Lord Of The Flies

Lord of the Flies Why do we choose the leaders that we do?: In the following paper, I’m going to attempt to explain why it is that we choose the leaders in which we do. There are many various reasons why we pick certain individuals to lead us. The first one, which is in no relation to Loard of the Flies, is by being appointed. People are often predetermined leaders. One of the most obvious examples of this is royalty.

For thousands of years, sons and daughters of royal famlies are given power when their parents pass on. If both king and queen pass on, and they have no children, then the next closest relative will take power. In the past, chiefdoms existed in a great number of Polynesian societies on Pacific Ocean islands, such as those that make up what is now Hawaii. Chiefdoms were the first societies to have positions of defined, permanent leadership. Chiefdoms still exist in some places under national governments. For instance, chiefs of the Kpelle of Liberia are political leaders for the country’s national districts. Culture, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99.

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1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Another example of an appointed leader is when a leader appoints someone to a position of power. In this day and age, we do this in our own country. The president has the authority to give members of his cabinet jobs that come with power.

In the military, Larkin 2 people are constantly advanced in rank. By doing this, they are given more power and put into a position of leadership. However, this isn’t the only way people come into power. Many tribes (Indians, African, Eskimo) have different systems of government. Some have several, leaders others have just one.

Within most tribes, all groups commonly have about equal status. Since every person belongs to a descent group, no one person ranks too far above or below another. In some tribes, however, people known as big men might earn a degree of higher status and respect than others by demonstrating bravery or bravado. Culture, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99. 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

This was exhibited by both Ralph and Jack. First by Ralph by him electing to search for the Beastie on Castle Rock. He knew that in order to keep his place as the leader, he couldn’t show fear. After Ralph was on the jetty, realizing that he might loose any chance of power, Jack soon decides to overcome his fear and follow. The second time was when the boys were climbing the cliff, once again to search for the Larkin 3 Beast.

This time, Ralph stayed behind and Jack went first. Jack knew that being brave would get him more respect and put him one step closer to being chief. Thus, by showing their bravery, the boys fought for the position of leadership. And then, there’s strength. Strength plays a big part in leadership.

In humans as well as wild animals. Many animals live in pacts. Within this group are different classes. At the top of the chain is the leader. For example, take the silverback gorilla. The silverback gorilla is the leader of its group because he is able to take control and fight off enemies. If there is a danger, he will confront it.

However, if another silverback comes along, challenges the original leader, and wins, the original leader will abandon the group and live a solitary life. At this time, the winner will take over. Strength has over come weakness, and the winning gorilla is rewarded with power. Plus, within the group, there are two other subdominant male gorillas who receive their power based upon their strength. This is common in many other animals.

Gorilla Dynamics, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99. 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Larkin 4 Leaders can become leaders by using their talent. Their talent of talking. Speeches, convincing the masses, ect. Adolph Hitler was a good speaker.

Through his methods, he was able to convince thousands of people to follow him. He brought out peoples passions. Told them what they wanted to hear. Gave them someone to blame for their problems. And by doing this, the people choose him to lead them. They believed in him, his ideas, and, for the most part, many of his methods.

We pick our politicians because of what they say. Why did the Republican Party choose over ? Because he was a good speaker. With his words he was able to convince his party that he was the right choice for the Presidential candidate. Labor Union Leaders are chosen as well because they are good speakers. Ernest Bevin was a British labor leader and statesman. About 1909, after working at a number of manual trades, he became a labor organizer.

In 1920 he gained a nationwide reputation by making a speech before the Transport Workers’ Court of Larkin 5 Inquiry that resulted in a standard minimum wage for British dockworkers. Bevin, Ernest, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99. 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Or maybe it is their charisma.

Recent studies found that people experience personal attractions to a charismatic leader. People feel comfortable with a charismatic leader. They end up trusting, obeying, feeling compasion for their leader and even feel an emotional involvement in the mission they are led into (Http://psychology.about.com/education). Look at such leaders as Adolph Hitler, John F. Kennedy, Nelson Mandela, and Martin Luther King jr.

They all had charisma, all were loved and adored by the people they led, and all had a large number of dedicated followers. Several years ago, there was a cult known as Heavens Gate. The cult was founded and led by a man by the name of Marshall Herff Applewhite. In 1975, he claimed to be a space alien. Soon after he convinced a group of 20 people to leave their lives behind and join him. Then, they moved to Colorado to meet with a space ship that was supposedly going to pick them all up..Obviously, the ship never came.

Eighteen years later, he and his group resurfaced. In early 1997, he as well as the rest of his followers, committed mass suicide. How was he able to have these people believe his outlandish story? Through charisma. A former disciple of Applewhites’ stated I don’t think he Larkin 6 needed to have a following. I think he was the kind of person that truly believed and had a lot of charisma.

And so other people followed him. (Applewhite, CNN.com. March 28, 1997) So why do we pick our leaders? It is truly a hard question. You can think long and hard but still not have a definitive answer. That is because it’s not just one characteristic, nor is it always the same set of characteristics that makes a leader, a leader. A leader can not be a leader with out followers.

Each follower is looking for something different. So, he or she finds the one with the desired traits; Strength, passion, intelligence, charisma, so on and so on. So, what do you look for when choosing a leader? Is it because the person is an overall good leader, or simply a good speaker?.

Lord Of The Flies

The adventure novel, The Lord of the Flies, was an epic tale that depicted the different
facets of the human spirit. It was written by William Golding in the 1950s and recieved
many awards. Idt was declared the Outstanding Novel of the Year by E.M. Forrester.
The author did in no wat mean for this story to be biographical, but Mr. Golding depicted
well the many different aspect of human nature. The book has been described as
provacative, vivid and enthralling, but Time and Tide said it best when they wrote, It is
not only a first-rate adventure story but a parable of our times.
The novel took place on an island probably somewhere in the middle of the
Atlantic. This can be inferred because of the fact that the boys are British and that they
arrived on the island by way of a plane cradsh. The story also occurred during wartime.
The story begins when a group of British boys crash on an uninhabited island. In
the beginning they area all unruly and unmorginized. Finally, a boy by the nakme of Ralph
decides to take charge and call a meeting. The boys declare him chief and then begin to
follow his lead. Ralph is also assisted by another lad by the name of Piggy. The group of
boys were getting along fine until Jack Merridew, a boy who wanted to be chief instead,
decided to go his own way. He disobeyed Ralph and did things his own way. He was to
preoccupied witdh his own whims to do the act that was most important on the island,
which was to keep the signal going so they could be rescued. Finally, Jack went against
Ralph and declared that if any of the other boys wanted to have fun, which meant acting
like savages, that they should follow him. The boys splot up into two groups and then
havoc insued. Jacks group went around hunting and being barbaric while the others tried
to get rescued. In the end Jack had gotten all the boys except Ralph to run around loke
wild animals. Then when Jack got tired of dealing with Ralph, he convinced wveryone to
try and kill him. By then however, a navy ship had come an they could never get around
to the nasty deed.
There was more than one antagonist in the story, The Lord of the Flies. They
were Ralph, Piggy, and all the other boys who tried to sustain order and law on the island.
To begin with, Ralph was the first chief on the island. In the beginning, he was the one
who tdook charge of the group okf boys and called them to order. He tried to organize a
strategy dto get off the island and make all the boys understand why it was he was doing
what he was doing. Piggy was basically Ralphs right-hand man. He was probably the
mkore natural leader, but since he did not possess the confidence to stand up alone, he did
all he wanted to do through Ralph. These boys were the antagonists because they
desperately tried to get off the island and tried not to let anyone or anything get in their
way.
The antagonist in the story in the story was Jack Merridew. He was the boy in the
story who openly showed his dislike for the procedures Ralph was taking as chief of the
island. He continually disobeyed Ralph and eventually broke off and went his own
direction. In turn, many of the boys followed Jack and his savage philosophy. Jack and
these boys started their own tribe and ended up causing more problems than they
solved. He also prevented Ralph from being an effective leader by basically taking away
all his power. When the other boys saw how much fun Jack was having they all left
Ralph and followed every action Jacck took. When the boys left, Rallph did not have
many boys helping him, dtherefore, he could not accomploish the simple taske of keeping
the signal fire going.
The theme of the novel was the fact that even the most avid attempts to be
civilized will be squandeered by the savage nature of the human spirit. The group of boys
were stranded on the island with almost no chance of survival and persevered through it
all. One of the most sensible boys, Ralph, eeven tried to organize the group and get them
to follow his instructions. He had them gbuild shelters and construct a smoke signal that
would run throughout the day. In the beginning the group carried these instructions out,
but then anarchy overtook them. Jack Merridew proceeded to disregard all of Ralphs
instructions and followed his own whims and fancies. His plan while he was on the island
was to hunt and have fun. He did not realize that his savage nature was beginning to
surface and by the time he did realize this it was too late, the way of life had consumed
him. The author attempts to show the reader that people must overcome their own basic
faults before they can live in active, productove, and functioning society. The theme is an
attempt to trace the defects of society back to the defects of juman natrue. -William
Golding.
In the novel, The Lord of the Flies, the main conflict was between Ralph and Jack.
The two boyks comkpletely differed in their approach on what to do while stranded on the
island. This brought about many confrontations that further increased the animosity
between them. Jack stood up as he said this, the bloodied knife in his hand. The two
boys faced each other. There was the brilliant world of hunting, tactics, fierce
exhilaration, skill; and there was the world of longing and baffled commonsense. – pg. 71.
There was was also the conflict between the boys and the actual island. The boys were
flung into a place which was a mystery to them and through all adversity persevered and
survived in the most trying of circumsstances. There were no adults on the island, so the
boys were forced to organize themselves and their actions. Until savagery overtook them
in the end, the boys did an excellent job, considering the circumstances, of coordinating
their actions and surviving while on the island. They had sufficiently fed themselves with
the fruit that was available and had a ready supply of drinking water when it was needed.
The two previously discussed conflicts were both external and a combination of Man
versus Another and Man versus Nature.
The novel, The Lord of the Flies, contains many literary devices used to enhance
the readers grasp on the novels concepts. The coral was scribbled in the sea as though a
giant had bewnt down to reproduce the shape o the island in a flowing chalk line but tired
before he had finished. – pg. 29. This passage is comparing the coral reef in the ocean
to the unfinished scribblings of a giant and is a good example of a simile because it using
the word as. The breezes that on the lagoon had chased their tails like kittens were
finding their way across the platform and into the forest. – pg. 34. This statement is
saying that the breezes on the lagoon were reocurring like kittens chasing their own tails
and is another good example of a simile. …whole limbs yielded passionately to the
yellow flames that poured upwards and shook a great beardof flame twenty feet in the
air. – pg. 41. This quote is saying that limbs of trees yielded to flames and since tree
limbs cannot perform this human quality consciensly, this is an example of personification.
When these breezes reached the platform the palm fronds would whisper winged things
in the shade. – pg. 15. Once again, this sentence is implying that the palm fronds were
whispering, and since a plant cannot perform this act this is another example of
personification. Suddenly Piggy was a bubble with decorous excitement. – pg. 15. This
statement furhter clarifies what Piggy looked like in the readers mind so this is an
example of imagery. …the conch exploded into a thousand white fragments and ceased
to exist. – pg. 181. This excerpt also clearly states what the conch looked like so this is
an example of imagery. ‘There
‘Fancy thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill! said the head.
‘You knew didnt you? Im part of you? Close, close, close! Im the reason why its no
go? Why things are what they are? – pg. 143. This is what The Lord of the Flies said
to Simon while he was in the forest. The Lord meant that it was funny how the boys
thought that the Beast was an animal that they could hunt and kill when it was really their
own human thoughts and desires. How the whole time they were looking for something
up on the mountain when all they had to do was look at themselves. It is important to the
message of the story because it the first instance where the author reveals and one of the
boys realizes what the group is really up against. Mr. Golding shows the reader that the
following sequence of events will depict the darkest sides of each of the boys and that they
will have to overcome themselves in order to have any chance at survival.
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Lord Of The Flies

Lord Of The Flies Symbolism in Lord of the Flies The story, Lord of the Flies, has many interesting symbols relating adult society to kids surviving on an island. Many of the characters and items in this novel such as Jack or the conch can be interpreted on a macroscopic scale but the most important being this; a microcosm of children on an island makes a great symbolic message about human nature, society and how grown-ups live and govern – and how they cannot. When you consider the time period this book was written, you can see where Golding got some of his inspiration. Europe was still recovering after WW2 and the author probably wanted to comment on the political turmoil during the 50s. The island is a microcosm of the world during this time, and its scar represents human destruction once the kids were dropped or “reborn” on the island.

If we look at the book as a political statement we can already sense leaders and followers. Obviously, Ralph, described as a good-looking, relying on common sense type of regular fellow, is the likable, fair, and even admired, democratic leader. He has a few loyal advisors and following. Piggy, a smart chubby boy, represents the scientific community and logical thinking, with glasses that represent clarity, civilization and the power to get back. He is essentially Ralph’s method of governing. Sam `n Eric, the twin labourers, stuck with Ralph until the end and did a lot of cooperative activities for Ralph.

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They were the hut builders, fire tenders and wood gatherers. The little ones also liked Ralph. They were the citizens and at times were happy but slowly grew discontent as paradise became hell. Throughout the story the little ones didn’t do much but in the beginning they did vote Ralph in and basically brought him into power. Because the people elected Ralph, he therefore is a true democratic ruler.

He passes the conch symbolizing order around, lets others talk, follows rules and does not intend to break them himself. There’s trouble enforcing the laws just like our democracies, today. However, we are still free-living citizens, much like the kids under Ralph’s reign. Jack and Roger are the complete opposite. Jack represents the savagery and hate in all of us.

Starting out as a choirboy, he slowly evolves into the hunting “Chief” of the opposition party. Methods used by Hitler were also used by Jack. Total control such as binding and strapping Wilfred and propaganda like using the beast to inspire fear and presenting himself as the only protection is used in his dictatorial rule. He overthrows Ralph with fun, and then proceeds to use muscle once he had friends like Roger. Roger is his right hand man but is even worse.

He starts out throwing rocks, moves on to torturing pigs and in the end he intentionally kills Piggy. He was a terror while torturing with Sam n’ Eric and the executioner when he killed Piggy. He is what Jack uses to rule, much like Hitler’s personal guard and is even more extreme and totalitarian than Jack. Jack and Roger’s rise to power mirror real life events. Ralph giving Jack control of the choir near the beginning of the book is reflective on many of the European dictator’s rise to power during WW2.

Weak leaders of the Western world did not enforce the Treaty of Versailles nor did they resist the annexations done by Hitler before the war. Nobody opposed him till it was too late much like this novel. Ralph tried, and their own little “war” broke out when the fire was stolen and continued until Ralph was saved by chance when the navy came, similar to the United States shifting the balance near the end of the war. Simon is the primary religious and good figure because of his spiritual and prophetic ways. Never violent and pretty much alone is what he’s like throughout the story.

He says to Ralph, “All the same. You’ll get back all right. I think so, anyway.” He hangs out in a tranquil spot in the book and plays with a lizard there in the movie, it was a gentle scene and he is depicted as a small, frail character. These qualities make him innocent and pure but he was also the first to figure out what the beast really was. Shy and embarrassed he hides the fact that the beast may really be their inner fears, which is exactly what the beast represented.

The beast turned out to be nothing more than a dead parachutist, who is freed by Simon, which in turn, frees the other boys’ fears. He also experienced a “vision” like Moses while sitting next to the pig head also know as the Lord of the Flies, something that inspires fear and exploits the insecurities that the boys hold. This is a lot like the Devil people during the Middle Ages were so afraid of. To Simon, it represents danger and a bad omen because he falls victim to it while running away. The beast says, “-Or else, we shall do you.

See? Jack and Roger and Maurice and Robert and Bill and Piggy and Ralph. Do you. See?” The pig head was correct; Simon is killed by the whole group of dancing boys. The pigs themselves may represent some sort of adult or feminine role because of the absence of females on this island. The pigs are the source of recreation, food and comfort for Jack’s group. The language also suggests it, in Chapter Eight the group was ” ..

fulfilled upon her.” They were also ” .. wedded to her in lust .. ” Painted, hunting “mothers” and nameless, tells us they’re moving away from society, going back to a primitive state. The pigs though triggered this behavior. Lord of the Flies is filled with symbolism and can be expressed in political terms or in a religious sense.

There are many messages between the lines but the last one may be the most important. The ending takes them back to adult society and the real world. The boys stop and let the officer take care of business .. but he does not. The adult simply turns his back and lets the boys pull together, abandoning them.

“The officer, surrounded by these noises, was moved and a little embarrassed. He turned away to give them time to pull themselves together; and waited, allowing his eyes to rest on the trim cruiser in the distance.” English Essays.

Lord Of The Flies

Pieces of the Puzzle: the Island as a Macrocosm of Man
In viewing the various aspects of the island society in Golding’s Lord of
the Flies as a symbolic microcosm of society, a converse perspective must
also be considered. Golding’s island of marooned youngsters then becomes a
macrocosm, wherein the island represents the individual human and the
various characters and symbols the elements of the human psyche. As such,
Golding’s world of children’s morals and actions then becomes a survey of
the human condition, both individually and collectively.


Almost textbook in their portrayal, the primary characters of Jack, Ralph
and Piggy are then best interpreted as Freud’s very concepts of id, ego and
superego, respectively. As the id of the island, Jack’s actions are the
most blatantly driven by animalistically rapacious gratification needs. In
discovering the thrill of the hunt, his pleasure drive is emphasized,
purported by Freud to be the basic human need to be gratified. In much the
same way, Golding’s portrayal of a hunt as a rape, with the boys ravenously
jumping atop the pig and brutalizing it, alludes to Freud’s basis of the
pleasure drive in the libido, the term serving a double Lntendre in its
psychodynamic and physically sensual sense.

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Jack’s unwillingness to acknowledge the conch as the source of centrality on
the island and Ralph as the seat of power is consistent with the portrayal
of his particular self-importance. Freud also linked the id to what he
called the destructive drive, the aggressiveness of self-ruin. Jack’s
antithetical lack of compassion for nature, for others, and ultimately for
himself is thoroughly evidenced in his needless hunting, his role in the
brutal murders of Simon and Piggy, and finally in his burning of the entire
island, even at the cost of his own life.


In much the same way, Piggy’s demeanor and very character links him to the
superego, the conscience factor in Freud’s model of the psyche. Golding
marks Piggy with the distinction of being more intellectually mature than
the others, branding him with a connection to a higher authority: the
outside world. It is because the superego is dependent on outside support
that Piggy fares the worst out of the three major characters in the
isolation of the island.


Piggy is described as being more socially compatible with adults, and
carries himself with a sense of rationale and purpose that often serves as
Ralph’s moral compass in crisis; although Ralph initially uses the conch to
call the others, it is Piggy who possesses the knowledge to blow it as a
signal despite his inability to do so. Similarly, Piggy’s glasses are the
only artifact of outside technology on the island, further indication of his
correlation to greater moral forces. In an almost gothic vein, these same
glasses are the only source of fire on the island, not only necessary for
the boys’ rescue, but responsible for their ultimate destruction. Thus does
fire, and likewise Piggy’s glasses, become a source of power.


Piggy’s ideals are those most in conflict with Jack’s overwhelming hunger
for power and satiation. It is in between these representations of chaos
and order that Ralph falls. Golding’s depiction of Ralph as leader is
analogous to Freud’s placement of the ego at the center of the psyche.


Ralph performs as the island’s ego as he must offset the raw desires of the
id with the environment using the superego as a balancing tool. This
definition is consistent with Ralph’s actions, patronizing Jack’s wish to
hunt with their collective need to be rescued, often turning to Piggy for
advice. Initially, in the relative harmony of the island society’s early
emergence, Ralph is able to balance the opposing id and superego influences
in order to forge a purpose: rescue. It is only as the balance devolves
that the fate of the island’s inhabitants is darkly determined.


Among Ralph, Piggy and Jack exists a constant struggle to assert their
particular visions over the island. As the authority of leadership by
default falls to Ralph, the conch then becomes symbolic of the
consciousness. Its possession rotates between Ralph and Piggy in order to
determine logical courses of action for the boys. Jack however, constantly
eschews the authority of the conch, consistent with Freud’s model with the
id by definition remaining subconscious, but fully able to exert influence
over decision-making.


Conversely, the masks and face-paints that Jack’s group of hunters come to
wear are very suggestive of Freud’s image of the subconscious. The hidden
and secretive nature of the boys’ faces beneath their disguises gives them a
camouflage blending them into the background of the island foliage, making
them imperceptible to the awareness of the self. Their actions go generally
unnoticed, but still have great impact on the island as they kill and
destroy, eventually overhunting the pigs they so desperately covet.


The general assembly of the island, torn between the conch and the hunters
also becomes symbologically valid, becoming a menagerie of the other major
human faculties, some more important than others. In Samneric comes a sense
of loyalty and fraternity in the lack of unique identity between the twins
and their fidelity to Ralph, even when captured and brutalized by Jack’s
hunters. In Roger’s single-minded devotion to the bloody, gory spirit of
the hunt lies a ruthless viciousness that even Jack must rely on to achieve
his dark agenda. Simon’s loss of emotional coherence and his revelation
give him a fragility coupled with a wisdom that make him an almost neurotic
flaw in the cohesiveness of island society; he is ironically the strongest
and the weakest link of the chain in his unique understanding of their
situation.


The older boys then are the dominant faculties of the psyche, variably
giving fealty to each of the three major forces of the id, ego and superego.


As the biggest, strongest and smartest on the island, they are the source of
accomplishment and achievement, both constructive and destructive. The
emotions and human qualities manifested in the “littleuns” seem almost
repressed in comparison, congruous with their relative ineffectuality.


Their nightmares and uneasiness impress a sense of fear, weakness and
anxiety, while allayed, still spread to even the most mature of the island
to some extent.


Among the masses of boys, Golding interpolates other images passingly
suggestive of Freudian psychosexual theory. Ralph’s first call to come
together by blowing the conch implies a reference to the neonatal oral
state, during which Freud postulated was the first conflict between desire
and self-control within a child. Other references to problems in getting
the younger children to adhere to toilet etiquette for health concerns
allude to the anal stage, which psychodynamic theory hypothesized to be a
period of increased awareness of bowel movement during the toilet-training
period in toddlers. Golding notes that the younger boys call out for their
mothers rather than their fathers, hinting at the Oedipus complex.


If the abandoned boys are representative of the aspects of the human
individual, then the lush, rich bounty of the island suggest the resources
available to the individual. The initially luxuriant images of abundant
fruit and the tropical halcyon idyll give a sense of splendor suggestive of
the innate seemingly limitless charity of nature, not only on the island,
but in the human soul. The initial “scar” of the boys’ arrival on the
island presents the first sign of damage to paradise, culminating in its
ultimate incineration, almost suggestive of Gotterdamerhng, the burning of
mythical Valhalla.


As such, other analyses of the island as a whole must take into account the
island in a greater context. Piggy’s relative intellectual maturity and
Ralph’s eventual rescue at the hands of British naval officers are thusly
indicative of the role the seemingly absent adult world plays on the island.


The preeminence of the adult world to the boys and its presumed virtuosity
elevate it to a much higher level than the everyday world of the island.


Despite a passing reference to nuclear war early on in the novel, the
outside world is very much assumed to be superior in functioning by both the
boys and the reader, making it an almost divine figure in the scale of the
island as a macrocosm. The outside world then becomes the ultimate
macrocosm, the cosmic knowledge and wisdom of God. Ralph’s guilt at the
British officer’s comment about the boys’ being British suggests a kind of
tongue-in-cheek repentance, both solemn and at the same time satirizing
alleged British moral superiority.


Ralph and Piggy’s desire to be rescued then becomes a form of faith elevated
to a connotation of spirituality. The signal fire then develops into a plea
for divine salvation, communicating to the adult world a wish to be rescued
spiritually. It is Jack and his hunters that care not at all for the
maintenance for the fire, despite the fact that it is their only means off
the island. They contrast Piggy as the signal fire’s greatest proponent,
who as superego maintains a more externalized sense of what must be done.


In establishing the island as a macrocosm of the self, one must then examine
the manner of Golding’s treatise on the human condition as related to the
plot of the story. The origin of the boys on the island gives birth to the
individual, the “long scar smashed into the jungle” suggestive of some kind
of inherent human weakness, perhaps a kind of Original Sin. Ralph’s call
implies the first inkling of self-awareness as the boys come to understand
their situation and the power structure of the island between Jack, Ralph
and Piggy forms. The ensuing formative phase of the island society then
indicates growth and development, not free from mistakes and flaws in the
psychodynamic of the island, but progressing.


The true downward turn in the island/person then comes as Ralph loses
control of Jack’s hunters and Piggy’s subsequent death. Golding’s reasons
for pursuing this course of action in the collective sociology of the island
is debatable. While it may be a mere exciting plot device, it is also very
possible within the context of the macrocosm that Golding is in fact,
portraying the island as a person in decay. Previous events including the
crash and various untended wildfires indicate the island has suffered
substantial trauma. Golding’s choice to generate conflict between the id
and the ego may well be symptomatic of a greater crisis for the
island/person, where it is reduced to an internalized battle between its two
fundamental psychological processes. As such, Golding’s climax plays much
like a morality tale; out of control, the id destroys the individual due to
its self-destructive nature, leaving only the ego to answer to a higher
authority.


As such, Golding’s judgment on humankind then takes on a very slantedly
ambivalent tone; darkly pessimistic, only passingly redeeming in its sense
of morality. In his decidedly Gothic ending in this interpretation of the
book, reminiscent of Poe, Golding comments sourly even on ostensibly
virtuous human faculties such as righteousness and practicality. He
portrays even the protagonists with a humanly flawed skew; Piggy is weak and
whining, Ralph is ineffectual. In their flaws and Jack’s cursory attempts
at virtue, Golding creates a balanced image of the person, where no faculty
is fully good or fully evil, but capable of being used to commit acts of
either or both.

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