on the Mississippi” and “Life on the Mississippi.”
In 1861, Twain traveled to Carson City, Nevada, with his brother Orion.

After attempts for silver and gold mining had failed, he continued to write for
newspapers. It was in 1863 when Samuel Clemens adopted the name “Mark Twain”, a
riverman’s term for “two fathoms” deep.

In 1884 Twain went to San Francisco and reached national fame with his
story, “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.” He then took a trip
to Hawaii which started him on a very successful career as a public speaker.

His trips to the Mediterranean and the Holy Land were recorded in letters to a
San Francisco newspaper, and later formed into The Innocents Abroad, which was
popular all over the world.

In 1870 Mark Twain married Olivia Langdon. He then abandoned journalism to
focus on serious literature. From 1870-1875, Twain produced many novels,
including the famous tale, Tom Sawyer.

A European vacation in 1878-1879, inspired novels like The Prince and the
Pauper and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. Meanwhile, he
established his own firm, Charles L. Webster and Co., and after that, completed
his masterpiece, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, in 1884.

In 1891, Twain was forced to move to Europe because of financial problems.

In 1894, because of the failure of his firm and other reasons, he had to declare
bankruptcy. During this time he produced many works, but they were not some of
his best. To help his situation, he commenced a world lecture tour.

Even though his financial situation rapidly improved, much stress and
sorrow came to Twain following the death of first his daughter, in 1896, then
his wife in 1904. His writings in the late 1890’s and 1900’s became
increasingly gloomy. One of his accomplishments during these years is “The Man
Who Corrupted Hadleyburg”, a pessimisstic examination of human nature.

After these bleak years Twain died in 1910. Yet his reputation as a writer
did not die along with him. Instead it rose as people began to look at his
works differently. Mark Twain has become an embedded part of America’s history.



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