Introduction

.. sors, previous studies assessed muscles in the thigh, these muscles have different actions and different muscle fiber type compositions, and the results are not always comparable. A common well known problem studying human muscles is the difficulty controlling factors such as the individuals nutritional status, level of physical activity, etc. (Lindstrom et al.1997) It was found that the rate at which muscle force was lost during the fatigue test was unaffected by increasing age. The only noticeable difference between younger and older individuals was the larger variability in fatigue rate among both older men and older women compared to younger men and younger women.

This increased variability in fatigue rate in older individuals could be due to age-related alterations in fiber-type composition. (Lindstrom et al.1997) The results in this study imply that increasing age does not markedly alter the ability of the quadriceps muscle to maintain force throughout repeated dynamic contractions, and is in agreement with previous studies. (Lindstrom et al.1997) Slowed Muscle Contractile Properties are not Associated with a Decreased EMG/Force Relationship in Older Humans Alexander V. Ng and Jane A. Kent-Braun Ng and Kent-Braun (1999) tested the hypothesis that as a result of slower muscle contractile properties, the EMG force relationship decreased during voluntary contractions in older compared to young humans. The group consisted of 12 men and 10 women aged 25 44 and 9 men and 11 women aged 65 82. The volunteers were healthy nonsmoking individuals that had no more than two regular exercise sessions per week for the previous three months. (Ng & Kent-Braun, 1999) To measure force/frequency relationship the peak muscle force during supramaximal, electrically stimulated contractions of 1 s duration at 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 Hz. The measurements were obtained after the twitch and CMAP (compound muscle action potential) measurements were taken.

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(Ng & Kent-Braun, 1999) The maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) force was obtained after the data for the stimulated force-frequency relationship. Three MVCs were obtained, each during a voluntary 3-5 s maximal dorsi flexion. One minute of rest separated each MVC measurement. (Ng & Kent-Braun, 1999) To study possible changes in the EMG force relationship with age, the subjects performed graded, non-fatiguing isometric contractions from 10% to 100% MCV in 10% increments. Contractions were 10 s in duration and separated by one minutes rest.

(Ng & Kent-Braun, 1999) The results of this study showed that in addition to slower dorsi flexion contraction properties, the older compared to the young subjects had an increase in relative force production during low frequency stimuli. Despite this relative increase in force production, the surface EMG at low voluntary force levels was increased, not decreased, compared to younger adults. Thus, slowed muscle contractile properties in older compared to younger adults did not lead to a decreased EMG force relationship. Therefore, slower muscle contractile properties in older adults do not result in increased neural efficiency during voluntary contraction. (Ng & Kent-Braun, 1999) Gender Differences in Isometric Contractile Properties and Fatigability in Elderly Human Muscle Audrey L. Hicks and Neil McCartney This paper compares the isometric contractile characteristics and fatigability of the elbow flexors and ankle dorsi flexors in healthy males and females between 60 and 80 years, and examines the effects of 22 months of resistance training on these variables. (Hicks, A.

L. & McCartney, N. 1996) Resistance training took place twice a week, on alternate days. The training program was designed to involve several muscle groups, including the elbow flexors and ankle dorsi flexors. The exercises were completed using a circuit set system, with 2-minute rests between sets; each set consisted of either 10 (arms) or 12 (legs) repetitions. The training progressed from 2 sets of each exercise at 50% 1RM (one rep maximum) over the course of the study.

The 1RM was measured every 6 weeks, and the training loads were adjusted accordingly. The muscle contractile properties were measured at three time points– baseline, 10 months, and 22 months. (Hicks, A. L. & McCartney, N. 1996) When compared to younger adults, the muscles of older individuals are smaller, weaker, and slower to contract.

In this study the isometric and contractile speed of both the elbow flexors and ankle dorsi flexors were weaker and slower in older adults than in younger adults. Although the older subjects had smaller evoked Pts for the elbow flexors compared to that in younger adult, the Pts for the ankle dorsi flexors were not unlike those reported in the younger subjects. (Hicks, A. L. & McCartney, N. 1996) The measurement of muscle fatigue during voluntary isometric effort revealed a notable gender difference in fatigue resistance in the population, with female possessing a significantly greater endurance than males.

Two years of twice weekly dynamic resistance training resulted in virtually no changes in the isometric contractile properties or fatigability, despite very significant gains in dynamic strength. (Hicks, A. L. & McCartney, N. 1996) Summary The studies reviewed did not find definite results that aging affects specific strength, contractile properties, decreased EMG/force relationship, or endurance in older human muscle. Ng and Kent-Braun did however suggest during the study that testosterone might play a role in differentiating the strength of young men from older men.

They also suggested that relative force-frequency relationship was likely the consequence of the slower muscle contractile properties and could be considered adaptive or compensatory in nature. Hicks and McCartney suggested the change in contractile properties are muscle specific, and the degree and direction so change may depend on both the type and duration of training, as well as the amount of daily usage. Further investigations of the differences between muscle performances measured in the lab environment and in functional everyday situations, are a topic of interest that requires further research. Such studies could provide information useful to physicians and older humans on what to expect with aging and how to adapt to the changes that will enable older adults to continue to live their lives independently. Bibliography References Adams, K., OShea, P., & OShea, K. (1999).

Aging: its effect on strength, power, flexibility, and bone density. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 21(2), 65-77. Hicks, A. L. & McCartney, N.

(1996). Gender differences in isometric contractile properties and fatigability in elderly human muscle. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 21 (6), 451-454. Kent-Braun, J. A.

& Ng, A. V. (1999). Specific strength and voluntary muscle activation in young and elderly women and men. Journal of American Physiology [On-Line], 87 (1) 22-29.

Available: http//www.jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/87/1 /2 Lindstrom, B., Lexell, J., Gerdle, B., & Downham, D. (1997). Skeletal muscle fatigue and endurance in young and old men and women. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, 54 (1), B59-B66. Marieb, E.

N. (1998). Human Anatomy & Physiology. (4th Ed. ) Don Mills: Addison Wesley Longman.

Ng, A. V. & Kent-Braun, J. A. (1999). Slowed muscle contractile properties are not associated with a decreased EMG/Force relationship in older humans.

Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, 54A (10), B452-B458.

Introduction

.. ears first in youth court Judge informs youth of proceedings in adult court, unless an application to handle the matter in youth court, by youth or Crown, occurs. If application unopposed – no hearing – trial in youth court Application opposed-hearing -Same transfer test applicable – restructuring of words -Shift-in-onus provisions must be assessed in context of Transfer test Longer dispositions for murder in youth court Longer parole ineligibility WHY SO MANY TRANSFERS AND ARE THEY A GOOD IDEA? In recent years, the Canadian Courts seem to be transferring more young offender cases to adult court. One would assume that the main reason for this is because it lets the system deal more harshly with these offenders. Under current law, the maximum sentence a young offender can receive, in Youth Court, is 6 years.

If tried in adult court, the maximum sentences are higher. Those who believe in the lock ’em-up and throw away the key theory do not realize a few very important realities. For example, if a young offender were to be tried in youth court for armed robbery, he/she might receive a sentence of 2 years in secure custody. Under current legislation, he/she would have to serve the entire two-year sentence. There would be no parole board that would have the authority to release him/her before the sentence completed. The only possibility for an early release would be an appeal before a youth judge, called a Review of Disposition.

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If the offender were tried for the same offense in adult court, he would probably receive a sentence of about 4 years in jail, would go to prison and would be eligible for parole after serving one-sixth of his sentence, i.e. after 8 months. It would be a parole board that decides whether or not the offender would be released, and not a judge. The parole board might look at it differently than would a trial judge, and might release the offender earlier. Thus, by being sentenced as a youth, the young offender would probably serve more time in jail. As well, he/she would probably have more suitable rehabilitation programs available to him/her in a youth facility, as opposed to a federal prison. Why are we seeing this trend of more transfers to adult court? There has been a lot of public criticism of the Young Offenders Act and many people believe that the penalties are not stiff enough.

The fact that we are seeing more and more young offenders tried as adults may simply be a reaction by prosecutors and judges to this public criticism. If this is the case, then there is a potential problem, because the justice system is considering public pressures to be more important than the welfare of the young offender and of society. If some people think that our current justice system treats young offenders too harshly, and too quickly seeks to transfer young offenders to adult court, wait until they see some new federal government initiatives, initiatives which may soon become law and which I will discuss further on in this paper. The wording of the Young Offenders Act appears to be less stringent, in terms of the proof of transfer, than the standard of proof required in the old Juvenile Delinquents Act. (Bowker, pp.

479-480). In other words, it is easier to transfer under the Young Offenders Act than it was under the Juvenile Delinquents Act. This is another reason why we are seeing more transfers. SOME CASES In a 1989 case in the Supreme Court of Canada, R. v. S.H.M., the accused and another youth were charged with first degree murder and possession of stolen property.

The Crown Prosecutor applied to have the case transferred to adult court. The accused had a criminal record, for two counts of gross indecency, and had had a troubled childhood. Justice L’Heureux-Dub of the Supreme Court wrote, The test, set out by s.16(1) of the Young Offenders Act for transfer, is a balancing act. In other words, the question is whether the judge is satisfied, after weighing and balancing all the relevant considerations [as stated in section 16(2)] that the case should be transferred to adult court. In this case, seven of the nine judges ruled that the case should be transferred. The two dissenting judges believed that transfer should only be considered in exceptional cases, and they believed that this case was not exceptional. While it appears as though there is a trend in transferring to adult court more young offenders charged with serious offenses, according to Provincial Court Judge Irwin E.

Lampert of New Brunswick, transfer should only be considered when the crime in question is a very serious one and the Young Offender is close to the age of 18. As Judge Lampert said in R. v. M.L.S. , even when those two pre-conditions are present, transfer is ordered with the greatest of reluctance: Our children are our greatest investment in the future.

They bring us overwhelming joy and sometimes, extreme heartache. When they go astray, we must do all possible to direct them back onto the ‘straight and narrow’. We cannot abandon them, despite the setbacks. Programs might fail and counseling might be to no avail; yet, so long as there is a glimmer of hope, we must plod on. A 16 year old youth should not be abandoned to the adult system where he will be exposed to the very worst elements in our society unless and until we can say, with some certainty, that the youth system is not appropriate for him and has nothing else to offer him.

Without a doubt, protection of the public is of great importance. However, we must not look at this factor in the short-term. A young person dealt with in an overly harsh and inappropriate manner today might turn into a monster tomorrow, posing a far greater threat to society than he would have been, had he been dealt with in a more humane and appropriate way. CONCLUSION: The Young Offenders Act was originally established for the purpose of lowering the crime rate amongst youths. The majority of people would probably agree that it is falsely to assume that a youth between the age of 12 and 18 years has the same maturity, intelligence, and mind capability of differentiating right from wrong, as an adult with many more years of experience in life. Therefore youth crime should be handled differently than adult crime. The Young Offenders Act practices this theory.

In 1995-1996, in my home province of New Brunswick, approximately 5400 charges against young offenders were disposed of. In 1996-1997, approximately 5700 were disposed of, an increase of about 6% (Annual Report of New Brunswick Department of Justice for 1996-1997) From the statistics we read in the newspapers, it would appear that adult crime is decreasing. But as we see from the statistics in the preceding paragraph, the youth crime rate is increasing. This same situation probably exists across Canada. Therefore, maybe the government could be right in wanting to toughen up the Young Offenders Act, but only time will tell if that’s the right approach! Much can be said in critique or in praise of the Young Offenders Act. Needless to say, it is a very necessary law without which youth courts could not run and the youth justice system could not function. Therefore, in conclusion, while many people debate whether or not the Act is too “strict” or not “strict” enough, it has helped develop some decent human beings out of many troubled, and crime addicted young adults.

Introduction

William Randolph Hearst was by far one of the most successful and accomplished entrepreneurs in the publishing industry as well as the general business world. His contributions to American Society include innovative business ideas and methods practiced by his publications. He was a great leader, husband and father, and pioneer in mass media and journalism. His name can now be seen on
General Biography
William was born on April 29, 1863 in San Francisco. His father, George Hearst, was a rancher, miner, and U.S. Senator and his mother, Phoebe, was a school teacher and philanthropist. His parents were multimillionares and were involved with publications before William was born. William grew up as a trouble maker and was very sly in schools he attended. He played many practical jokes wherever he was. William attended Harvard University where he managed the student comic magazine called The Lampoon. He was expelled from school in 1885 because of a practical joke he played.
At the time, George was running a local newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, which was given to him as payment for a gambling debt. He was too busy as a California senator so he decided to give the paper to William who had asked to take over the Examiner. Hoping William would temporarily manage the paper and soon become a rancher and miner, George handed him the paper on March 7, 1887. William spent many hours a day and a lot of energy working on the paper, trying to prove he wasnt just a joker. At age 23 he proved to many that he could make the small daily newspaper a success.This began his career in publishing.

In 1895, William moved to New York City and bought the New York Journal and made it a success. New York became the headquarters for the Hearst Corporation. He competed directly with The (New York) World which was published by Joseph Pulitzer. Soon he purchased other papers and magazines. Thirty years after managing the Examiner, William owned 25 daily newspapers and magazines. The Hearst eagle became his trademark. He started the International News Service in 1909 to help reporting for all the publications. Because he started out in comics, he led the industry in making color comics in newspapers. Other contributions included banner headlines and editorials serving the interest of consumers. In the 1920’s, he became involved with radio broadcasting and in the 1940’s entered into television broadcasting. Hearst Metrotone News produced movie newsreels. William became known as “The Chief.” He contributed many editorial guidelines to the publishing industry.
Not only did William have an exciting life as an entrepreneur, he also was heavily involved in politics. From 1903 to 1907, he was a House representative for New York. In 1904, he actually ran for the mayor, governor, and nomination for president. All efforts were unsuccessful.

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In 1903, William married Millicent Willson. William had a family of five sons who all became executives in Hearst Newspapers, Inc. One of his sons, William Randolph Hearst, Jr. became a Pulitzer prize winner in 1956. And in 1974, Patricia Hearst, Williams granddaughter, was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army. This led to one of the biggest police searches ever in American history. She was later forced to join the army and was found and arrested for her actions. Years later she was released from prison by President Carter.
William died on August 14, 1951 at age 88 in Beverly Hills. He left behind his famous estate, Hearst Castle, located in San Simeon, California. The estate stretches 50 miles along the Pacific coast and includes 240,000 acres of land, 4 castles, and many priceless sculptures and paintings. The estate is now a California state park.
Timeline of Business Transactions
Business Methods
Hearst Corporation Today
Conclusion

Introduction

Introduction

In order to stay competitive, businesses have to be the best at what they do. Companys must be efficient and presise in all aspects of the job. (Metcalfe 1). ISO 9000 is made up of managements responsibility, the producers involved in the Quality Management System, the contract review, the design control, document and data control, purchasing, process control, inspection and testing, control of non-conforming product, corrective action, handling, storage, packaging and delivery, internal quality audits, training, servicing and statistical techniques (Prasanna 1). Quality control and quality assurance is very important there are certain requirements that take time and money to be met but in the end there are benefits. Types of specifications are very significant and the documentation of those is even more.

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Manufacturers and purchasers have major responsibility in the process of being successful. The quality of a product is so important, especially to the customer. A companys quality management system must become the documented proof of a firms commitment to quality management. A plan put together with quality procedures and work instructions is provided to help companies design their own quality management system. After completing the quality procedures, companies are audited and then determined if they should be certified for ISO 9000 or not (Parsanna 2).

ISO: International Organization of Standards Founded in 1947 in Geneva Switzerland, ISO developed international standards and helped exchange goods and services worldwide. It is made up of over 90 countries including the US, which is called the American National Standards Institute. The name ISO came from the Greek word, “isos,” meaning equal (Henkoff 2). ISO was created by business men (Henkoff 2). These business men knew what businesses needed to become more competitive and how they could get higher customer satisfaction, so ISO was developed.

ISO is not government regulated, but is ran by organizations like the US Registrar Accreditation Board. Such organizations authorize registrars which issue ISO certificates (Barrier 2). In Europe some organizations are government regulated. The American National Standards Institute runs the ISO in the US and authorizes the US Registrar Accreditation Board (Barrier 2). ISOs job is to set standards for companies all over the world so that their products come out efficiently and to the best quality.

This helps the customers who receive the exports know exactly what they are getting and are satisfied with the product. Setting these standards is done by ISO members at assembly meetings. Proposals are developed by the ISO Council, which is like the board of directors in a business. These meetings are held three times a year and the membership is rotated to allow more representatives in (iso online). Standards are developed by technical committees.

30,000 experts participate to give comments, feedback and to vote in meetings which are held15 times a day electronically. The experts are chosen by an ISO member of that country (iso online). ISO 9000 The ISO 9000 series was published in 1987 (iso online). It is a standardization system that was developed by ISO. It is obtained by 130 countries, but its main office is in Geneva, Switzerland where the system is coordinated and the finished standards are published (iso online).

These ISO standard are rules and guidelines that ensure the product that a manufacturing business produces is safe, reliable and efficient (iso online). These standards makes sure that businesses are living up to their promises. An ISO 9000 certificate is given to a business when it maintains the quality management requirements determined by ISO (Henkoff 1). ISO 9000 helps a business to get certified by telling it what requirements it should meet and how it will meet them. It provides a framework for a company.

It sets standards worldwide and help export goods to other countries. However, the company must have good strong leaders for it to thrive. The success of ISO 9000 on a business largely depends on the businesss organization. Planning, training, setting and achieving goals are all key to improvement or success of a business (Henkoff 5). ISO 9000 makes sure a company is doing what it says it is doing and helps them do it. However, that doesnt mean it is running the company and telling it what to do (USAToday 1).

The business is still an independent business it is just getting advice on how to manufacture things and earning a certificate that is appealing to customers. However, that also doesnt mean that ISO 9000 promises the quality of a companys product will be great; Richard Buerow, director of corporate quality at Motorola states: “With ISO 900 you can still have terrible processes and products. You can certify a manufacturer that makes life jackets from concrete, as long as those jackets are made according to the documented procedures and the company provides the next of kin with instructions on how to complain about defects. Thats absurd (Henkoff 3).” Its steps and procedures will help a manufacturers product become better produced. ISO 9001, 2 & 3 ISO 9000 is divided into three equally ranked quality systems which a business can chooses by what quality system will cover their business process (iso online).

ISO 9001 is for a business whose processes range from design and development, to production, installation and servicing. ISO 9002 is for a business that does not carry out design and development but anything else that is under ISO 9001. ISO 9003 is for a business whose process does not include design control, process control, purchasing or servicing, but uses inspection and testing to ensure that final products and services meet specified requirements. Elements of ISO 9000 Element 4.1: Management Responsibility “The responsibility of executive level management in regard to quality policy, goals, commitment and implementation of the company quality system (Stimson 99).” Here management must have a Quality Policy and have it understood throughout the business. It is then managements responsibility to gather resources and have trained employees to do the work.

The Quality System is then monitored by management representatives who report back to management to be reviewed (iso online). Element 4.2: Quality System “A Quality System must be used to ensure the product conforms to specifications. The system will be described in documentation of sufficient detail to include structure, processes, and procedures that ensure product quality (Stimson 116).” This system must be fully documented to fit ISO 9000 standards in a quality manual. This manual should contain a table of contents and history of the company (Stimson 168). This manual should also include customers specifications and requirements (Stimson 165).

The system should go with the businesss mission and policy and show how its requirements should be met. Written plans should be shown on how to fulfill customers standards. Element 4.3: Contract Review “A documented system for review and amendment of the contract, to ensure customer performer agreement of expectations (Stimson 317).” Review of the contract will ensure the requirements are stated and documented and will be met. Any amendments should be made to parts of the contract that is weak. Element 4.4: Design Control “A system is required to control, verify, and validate the designs of products and processes to ensure adherence to specifications (Stimson 215).” There are three key types of cycles: requirements, specifications, prototypes, acceptable design in the process of Design Control (Stimson 217). Verification , validation and participation by external and internal customers are needed for input (Stimson 219).

Element 4.5: Document and Data Control “Control of the distribution of all documents and data related to quality, is required to associate procedures describing the control mechanisms (Stimson 184).” All documents and data should be controlled and authorized with changes and removals occurring in a controlled manner (iso online). Element 4.6: Purchasing “A purchasing system must ensure the purchased product conforms to specifications that subcontractors maintain quality criteria (Stimson 127).” Information on purchasing must be complete and accurate and venders must be selected (Stimson 129). Element 4.7: Control of Customer-Supplied Product “A process control of any product that is provided by the customer is required for use in the company supply systems (Stimson 249).” During receipt inspection delivery, condition, quantity and fitness of the product should be checked and evaluated (Stimson 256). Element 4.8: Product Identification and Traceability “Demanded by specifications or suitability, a system to identify and trace purchase products during all stages of production. Traceability will include identification of product within batch or lot (Stimson 259).” Inventory and production process is essential with use of identification.

Policies will identify those parts in receipt to delivery (Stimson 263). Element 4.9: Process Control “The planning and implementation of production, installation, and service processes affect quantity. Furthermore, it requires that these processes be operated under controlled conditions (Stimson 265).” The process control system is made up of flexibility and customer overview. Changes set baseline of quality (Stimson 2). Process control depends on how the company chooses to define it, what materials to purchase and planning (Stimson 128).

Element 4.10: Inspection and Testing “Inspection and testing activities are conducted in order to verify adherence to specifications. Appropriate records will be maintained of the results of these activities (Stimson 279).” Inspection and testing process has policies procedures, documentation including status and employees methodologies (Stimson 289). Element 4.11: Control of Inspection, Measuring, and Test Equipment “The control, calibration and maintenance of equipment, hardware and software that is used for inspection, measuring and testing of product conformance to specifications is required (Stimson 227).” Measurements made, equipment to be used are taken down and kept record of as quality records. Methods are set for trained personnel (iso online). Element 4.12: Inspection and Test Status “The status of a product is identified relative to conformance, to inspection and test criteria. The identification process defined inappropriate procedures, will be maintained throughout the production and post production process to ensure that only an acceptable product is delivered (Stimson 291).” The test will determine if the product passes or fails inspection.

Element 4.13: Control of Nonconforming Product “A system that will control product that fails to meet specifications, preclude unintended use, and define product disposition (Stimson 296).” Element 4.14: Corrective and Preventive Action “Systems are needed to co …

Introduction

Introduction The discipline of archaeology can open up the past to us in a way in which we can enter into a dialogue with our ancestors. There are many ways it can do this: stratigraphic excavation, pottery typology, socio-historic interpretation, etc. However, one thread running through this increasingly focused pursuit is that of dating the physical findings to a particular cultural timeline. This is crucial if we are to know, with as much certainty as is allowed, who we are speaking with. Indeed, dating may be the proverbial thread that holds entire pursuit together, without which the individual pieces of the puzzle might be compared to the children of Israel, who the author of Judges describes as each going off in their own direction.

Like the king Judges so wistfully imagines, dating brings cohesiveness and direction to a potentially (or real?) chaotic situation. In this paper I will explore the particulars of radiocarbon dating; from its background and origin, to discussion of samples, method, results, and calibration. Background With the explosions of the first atomic bombs echoing in his thoughts, Willard F. Libby, working with A.V. Grosse, Ernest Anderson, and several students, pioneered the work on a theory that natural C14 not only existed, but that it could also be used as a method for dating certain artifacts of antiquity. Working under the premise of his 1946 paper that suggested C14 might exist in all living organisms, a team including Libby and Grosse collected readings from the Baltimore sewer system.

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It was discovered that methane collected from these sewers contained radiocarbon activity, whereas methane derived from petroleum did not. These findings gave strength to the theory suggested in his paper, but several years of additional research were needed. After their sewer experiments, global samples of wood were gathered in which the researchers discovered a consistent level of radiocarbon deposits. From that point on, the theory developed until it became widely accepted within the scientific community, culminating with Libbys acceptance of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1960. The Origin of C14 Natural C14 is formed in the upper atmosphere when nitrogen reacts with neutrons. Neutrons are produced by cosmic rays bombarding the earth, and are thus dependent upon the level of cosmic ray bombardment, as well as the earths natural ability to receive the rays from space. The only known deterrent to cosmic ray absorption is the earths magnetic field.

The stronger it is, the less the cosmic rays reach the earth. Once the C14 is produced, it exists in a very small quantity in carbon dioxide, a product of oxygen and carbon. From here, all living organisms take in C14 by either photosynthesis (plant life) or the food chain (breathing life). Since C14 is radioactive, and therefore destructive to life, it is necessary for all organisms to release C14 at basically the same rate they consume it. Those that do not release radioactive carbon as quickly as they absorb it, it is assumed, would not survive as a species.

Consequently, in principle, there exists an equilibrium between the levels of C14 in the atmosphere and that which exists in all living organisms. When an organism ceases to live, it ceases also to take in C14, and the rate of release (radioactive decay) can then be measured and compared to values pertaining to the half-life of the isotope. At present, the best estimate for the half life of C14 is 5730! 40 years, thus making it an almost ideal determinant to archaeologists, and in particular archaeologists concerned with excavations in the middle east. Samples Because of the very nature of radiocarbon dating, the ideal sample pool is limited. Preferably the sample is organic in composition, and is free of any contamination, such as exposure to other organic material that would skew the readings. This is particularly important in terms of packing and shipping the sample to a radiocarbon laboratory. Below is a list of some potential samples and concerns for each.

Charcoal and Wood are predominant among samples found at archaeological sites. Both are preferred because there is little chance of contamination. However, the possibility of underground water causing a change in C14 saturation needs to be considered with the charcoal. And, while not considered contamination per se, precut growth in wood samples needs to also be taken into account. For instance, if the wood being sampled was cut from the center of a tree, the date read from the analysis would be the date the tree started to grow, not the date the tree was felled for use in construction.

Most of the time this would account for an error on the line of 100-200 years. However, it could potentially be greater than that considering the life span of some trees like the Bristle cone Pine is 4000+ years. “Short-lived” Samples include items such as seeds, hides, paper, cloth, grass, and grains. These are usually preferred to the wood samples because of the potential problem of precut growth. They are called “short-lived” due to the fact that they are, or are made from, items with a relatively short life span. Like the wood and charcoal listed above, there is little chance of contamination. Ivory is an excellent candidate for dating because it is rare that the specimen will be contaminated. This is due to compaction in its structure and the fact that it, for the most part, remains in a state of preservation comparable to that of contemporary samples.

There have been tusks found over 40,000 years old that were first suspected to have come from modern-day elephants. Like trees though, care needs to be taken in ascertaining where in the tusk the sample originated. Whereas in trees, the center is the oldest, it is just the opposite for tusks. Bones are often found at archaeological sites, but they present a unique problem for carbon dating. First, the carbon found in bones is mostly inorganic and unsuitable for testing.

Second, bones are very porous. Unless a good seal is established around the sample, it is very likely the sample will be contaminated by ground water. This can throw a date off considerably. The best bones to use then, are ones that have been preserved within a heavy layer of charring from a fire or volcanic activity. Collagen in bones can also produce carbon, but to date it has performed poorly in establishing a reliable result. Pottery and Iron are not usually used as samples in C14 testing, but there are times when they can produce accurate dates. However, pottery must be contain at least 1% organic carbon to agree with normal control samples.

Other tests using the same or even higher percentage, however, produced inconsistent results. Certain types of iron can be used, but requires a high temperature furnace to combust the carbon in the iron. Iron from meteors cannot be used. As I have already alluded to above, shipping involves special care in how the sample is prepared, and what the sample is sent in. Below are steps for consideration in getting a sample from the site of the dig to the laboratory for a successful date.

Collection of the sample to be analyzed is the first step. Care should be taken not to contaminate the sample with contact of human skin or other organic materials. However, this is not always a troublesome task. Large pieces of wood covered with earthen material, and storages of grain and such can usually be dealt with with little fear of contamination by human contact. Nevertheless, proper tools such as trowels, tweezers, spades, and the like should be present to deal with smaller items like pieces of charcoal embedded in dirt.

Especially with the smaller samples, it is wise to separate them from as much of the earthen material as is possible to avoid further breakdown and homogenization during the shipping. And, as with all samples collected from a site, it is important that some detailed record be maintained of the radiocarbon samples stratigraphic context so that its readings might be cross-checked with other readings pertaining to a particular level. Packaging the sample is relatively easy, but the importance cannot be overstated. The container one chooses really depends on what form the sample is in. If the sample is large and/or sufficiently solid, even cloth or paper will do.

However, most samples necessitate something like the organically neutral environment of plastic or metal, sealed with a strongly adhesive tape. If possible, samples should be dried before shipping to prevent the growth of mildew. Finally, each container should be labeled on the outside to ensure proper identification. Contamination at this point needs to be better defined. There are many factors that may contribute to a sample becoming contaminated. When saying “contaminated,” I am referring to the result of any process that causes a theoretically pure sample to become impure, and thus produce a skewed reading.

So far we have only dealt with the human element. However, events such as atmospheric C14 variations, natural changes due to glaciation advancement or retreat, human activity, deep marine effects, exposure to hard water, and volcanic activity can all contribute to a samples contamination. Recognizing these factors as potentially being present in the stratigraphic context of a find is crucial to obtaining an accurate date. Methods of Dating Solid-Carbon dating was the first method developed back in the early 1950s by Libby and some of his students. It …

Introduction

Jonathan Kozols Amazing Grace is a book about the trials and tribulations of everyday life for a
group of children who live in the poorest congressional district of the United States, the South Bronx.

Their lives may seem extraordinary to us, but to them, they are just as normal as everyone else. What is
normal? For the children of the South Bronx, living with the pollution, the sickness, the drugs, and the
violence is the only way of life many of them have ever known.

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In this book, the children speak openly and honestly about feeling abandoned, hidden or
forgotten by our nation, one that is blind to their problems. Studying the people themselves would
only get us so far in understanding what their community is really like and why they feel this way.

Jonathan Kozol really got to know the people individually. We can take his knowledge and stories to try
for a better understanding of the environment in which they live. By doing this, we can explore the many
reasons why the people have problems, what some levels of intervention could be, and possibly find some
solutions to making the South Bronx a healthier and safer place for these children and others to live.


Problem Identification
The environment in which we study these people can only be defined by first taking a look at
possible reasons why the people have problems. Some of the problems discussed in Amazing Grace have
festered throughout the United States for some time now. The high numbers of drug users in the
community, the high amounts of gang-related violence, and the numerous cases of people who have
contracted the AIDS virus are just some of the problems that have arisen in this ghetto. There are many
differences between this community and others in the United States, one of which is that the government
has grouped these people all together and made a ghetto of the lowest income families. This has
ostracized them from the rest of the nation. It has given them many abandonment issues to deal with,
while also telling them they are not worthy of living among the wealthier population.

Environmental factors are involved in the problems arising in the South Bronx. Pollution, for
example, could be the biggest source of the high number of children in the community who have asthma.

Asthma is a condition in which one has trouble breathing. Without clean air, breathing for an asthmatic
is almost impossible. A waste burner in the middle of the South Bronx causes a lot of pollution and
makes the air the people breath, below safe levels of cleanliness. Another environmental factor that
affects the residents healths has to do with how most of the buildings in these neighborhoods are run
down and infested with rats. Many of the buildings have no working elevators. This causes people to
have to walk several flights of stairs each time they want to leave their apartments. This is very time
consuming and tiresome. Then, when they find that there is so much violence and drugs in the street,
that it is not safe to be out there anyway, they usually end up staying !
in their apartments for most of their free time.

The cultural differences between these people and others of higher income communities is also a
reason why they may have problems. Racism is very obvious to the people of the South Bronx, especially
when they go outside of their district. If a woman from this area goes to a hospital outside of her
district, a hospital that is more than likely wealthier and cleaner, she is usually turned away and told
to go to a hospital in her own district. Others, who are admitted into these hospitals, are put on a
special floor, mainly for the lower income or Medicaid patients. (Amazing Grace, p. 176)
Another way the government discriminates against them is how they are housed. Most of the
residents are living in government housing where the government pays their rent. When the government
helped the people to get off the streets and out of homeless shelters and then put them into low cost
housing, they put all of the residents in the same area. This created their ghetto and kept them
segregated from the rest of the world.


Level of Intervention
If we look at these people through an exosystem, or a setting in which a person does not
participate but in which significant decisions are made affecting the person or others who interact
directly with the person, we would ask the questions are decisions made with the interests of the
person and the family in mind? (Social Work and Social Welfare, p.79) Did the government really think
of the people of the South Bronx when they grouped all of the sick, troublesome, and low income families
together in the same community? What kind of opportunity structure can people have when the government
puts them into never ending situations such as giving them only enough money to get by, but not enough to
get out of poverty? Some people say that it is not the governments responsibility to get people out of
poverty, but then whose fault is it that they got there in the first place? No one asks to be poor, no
one asks to be homeless. Cultural differences are an excuse some use fo!
r treating people of different backgrounds differently. But can the government also participate in this
obvious form of racism? Our nation has tried for many many years now to stop racism and prejudices, but
the problem is still prevalent in communities all over the world.

We could also look at the people and their problems using a macrosystem, or the blueprints for
defining and organizing the institutional life of the society, (Social Work and Social Welfare, p.79) to
decide if some groups are valued at the expense of others and do these groups experience oppression? As
we have seen, the people of the South Bronx feel abandoned, this is a type of oppression. They are
pushed away from the rest of society, where the only place they can turn is to this community that is
filled with crime, violence, disease, and poverty. The residents have shared assumptions about what the
government wants and expects from them. The governments attitude towards these people is such that the
residents feel devalued and not worthy of being seen or heard. Without much hope of financial stability,
many have turned to selling and/or using drugs. Selling drugs is seen as an easy way of making some
money, and using drugs keeps a person on a high so they do not!
have to face reality. This just continues the cycle of problems they face since selling drugs to others
keeps those others high, and staying on a drug induced high only prolongs the problems.


Discussion and Recommendations
Because of all the trials and tribulations they go through, you would think that everyone in this
community would lose hope. This is not true for many of the children that Jonathan Kozol talked to and
became friends with on his many journeys into their neighborhood. The children speak of their problems
with great maturity. Many of these children are far older than their years on Earth, for they have felt
true abandonment by our nation. Many of the issues they have had to deal with are not ones which we
think of as childrens issues. AIDS, for example, is not something that many think of as an issue that
children talk about or even think about. For the children of the South Bronx though, it is a major
issue. With one-fourth of the child-bearing women in the neighborhoods where these children live
testing positive for HIV, (Amazing Grace, inside cover) pediatric AIDS takes a high toll. The numbers
of children who have had one or both parents die of AIDS in the South B!
ronx and surrounding areas is the highest among the nation. If the government keeps sending the low
income and troublesome families into these neighborhoods, it is likely that entire blocks will soon be
home to mourning orphans, many of whom will follow their own parents to an early grave. (Amazing Grace,
p. 194)
The governments placement of a waste burner in the South Bronx is another prime example and a
reason why the children feel like they are being thrown away. Many residents believe that the waste
burner is to blame for their health problems. Many children in the community are only able to breathe
with the use of a breathing machine because their asthma has gotten so bad.(Amazing Grace, p. 170) Why
then would the city decide to put one there? Did the city have the residents in mind when they built the
waste burner in this community? The residents do not have much of a say in city, state or governmental
issues. Positions in government are held by wealthier and more powerful people who more then likely have
no first hand knowledge of life in a low income ghetto. How can we change this?
To change a whole community involves much more then direct practice with individuals. Counseling
people on an individual basis gives individual responses. The problems of the South Bronx are not with
the individuals themselves, but rather community organizational problems. Changing the social policy of
the community is of utter importance in making it a better place to live. The norms for the people in
these neighborhoods have gotten to be that of violence and drugs. These are not healthy norms. To
change them, the communities could use more education on social issues in the schools and communities to
help the people learn to live healthier lifestyles, to get the word out that violence and disruptance are
not all right, and to help the people obtain some community unity. Getting some of the well known
community members involved in politics is another way they could get their voices heard and let the
government know their needs and desires. Support groups held for peopl!
e with AIDS, for people who have lost loved ones, and also for people who just need a place to talk about
their emotions and get their frustrations out, would help the community as a whole and get more people
involved in the healing process of that community. If the people in the South Bronx would act as a
community bound together to help themselves and each other, there would be less tolerance for deviant
behavior among its members. Then the ones who act defiantly could be out-numbered, and the good
citizens of the South Bronx could reclaim their homes and their lives.

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