Julius Caesar

.. ouragement. Cowards die many times before their deaths,” are among the words that Shakespeares puts into his mouth,”the valiant taste of death but once.” If we would read the histlry of those years of almost constant campaigning, from 58 to 49 B.C., where better than in those memories of Caesars own writting, that are among the materpieces of latin lierature. Of course interest to us in 55 B.C. when the Roman expeditionary forces sailed from Boulogne and the men got ashore on the coast at Deal.

This first invasion was nothing more than a reconnaissance, and after three weeks Casear went back across the Channel. But in the summer of the next year he returned, and this time he penetrated as far as the valley of the Thames in Middlesex. After considerable figting, the Britons under Cassivellaunus sued for terms, gave hostages and agreed to pay tribute. Whereupon Caesar sailed back to Gual, where there was always a risk that the recently subdued natives might make a fresh bid for their independence. In fact, they did rebel, and for several years Caesar found a worthy match in the young Vercingetorix.

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Once he was defeated, and the Roman position in Gual was threatened as it had never been before. But Caesar managed to unite his forces, and at Alesia in 52 B.C. crushed the Gaulish armies and obtained Vercingetorixs surrender. This was the end to resistance to Roman rule henceforth Gual was a great and increasingly prosperous province of the Roman realm. Casears victory was opportune, for affairs at Rome demanded his attention.

The Triumvirate was on the verge of dissolution. Pompey was estranged, and Crassus had gone off to the east, where he met disaster and death in battle with the Parthians. Caesars terms of office in Gaul was nearing its end, and already his enemies in Rome were talking of what they would do to him when he had returned to civil life. They complained of his having overstepped his authority, of having embarked on grandiose schemes of comquest, of cruelties inflicted on poor inoffensive barbarians. All there things were reported to Caesar in his camp, and, being the man he was, it is not surprising that he resolved to get in the firt blow. Although he had only one legion under his immediate command, and Pompey had been boasting that he had only to stamp on the ground and legions would rise up to do his bidding he resolved to march on Rome.

Early in January, 49 B.C. he took the decisive step of crossing the Rubicon, the little river that ws the boundry of his command. As he watched his men plunging into streams he talked up and down the banks, and some who were near said that he muttered the wrods “Jacta alea est”, “the die is cast” . Whether he spoke the words or not, the die was cast, and in open defiance of Pompeys government, Caesar marched with all speed on the capital. Pompeys support disintegrated, and he was foced to flee overseas.

Caesar entered Rome triumph. Almost without a blow Caesar had become master of Rome, and he ws forthwith granted dictatorial powers. But Pomey and his friends rallied, and for the next five years Caesar was chiefly engaged in defeating, first, Pompey at Pharsalia in Greece, soon after which Pompey was murdered in Egypt, next Pompeys sons in spain, and hten the army of those Roman leaders who constituted what was known as the senatorial party those who clung to the onle time-honoured system of republican rule through the Senate. A strange intrelude in this torrent of campaining is the time spent by Caesar in Egypt, when he had an affair with the beautiful young Queen Cleopatra, who bore him a son. After this he proceeded to Asia Minor, where Pharnaces, the son and murdered of King Mithridates, was Causing trouble. Caesar made short work of him.

In his message to the Senate he reported “Veni, vidi, vici”, “I came, I saw, I conquered. At length he returned to Rome, and was according yet another triumph he had had four already. Vast crowds acclaimed him as he passed in his chariot through the streets on his way to the Capitol. Great hopes were centered upon him, great things were expected of him. The old system must soon come to birth.

We shall never know what vast schemes were fermenting in the brain of the man who was now hailed as Impector, the first of the emperors ot walk the stage of history, but we may perhaps get some idea of them from what he managed to accomplish in the all too short period that was left to him. For the most part they were young men and vigorous, and he was middle-aged and grown heavy and less active than in the days when he had soldiered with his men in Gual. But he put up a good fight. He struggled, unarmed though he was, tried to push them sway, and then struck at them with his meta stilus or pen. Then he saw Brutus was among his assailants.

“what, you too, Brutus” as he said and convering his body with his robe so that he should fall decently, suffered himself to be overborne. He fell, with twenty-three wounds in his body, at the foot of the statue of his great rival Pompey, which, with characteristic magnanimity, he had allowed to be re-erected in the Capitol. Such was their mad fury, some of the murderers had wounded one another in their bloody work. Now they ruched from the scene, sxultingly shouting that the Tyrant was no more. Thy called upon the people who were there to rejoice with them, but the people hung their heads, or muttered a prayer or fled. So Caesar died “the noblest man”, to quote Shakespeares immortal lines again, “that ever lived in the tide of times Bibliography Great Kings, Queens and Rulers of the World Edited by John Canning School Library Journal Audio Recording Drama Theater Julius Caear http://homepages.iol.ie/~coolmine/typ/romans/roman s6.html Julius Caesar http:library.thinkingquest.org/17120/data/bios/use rs/caesar/page 1.html The Word Book Encyclopedia Julius Caesar Vol 3.

Julius Caesar

.. ore. But the senate hesitated. In the year 50 B.C., Caesar still tried to extend his governership, but to ensure the loyalty of his army he doubled their pay. The senate delivered a crushing blow in the fall.

The senate voted and ordered Caesar and Pompeius to give up control of their armies and provinces. Caesar’s followers tried to veto it, but the hostile consul ordered Pompeius to defend the Republic with two Legions at Capua and the authority to raise more. Caesar thereupon gathered his own armies and went south. Both commanders were still on speaking terms and Caesar made another proposal; he would relinquish control of all but two of his legions and The province of Cisalpine Gaul (the part of Gaul lying in Italy!). Pompeius agreed, but the senate ordered him to hold foot. Caesar then made an ultimatum; he summed up his services to the state and demanded that he keep his legions and provinces till he was elected consul.

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In January 49 B.C. Mark Anthony, Caesar’s trusted lieutenant, demanded that the ultimatum was read aloud in the senate. But although the majority would have sued for peace, the opponents of Caesar blocked all compromises and bullied all the frightened senators that Caesar should disband his armies or be declared enemy of the state. Caesar was stripped of all his offices; The Republic declared war on Caesar. Caesar heard of the senates response and did what he did best: He acted.

11 January he led his single legion which he had assembled across the bridge over a small stream that marked the boundary between his province and the Roman homeland: The Rubicon.. Pompeius tried to stop Caesar, but all was in vain. No one dared to stand up against Caesar’s crack veteran soldiers. The senate panicked and left Italy, leaving the treasury intact behind them (how stupid can you be..). The senate and Pompeius fled to Albania.

Once in Rome Caesar wasted no time. Against no effective opposition, he assembled a makeshift senate, took control of the government and broke open the treasury. Mark Antony was put in charge of the Italian legions and Caesar himself went to the independent city of Massilia (Marseille). He could not capture the city, but he went to Spain and crushed Pompeius followers (most defected to Caesar). When Caesar returned to Massilia, he was clement and did not sack the city, but it was no longer independent. He returned to Rome as a victor, but there was still Pompeius and the old senate.

Pompeius himself had raised a massive army in Macedonia. Caesar was bold but extremely outnumbered. His boldness scared Pompeius into a retreat. On a morning in early August both armies collided. Caesar’s left and center held fast, while his right withdrew. Pompeius, seeing this, hurled his cavalry in the gap, but Caesar pulled an ace out of his sleeve. He sent in his last reserve (Napoleon; the positioning and the timing of the reserve is one of the most important decisions on the battlefield) and Pompeius’ lines simply collapsed.

Nineteen months after the crossing of the Rubicon, Caesar was made master of Rome and its empire. Pompeius fled to Egypt but was killed on arrival by his own men. Caesar, hot on his heels, is said to have wept for his former son in law. In 46 B.C. after snuffing out 4 small rebellions, Caesar was clearly omnipotent and the senate declared him dictator for life.

The Ultimate Betrayal Each one of us has set goals for his or her own life. Some are realistic and some are not. We all like to feel like we have accomplished something in life. That is the reason we set those goals. Some people however, will do anything to acheive those goals.

They do not care who they hurt, or what the consequences will be. Just as long as they accomplish what they set out to do. Gaius Caesar had a goal. He lusted greedily for power. He craved blood. He killed, he conquered, he subdued.

As if by some unseen force he was driven. He wanted to have absolute power. In 44 B.C. he accomplished that goal. He paid the ultimate price for what he wanted. I believe however, Jackie Gleason (while portraying Ralph Kramden,) said it best, Be kind to the people you meet on the way up, because you are gonna meet the same people on the way down.

Although this bit of wisdom was siezed from an episode on The Honeymooners, this saying still holds true today. Caesar became dictator, but the price for that victory was insurmountable. Fear was on every side. He could not trust anyone. Caesar obtained innumerable adversaries. Many of his enemies feared him.

Because of this fear, they chose to hate him secretly. One prime example is that of Cicero. Cicero wrote letter revealing his apparent dislike for Caesar after Caesar’s demise. This proves that not all of Caesar’s enemies were bold enough to air their hatred openly. Many friends and confidants secretly hated him as well.

On the 6th of March 44 B.C., the so called Ides of March, was Caesar murdered by Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius, Decimus Brutus and Gaius Trebonius, the last being an old commanders of his legions and a dear friend. Reflections A popular saying in this country is that every man has his price. The price for ultimate power cost Gaius Caesar his family his friends and ultimately his life. In return, he received power, fame and fortune. Not many people are willing to pay that high of a price, for anything.

Some people are ambitious and they like that sort of power. Some will do anything to get it. Lust, greed, or an unquenchable thirst for power, is what drives them. However, one should not allow his or her thirst for power and greatness interfere with the lives of others. A popular proverb declares you reap what you sow.

In the life of Caesar this proverb was proven to be true. If Caesar had been killed in a war. He would have died with honor as a hero. But because he was ruthless and greedy for power, he died a cold, miserable, death,at the hands of his so-called friends. He lived as a ruthless animal, and died as a worthless dog.

We are each allowed only one life on this earth. Each one of us has a choice of which path we choose to take. We can either choose life or we can choose death. No one can force us to choose. We must make our choice willingly. Caesar made his choice, and he paid the price for that choice.

I pray those of us that follow him, learn from his mistakes, and make the right choice. Bibliography Bibliography Books: Jerome Carcopino. Daily Life In Ancient Rome: Yale University Press 1940 Christian Meier. Caesar A Biography: Basic Books 1982 Holy Bible (King James Version) Zondervan 1994 Internet Sources: Biography Julius Caesar. http://cyberessays.com/History/75.htm Julius Caesar. http://homepages.iol.ie/~coolmine/typ/romans/roman s6.html Chapter 3 1. Holy Bible (King James Version) Zondervan 1994.

Proverbs 4:47 History Essays.

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar Julius Caesar A baby was born on July 12 or 13 of 100 BC in Rome. Little did the proud parents of this baby know that he would rule most of the known world. This baby was born to the name of Gaius, his personal name, Julius was the name of his family’s clan and the name of his family was Caesar meaning hairy. Caesar was such an amazing man that many people couldn’t believe that he was born the same way as them. Over time stories have arisen about Caesar’s birth.

One story says that Caesar was pulled from an incision in his mother’s stomach. This is where the medical term of Cesarean section came from, from Caesar’s birth. Not everyone paid that much attention to the birth of Caesar, it was overshadowed by exploits of his Uncle Gaius Marius. Marius was a politician, he was a “new man” or a plebeian politician. He married into the aristocratic Caesar family so he would have a name to back up his words.

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Marius did not receive a first-class education or a lot of other advantages some politicians had. Marius was elected consul in 108 BC, once in office he proved himself as a brilliant general. He persuaded the senate to send him to Africa and replace the general in the war there. He took over for General Metellus. Soon he ended the war that had been dragging on for many years.

When he returned to Rome Marius found another chance for fame. Nomadic German tribes had invaded the north of Italy and winning a couple battles over Roman armies. Marius took the spotlight away from this little bundle of joy named Caesar. No matter what he wanted he was propelled into politics. Many of his relatives were senators or held other important political offices.

He listened to many political discussions between his family which had substantial influences on him. He was trained to be a politician by his tutor Antonius Gnipho. He studied Greek and Latin literature, philosophy, and most important, rhetoric or the art of persuasive argument. At the age of twelve he was brought to the senate house to watch speeches and debates. As a kid he wrote numerous poems and plays.

Augustus believed that these writings might tarnish his reputation, when he became emperor he burned all of Caesar works. Caesar was a very handsome boy and for that matter man too. He dressed in a style all his own. He was not very strong as boy. All male children were expected to be good athletes.

Caesar acquired skills in running, fencing, and horseback riding. He became capable of physical feats that would astonish his childhood friends. His health was a bit frail as a kid. At an early age he became somewhat deaf and after he was thirty he suffered occasionally from fits of epilepsy. He was rather tall for a man from his time, he grew to be about five feet eight inches tall.

In Roman tradition the fathers arranged their children’s’ marriages at an early age. Caesar’s father arranged his marriage with a young woman named Cossutia. Caesar hated this idea. He wanted to control his own life. He had a strong will of his own.

But he had lots of respect for his father so he agreed to marry Cossutia. The marriage did not last long, only a few months. Soon after the wedding Caesar divorced his bride. A little later Caesar’s father died. When Caesar was nineteen he fell deeply in love with a woman named Cornelia. Cornelia was Cinna’s daughter and Cinna was Marius’ most powerful colleague and co-consul. This entangled Caesar even more with politics.

Having Marius as an uncle and Cinna as a father-in-law. Soon after the marriage Caesar and Cornelia had a daughter, whom they named Julia after his aunt and Marius’ wife. Marius and Cinna were elected consuls while Sulla was at war with Mithridates in 86 BC. Soon after both Cinna and Marius died. It left their party leaderless and could not stop Sulla from taking control of the republic.

When Sulla took control he forced Caesar to divorce Cornelia as a test of loyalty. He refused to divorce the love of his life. He knew that men had been killed for far less serious things. He knew his life was in danger, he avoided execution by leaving Rome for the hilly country side near Rome. Caesar eluded hunters and police with a small group of his slaves for a few weeks. Then he became weak and sick from exposure, exhaustion, and a lack of sleep since he had been sleeping on the ground.

While he was sick his slaves carried him around. One night Caesar and his slaves ran into one of Sulla’s men in the hills, even in his state of being he managed to keep the man from arresting him and bringing him into Rome. Soon after this incident Caesar found out some of his powerful friends were going to try and get him a pardon. He returned to Rome. After Cornelia nursed him back to health he was summoned to the forum.

He went there and came face to face with Sulla who with a slight move of hand could have him executed on the spot. His friends pleaded that he was just a boy; hotheaded, and his refusal had nothing to do with politics. Sulla granted Caesar a pardon by saying, “You have made your point, and you can have him, but always bear in mind that one Caesar is worse than a dozen Mariuses.” Even though Caesar had a pardon he knew that he was not safe in Rome. He would leave the first chance he got. In 81 BC he got his chance. He was offered a spot on the staff of proconsul Thermus.

He immediately excepted the offer. Thermus was going to Asia Minor to control the rebellious Mytileneans. Soon after arriving in Asia Minor Caesar was sent to make sure Nicomedes, king of Bithynia on the Black Sea, had kept his promise to bring his fleet of ships to help Thermus control the Mytileneans. When Caesar arrived in Bithynia he was astonished by the king’s luxuries. The king really showed off his wealth. On Caesar’s first night in Bithynia he slept on a bed of gold and on the second he was the guest of honor at a banquet.

Caesar and Nicomedes became close friends and the king gave his young friend who he had come to admire gifts of money. Caesar did not forget his mission and the ships were sent to Thermus’ aid. Caesar had to leave Bithynia and return to his duties in the army, which he did reluctantly. Mytilene was taken by storm and Caesar won the civic crown, Rome’s highest award for courage. Caesar was kept busy with administrative duties in Asia Minor.

Caesar was going to join up with the navy to stop the pirates in the eastern Mediterranean until he got word that Sulla was dead. Caesar was now twenty-two and he would start his political career. He returned to Rome and had a joyous reunion with his wife and daughter. He refused to ally himself with the Sulla or the Marius political party. He decided not to be a politician just yet.

For the time being he wrote poetry and touched down in science. He through huge parties that plunged him in to debt. Many money lenders felt that Caesar would be in a position to pay them back many times over. Caesar knew he could make a name for himself by prosecuting or defending an official who had committed crimes while in office. Caesar decided he would prosecute the former governor of Macedonia, Gnaeus Dolabella, who had used public funds greedily. Caesar’s speeches and case was well organized and made a good impression on the judges but Caesar lost the case.

Dolabella had hired two of the best lawyers in Rome. Caesar’s debts were growing and his career was baffled again. He decided to leave Rome again. He boarded a ship for the East. His ship was nearing the coast of Asia Minor when pirates attacked the ship and took Caesar prisoner.

They demanded a ransom of about thirty thousand dollars but Caesar bitterly told the pirates he was worth seventy-five thousand dollars. The pirates happily changed the ransom. Caesar’s friends quickly set out to raise the money. Caesar was held hostage by his captors for thirty-eight days. During those five weeks Caesar acted as if the pirates were his body guards and not captors. He wrote verses and speeches and the pirates that did not admire his speeches and verses, he called them illiterate to their faces. He would often threaten to hang them they attributed this to a boyish playfulness.

They were very wrong. As soon as the ransom arrived he scurried off to make a force of men from nearby towns offering them all the money and possessions they could get off the ship. He apprehended all of the pirates and carried out the threat he made while prisoner, he hung every one of them there and then. He continued to his original destination, he island of Rhodes. On the island he studied rhetoric with the famous teacher Apollonius Molon.

He soon found out that his mother’s brother, Cotta, the priest, had died and now there was an open spot in the College of Priests. The seat was being held for Caesar. This post was important because it could lead to the office of High Priest of Rome. In 74 BC, the twenty-six year old, Caesar, went back to Rome to try and jump-start his career again. Caesar had four wives.

His first wife was Cossutia. The marriage was arranged by Caesar’s father. The marriage only lasted a couple months and then they were divorced. His second wife was Cornelia, Cinna’s daughter. Caesar fell deeply in love with her when he was nineteen.

Cornelia died while Caesar was quaestor. His third wife was Pompeia she was Sulla’s grand-daughter. He married into the family of one of his enemies. A festival that was being held by Pompeia excluded all men from the holy festival. Men were not even allowed to know what happens at the festival.

On the day of the festival Caesar had to leave his house, during the day he got an urgent message from his mother telling him to come home. When he came home he found Clodius hiding in the house watching the events. Caesar divorced Pompeia a f …


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