Julias Caesar

cripay dividends for the remainder of his career, Cromwell demanded that both officers and men meet the highest standards of moral character and honesty. He expected instant responsiveness to commands and forbade looting, swearing, or an Despite his age, Cromwell, at forty-three, raised a cavalry troop, his first military command. Following criteria that would pay dividends for the remainder of his career, Cromwell demanded that both officers and men meD or was born in the year 100 BC into a patrian family who claimed decendancy from the kings of Alba Langa and through them, Aeneas of Troy whose mother was the goddess Venus. Caesar’s name Julius comes from Iulius, the family name. This comes from Iulus, the name of Venus’ son.
At the time of his birth, Rome was still a republic and the empire was only really beginning. The senators ruled, motivated by the greed of power in the hope of becoming either a consul or a praetor, the two senior posts which carried imperium, the legal right to command an army. From these posts it was possible to, with the help of the army at your command, conquer new territories and so gain a triumph and the pleasure of knowing that your name would be remembered forever in statues and inscribed monuments, paid for by the spoils of the war.

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The most used method of transport the romans used was the horse and the chariot. Simply because they did not have much other ways to travel. When people traveled they also could have walked but it is tiring and that would of affected the way they would of fought performance wise. When they wanted to travel they used a sailing ship or a row boat. This was also used by the Roman Army because it was powerful and affective. ghest standards of moral character and honesty. He expected instant responsiveness to comma From early times right down to the 3rd century A.D, the Roman army was based on its legions. A legion varied in strength from 4,000 to 6,000 men, and was subdivided onto ten cohorts. Its leader used the title of legatus. His staff officers were called tribuni. Senior non-commissioned officers were called centurions, who varied greatly in rank. The soldiers of the legion were specifically picked men. They were all Roman citizens and received a higher pay than the auxillary troops – that is, foreigners who serve with the Roman army.

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A legion consisited of heavily armoured infantry (foot soldiers). The Roman infantry became a feared force. They were well disciplined and well trained. Their weapons were two pila or javelins each and a short thrusting gladius or sword. Cavalry was supplied by the auxilaries ( second line troops ) and was organized mainly in units of 500 strong.

When it was on campaigns the army was accompanied by a number of specialists. One was the camp commandant, who was responsible for the organization of the camp. The Romans were very careful about their camps. No Roman army halted for a single night without digging trenches and setting up camp. Each soldier took his share in establishing the camp and striking the camp the next day. Another specialist was the quaestor, whose duty was to look after all the money matter. then there were the engineers and all kinds of craftsmen and artisans. They were responsible for siege operations and for the rather primative Roman “artillery”, which consisted of huge catapults and complicated machines something like crossbows. These were mainly used for hurling big rocks and stones at the walls of a defense of their opponents. The engineers also had to build the moveable towers that were used in sieges. The Roman soldiers went up inside these towers so that they could see over the walls of a fortified place and shoot their stones and arrows into it. The engineers also made the scaling ladders that were used for getting over walls.
The Roman soldiers won their battles by their courage, fitness, strength and the ability to use different weapons. Plus in addition to his weapons that each soldier had to carry provisions, for two weeks and tools for pitching camp.

When the soldiers went into line of battle to fight, the formation was called acies; when they were marching in column it was called agmen. If during a battle the legion were hard pressed, the soldiers formed an orbis, which was very like the square that the British army formed in the 18th and 19th centuries if it was in difficulties. The standard of a legion was the aquila, or eagle (made of silver or bronze) and showing the bird with outstretched wings. It was of the greatest disgrace if the eagle was captured.

At its finest period the Roman army was almost inconquerable. There were three main reasons for this: Discipline, hard efficient training, how fast they were able to learn new tactics.

mwell’s military strategy.
Cromwell armed his men with the most modern of weapons and uniforms and mounted them onHe was a brilliant military leader and lead many campaigns:
58 BC -The Helvetic Campaign
57 BC -The Belgic Campaign
56 BC -The Venetic Campaign
55 BC -The German Campaign
54 BC -The British Campaign
Caesar made his way to praetorship by 62 BC and many of the senate felt him a dangerous, ambitious man. Because of this, they deprived him of a triumph after his praetorian command in Spain (61-60 BC) and they also did their best to keep him out of consulship. He finally became consul in 59 BC.

Much of the thanks for this achievement should be given to Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey the Great) who had just come back from a campaign which had doubled the income of the Roman treasury and gained three new provinces to the empire. Because of this he had popular support and his voice carried great weight with the public at large. Because of Pompey, however, to become a leading person in Roman politics you had to have more then just an ordinary triumph.

It was because of this that Caesar, during his consulship, pushed through a special law giving him a five-year command in Cispine Gaul and Illyricum, both provinces in the empire covering North Italy and the Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. Caesar saw this as a great opportunity to extend the empire either into Gaul or in the Balkins. While in Gaul, the most important section of the Roman Army, positioned at the German border, was under his control.

ses. He also provided sufficient pay in a timely manner. The key to success of Cromwell’s first troop of horsemen – and, later, his larger commands – was discipline. Repetitive drill and strong leaders enabled Cromwell to recall his attacking forces to re-form for further charges or even to change the direction of an ongoing attack.
Cromwell’s tactics capitalized on the discipline of his troopers. Rather than advancing at the gallop typical of cavalry of the period, Cromwell’s horsemen advanced at a trot, prepared to react to and exploit any change in the battle that revealed an enemy weakness. Armament for each hor5seman included a brace of flintlock pistols and then drew their three-foot-long, double-edged broadswords to break through the lines.
From the first days of the war, Cromwell’s cavalry proved effective. Success brought Cromwell promotion to colonel and command of a regiment that he led to victory over the Royalists at Grantham on May 13, 1643, and Burleigh House and Gainsborough in July. Numbering fourteen troops, twice the usual size of such a unit, Cromwell’s regiment earned the title “Ironsides” for themselves and their leader during successful campaigns in the winter of 1643-44.
In 1645 the rebel forces reorganized into the “New Model Army,” replacing leaders who had gained their commands because of their parliamentary positions with better-qualified officers. As a result, Cromwell assumed command of all cavalry forces and played an intricate role in infusing his ideas of organization and discipline throughout the army. These changes produced the first large professional army in English history, exemplified by red uniform coats that would become their symbol for generations to come.
On June 14, 1645, the New Model Army and Cromwell’ cavalry crushed the Royalists at Naseby. Following several more rebel victories, the Civil War concluded in 1646 with an uneasy truce between the king and Parliament, but a complex series of political events led to the Second Civil War in 1648. Cromwell quickly put down an uprising in Wales and proved the effectiveness of the overall generalship by his successful use of infantry in addition to cavalry in a victory over the Scots allied with the king at Preston.
In 1649 Cromwell sat with the parliamentary forces that tried and executed King Charles. Shortly after the execution, Cromwell, in command of the entire army, began operations to the end all opposition within the British Isles. He landed at Dublin, Ireland, in August and in September stormed the Catholic stronghold of Drogheda. Cromwell’s soldiers massacred the survivors, including the town’s civilians. Other Irish garrisons quickly surrendered to avoid a similar fate.
By the spring of 1650, Cromwell, having subdued the remaining Irish resistance, returned to England in time to combat a Scottish rebellion. Although he rarely committed his forced to battle unless he had numerical superiority, at Dunbar he faced a Scottish force that nearly doubled the size of his twelve thousand-man army. Using a rainstorm to hide his movement, Cromwell attacked and defeated the Scots. A year later, at Worcester, he destroyed the last remnants of resistance. All of the British Isles were now united under a single government.
Although offered the throne as king, Cromwell declined. Instead, he created the position of Lord Protector in 1653, which provided his absolute power. Cromwell proved to be an unusually tolerant leader, especially considering his brutality on the battlefield and his sue of religious intolerance to motivate his army. He allowed Protestants to freely practice their religion, and the permitted Jews, whom the British had banned from the country for more than three hundred years, to return and to observe their religious ceremonies without persecution.
Cromwell’s reign as Lord Protector was short-lived, lasting only five years. On May 3, 1658, just after his fifty-ninth birthday, he died of malaria in London and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His son Richard took his place, but he was unable to retain power. In the complex politics of England, Charles II, son of the king Cromwell had helped execute, regained power in 1660. Cromwell’s body was disinterred and hung from the gallows as a traitor. His remains were later buried at the foot of the gibbet.
y other “un Cromwell’s reign as Lord Protector was short-lived, lasting only five years. On May 3, 1658, just after his fifty-ninth birthday, he died of malaria in London and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His son Richard took his place, but he was unable to retain power. In the complex politics of England, Charles II, son of the king Cromwell had helped execute, regained power in 1660. Cromwell’s body was disinterred and hung from the gallows as a traitor. His remains were later buried at the foot of the gibbet.
godly” behavior. Religious zeal and the belief that opponents did not have God’s blessings remained at the forefront of Cromwell’s military strategy.
Cromwell armed his men with the most modern of weapons and uniforms and mounted them on the best available horses. He also provided sufficient pay in a timely manner. The key to success of Cromwell’s first troop of horsemen – and, later, his larger commands – was discipline. Repetitive drill and strong leaders enabled Cromwell to recall his attacking forces to re-form for further charges or even to change the direction of an ongoing attack.
Cromwell’s tactics capitalized on the discipline of his troopers. Rather than advancing at the gallop typical of cavalry of the period, Cromwell’s horsemen advanced at a trot, prepared to react to and exploit any change in the battle that revealed an enemy weakness. Armament for each hor5seman included a brace of flintlock pistols and then drew their three-foot-long, double-edged broadswords to break through the lines.
From the first days of the war, Cromwell’s cavalry proved effective. Success brought Cromwell promotion to colonel and command of a regiment that he led to victory over the Royalists at Grantham on May 13, 1643, and Burleigh House and Gainsborough in July. Numbering fourteen troops, twice the usual size of such a unit, Cromwell’s regiment earned the title “Ironsides” for themselves and their leader during successful campaigns in the winter of 1643-44.
In 1645 the rebel forces reorganized into the “New Model Army,” replacing leaders who had gained their commands because of their parliamentary positions with better-qualified officers. As a result, Cromwell assumed command of all cavalry forces and played an intricate role in infusing his ideas of organization and discipline throughout the army. These changes produced the first large professional army in English history, exemplified by red uniform coats that would become their symbol for generations to come.
On June 14, 1645, the New Model Army and Cromwell’ cavalry crushed the Royalists at Naseby. Following several more rebel victories, the Civil War concluded in 1646 with an uneasy truce between the king and Parliament, but a complex series of political events led to the Second Civil War in 1648. Cromwell quickly put down an uprising in Wales and proved the effectiveness of the overall generalship by his successful use of infantry in addition to cavalry in a victory over the Scots allied with the king at Preston.
In 1649 Cromwell sat with the parliamentary forces that tried and executed King Charles. Shortly after the execution, Cromwell, in command of the entire army, began operations to the end all opposition within the British Isles. He landed at Dublin, Ireland, in August and in September stormed the Catholic stronghold of Drogheda. Cromwell’s soldiers massacred the survivors, including the town’s civilians. Other Irish garrisons quickly surrendered to avoid a similar fate.
By the spring of 1650, Cromwell, having subdued the remaining Irish resistance, returned to England in time to combat a Scottish rebellion. Although he rarely committed his forced to battle unless he had numerical superiority, at Dunbar he faced a Scottish force that nearly doubled the size of his twelve thousand-man army. Using a rainstorm to hide his movement, Cromwell attacked and defeated the Scots. A year later, at Worcester, he destroyed the last remnants of resistance. All of the British Isles were now united under a single government.
Although offered the throne as king, Cromwell declined. Instead, he created the position of Lord Protector in 1653, which provided his absolute power. Cromwell proved to be an unusually tolerant leader, especially considering his brutality on the battlefield and his sue of religious intolerance to motivate his army. He allowed Protestants to freely practice their religion, and the permitted Jews, whom the British had banned from the country for more than three hundred years, to return and to observe their religious ceremonies without persecution.
Cromwell’s reign as Lord Protector was short-lived, lasting only five years. On May 3, 1658, just after his fifty-ninth birthday, he died of malaria in London and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His son Richard took his place, but he was unable to retain power. In the complex politics of England, Charles II, son of the king Cromwell had helped execute, regained power in 1660. Cromwell’s body was disinterred and hung from the gallows as a traitor. His remains were later buried at the foot of the gibbet.

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