.. ds to diagnose to a subsystem rather than a specific problem. Johnson’s Model states that it is at this point when the nurse is needed in order to return the client to homeostasis (Conner et al., 1994). Application in Nursing Practice The application of any nursing model to practice requires three conditions: the model’s congruence with practice requirements, its comprehensive development in relation to practice requirements, and its specificity in relation to practice requirements. These conditions governing a nursing model’s applicability should be understood to enable practitioners to appropriately and effectively use models in practice (Derdiarian, 1993).
What is nursing practice and what are requirements of the practice? Nursing practice derives its definition from that of professional practice, the action or process of performing something, the habitual or customary performance of something (Random House College Dictionary, 1988). Professional practice has three main requirements: perspective, structure and scientific substance. The first requirement is the perspective, or a mental view, of facts or ideas and their interrelationships pertinent of the professions’ practice. In nursing, the perspective of the practice refers to nursing’s view of the patient and its role in relation to the patient (Derdiarian, 1993). More specifically, the profession’s perspective clarifies the nature, goal, focus, and scope of its realm of its science and practice (Derdiarian, 1993).
By so doing, the profession’s perspective distinguishes nursing’s realm of science and practice from those of related fields. At the same time, the perspective identifies appropriate alignments between nursing’s research and practice and those of other professions. In other words, the professional perspective provides the professional with a knowledge base and a mind-set about the patient, about her/his role in relation to the patient, and her/his actions necessary to fulfill that role (Derdiarian, 1993). The second requirement of professional practice is a structure for practice to organize and standardize practice and, thus, render practice habitual and customary. Professional practice is structured to evaluate a client’s well-being, identify problems, and provide solutions. The latter require organized and scientifically rational processes of assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation of outcomes.
In nursing, this structure pertains to the Nursing Process (Derdiarian, 1993). Finally, the third requirement of professional practice is the coherent scientific body of knowledge that underlies it or the profession’s actions and processes. The scientific body of knowledge includes facts, theories, hypotheses, and precepts, and assumptions underlying both the perspective and structure of practice. In nursing, this body of knowledge includes the facts, theories, hypotheses, and precepts about nursing, nursing practice actions, and nursing practice methods. Stated more specifically, nursing practice requires a body of scientific knowledge that rationalizes its view of the client, its role, nature, goal focus, and scope.
Furthermore, nursing practice requires a body of scientific knowledge that rationalizes the nursing methods of assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation of outcomes (Derdiarian, 1993). The JBS model meets the professional perspective requirements because of its interaction between the SSs. The SSs are interactive and interdependent, restoration in one subsystem could effect restoration of behavior in another or others. Thus requiring diagnostic and interventive action directed at all the SSs (Derdiarian, 1993). The model as it stood before did not meet the practice structure requirements well (Derdiarian, 1983), but interaction and studies into the model prompted Johnson to add five types of interventions-nurturance, stimulation, protection, regulation, and control (Derdiarian, 1993).
It still leaves a gap in where to actually look for the problems that exist. The JBS model does not meet the scientific substance for practice well because it needs to be tested on its concepts, propositions, and assumptions. Despite the obvious overall failure of the JBS model to pass the professional requirements, the model is always being tested by someone, and some! day maybe conclude its worth and add to its value. Summary as related to Nursing, Person, Health, and Environment Nursing is a force acting to preserve to organization of the patient’s behavior while the patient is under stress by means of imposing regulatory mechanisms or by providing resources(Conner et al., 1994). An art and a science, it supplies external assistance both before and during system balance disturbance and therefore requires knowledge of order, disorder, and control (Johnson, 1980). Nursing activities are complementary of medicine, not dependent on. Person is viewed as a behavioral system with patterned, repetitive, and purposeful ways of behaving that link him to the environment (Johnson, 1980). Man’s specific response patterns form an organized and integrated whole (Conner et al., 1994).
Person is a system of interdependent parts that requires some regularity and adjustment to maintain a balance (Johnson, 1980). Health is perceived as an “elusive, dynamic state influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. It focuses on the person rather than the illness (Conner et al., 1994). Health is reflected by the organization, interaction, interdependence, and integration of the SSs of the behavioral system (Johnson, 1980). Man attempts to achieve a balance in this system, which will lead to functional behavior. A lack of balance in the requirements of the SSs lead to poor health (Conner et al., 1994). Environment consists of all the factors that are not part of the individual’s behavioral system but that influence the system and the nurse to achieve the health goal for the client.
Conclusion Johnson’s theory could help guide the future of nursing theories, models, research, and education. By focusing on behavioral rather than biology, the theory clearly differentiates nursing from medicine. But do we need to separate the behavioral from the biological. It can be an asset, and it can work, that has been proven by Johnson and some of her followers. In order to focus on the holistic idea of nursing, it is important to think of the behavioral and biological together as health. We cannot look at one without looking at the other.
There is not sufficient research to substantiate the real applicability of this model. This theory does provide a conceptual framework to work from, but this model will never be the standard for nursing. Bibliography Conner, S. S., Harbour, L. S., Magers, J. A., and Watt, J.
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