Kornberg

.. verturned a cylinder, which had a domino effect that destroyed the entire experiment. Returning the next morning, Kornberg noticed one vile in the centrifuge. The remains had separated, and he collected the solid material. This fraction had the bulk of the enzyme activity and was several-fold purer than the best of all previous preparations. This step (without the cylinder breakage) became part of the published procedure on enzyme purification.

During his time spent with Severo Ochoa at New York University School of Medicine in 1946, and time spent with Carl and Gerty Cori at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis in 1947, Kornberg refined his knowledge of enzyme production, as well as isolation and purification techniques. C. Specific Information on a Specific Contribution In 1948, Kornberg returned to the National Institute of Health as chief of the enzyme and metabolism section and established his own laboratory. He continued his work in the purification of enzymes. It was four years later (he calls these years his golden working years) that Kornberg had purified an enzyme from potatoes.

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He called the enzyme nucleotide pyrophosphatase and discovered how to cleave the complex coenzymes gently enough to leave their component halves intact. He was able to advance his knowledge of the location of one of three phosphate groups of NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). Cleaving NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gave him the key to the discovery of the wondrous enzyme that makes NAD. With the discovery of an enzyme goes the privilege and burden of naming it. Kornberg named the enzyme NAD synthetase.

This discovery gave him instant recognition among biochemists and set him on a career devoted to the enzymes that assemble DNA, genes, and chromosomes. His pursuit of this particular enzyme would lead him to the synthesis of coenzymes, to the origin of inorganic pyrophosphate, and eventually to the replication of DNA. During his time spent at the National Institutes of Health (1942-1953), he helped elucidate the reactions leading to the formation of two important coenzymes: flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN). During the summer of 1953, Kornberg enrolled in a microbiology course offered by Cornelius van Niel in Pacific Grove, California. Kornberg recently accepted a position as chair of the Department of Biochemistry at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, and he felt the need for a more formal instruction in the subject.

Kornberg became intrigued with bacteria as a source of enzymes for his research. In particular, he became interested in biosynthetic pathways for the building blocks of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). It was also in 1953 that James Watson and Francis Crick reported their discovery that DNA is a pair of chains spiraling about each other-a double helix. Within two years of Watson and Cricks historic report, Kornberg had found, in juices extracted from cells, an enzyme that synthesizes the huge chains of DNA from simple blocks. But it was not until 1956 that Kornbergs interest in the replication of DNA became the focus of his research.

It was after the enzyme that assembles the nucleotide building blocks into a DNA chain was already in his hands. Much of his research during 1953 and 1954 dealt with purification of the enzymes that synthesize the precursors of DNA. By 1954, Kornbergs team had firmly established how the nucleotides are synthesized. The next step was to study how they are assembled into DNA or RNA. Initial experiments with extracts from animal cells were unsuccessful, and Kornberg turned to extracts from the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli).

This was the first major discovery his team had made, and was the chemical catalyst responsible for the synthesis of DNA. They discovered the enzyme in the common intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli, and Kornberg called it DNA polymerase. This was an important discovery because DNA is the construction manual, and RNA transcribes it into reading form, but the proteins, particularly the enzymes, carry out all the cellular functions and give the organism its shape. In 1957, Kornbergs group used this enzyme to synthesize DNA molecules, but they were not biologically active. This proved that this enzyme does catalyze the production of new strands of DNA, and it explained how a single strand of DNA acts as a pattern for the formation of a new strand of nucleotides-the building blocks of DNA. In 1959, Kornberg along with Ochoa shared the Nobel Prize for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.

His work established the basic mechanism of all DNA polymerases in nature and the capacity of these polymerases to make genetically active DNA in the test tube. The same year Kornberg accepted an appointment as professor of biochemistry and chairman of the Department of Biochemistry at Stanford University. He continued his research on DNA biosynthesis along with Mehran Goulian. The two researchers were determined to synthesize an artificial DNA that was biologically active. By 1967 the two researchers announced their success. This research would help in future studies of genetics, as well as in the search for cures to hereditary diseases and the control of viral infections.

The Stanford researchers have continued to study DNA polymerase to further understanding of the structure of that enzyme and how it works. Kornberg has used his status as a Nobel Laureate on behalf of various causes. Arthur Kornberg is an expert in DNA replication, and in particular DNA polymerases. He is currently an active Professor Emeritus in the Department of Biochemistry at Stanford University School of Medicine, and he holds memberships in several scientific associations, including the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society, and the American Philosophical Society. He has also authored over 300 scientific publications from 1956 to 1994 relating to DNA replication, DNA polymerases, and other aspects of nucleic acid enzymology.

Arthur Kornbergs accomplishments still continue today, and the list is growing. Many of the enzymes that he isolated are also used in modern genetic engineering today. His work has help spawn a new generation of research in molecular medicine, has completely transformed the nature of medical research, and has enabled scientists to make great strides in the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders. His research has laid the foundation for the clinical advances in the treatment of many devastating human disorders. D.

Conclusion Professor Kornberg finds time to travel and lecture at many universities and research centers. He calls for a return of simple curiosity. He lectures that scientists need to be able to study science for curiositys sake and not be driven by the possible dollar benefits-and governments should encourage them. He is adamant that research into science should proceed, despite public concerns that new discoveries, especially in genetic engineering, could be abused. There is often a focus on the alarmist possibilities of any new technology; however it is foolish to try and predict where science will take us.

He states there hasnt been a single instance of biotechnology being misapplied. Its safer than driving. Professor Kornberg is a remarkable individual, and his devotion to his field of study is inspirational. His contributions have advanced medical knowledge. Medical knowledge needs to constantly advance because of the challenges of new problems- such as novel toxins and resistant organisms that are constantly arising. I believe that research is the lifeline to medicine; we should continue to question and search for answers. Science Essays.

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