Internet

Last December the express and package delivery giant announced that it had taken an equity
position in NetCel360, a provider of business-to -business e-commerce solutions for
companies operating in the Asia Pacific region. The investment was made through UPS’s
Strategic Enterprise Fund, established in 1997 to invest in new markets and emerging
technologies.


The alliance hopes to provide the sort of supply-chain transparency in Asia that is available in
other parts of the world. “One of the reasons for NetCel and UPS getting together is to
provide full supply-chain integration,” said Peter Winslow, managing director of UPS
Worldwide Logistics for Asia Pacific. “People expect to have information available at every
point along the chain. Today that is not available in the region.”
NetCel360 was founded in 1998 by Phillip E. Kelly, who previously had put in 14 years at
Motorola followed by a move to Dell Computer in 1994. At Dell, Kelly was in charge of the
Asia Pacific region where he built up a made-to-order, direct sales operation similar to the
Dell infrastructure in the United States. In the process, he became aware of the unique
challenges faced by companies seeking to expand their Internet-based operations in the
diverse and complex region.

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“The Internet market in the U.S. is built upon a significant infrastructure that was built up by
direct sales and catalog guys,” said Kelly. “Asia Pacific does not have the same infrastructure
to enable e-commerce.”
It’s going to need one, though. Kelly said e-commerce in the region is expected to grow from
$3.3 billion in 1998 to over $100 billion by 2003, while the number of Internet users is
expected to increase from 30 million to over 100 million. To capitalize on that growth rate,
Kelly founded NetCel360 in 1998 to provide one-stop outsourcing services and help
companies establish pan-Asian relationships along their supply chains. Services include web
consulting and design, field repair capabilities, call centers, customer interface and a full range
of financial and translation services.


Kelly is bullish on Asia. The economic crisis has largely abated, he said, and money and
optimism are returning to the region. Partnering with UPS Logistics Group, one of the leaders
in global logistics and supply-chain management solutions, is also cause for joy. “Asia Pacific
is so diverse and government regulations are so vast;’ said Kelly. “There are different currency
languages for each of 50 countries. It’s not like moving product from Arizona to Tennessee.


UPS provides full logistics across the region. That’s the critical component of our alliance.”
Kelly cited credit card payments as an example of the difficulties of doing e-commerce in
Asia. ln most countries payment is taken and cleared and then moved to other banks, but in
Asia Pacific there is no single financial institution with a regional presence. Each individual
market has its own regulations and currency, and six different credit cards control the market.


Also, 35 to 40 percent of business transactions are done on a cash basis, as opposed to 3
percent in the United States.


“For each company to set up a financial infrastructure is timeconsuming,” said Kelly. “We help
them get to market a lot quicker rather than each having to go down the learning curve.”
Perry Chao, UPS vice president of e-commerce solutions for Asia Pacific, said that despite
the obstacles to the growth of ecommerce in the region, such as a ban on foreign ownership in
China, it is a juggernaut that can’t be stopped. Asian countries from Singapore to Taiwan,
from Korea to Malaysia are pouring billions of dollars into the information superhighway.


“Each market is growing at such a fast rate and thousands of net companies are set up each
day,” said Chao. “Companies know they have to get into this but they don’t know how. UPS
and NetCel will play a big role in handling goods and information.”
Part of what is driving business-to-business e-commerce in the region is a push by web-savvy
U.S. companies to get their Asian suppliers online. Chao likened it to the push by major
global companies to get their vendors to adopt the ISO 9000 global quality standard. “If you
are not on the web, soon you will not be able to be a vendor,” he said.


Another one of the benefits of the UPSNetCe1360 alliance is in providing a model of
efficiency and modernization for regional customs authorities. Some Asian customs agencies
are less than transparent and slow to clear goods. They are just learning to work with the fast
flow of information that “B2B” e-commerce demands, and a working partnership with the
companies setting the standard in the new business paradigm can only help the regional
customs modernization process.


“We are helping regional governments have an open mind in embracing information,” said
Chao. “That’s what package releases are based on. As interaction with the private sector
becomes more mature, and governments learn the benefits of efficiency, customs processes
will start to change.”

Internet

.. via the Internet, and it is all very affordable.(Why use the Web? n.page) Students as well as commerce is benefiting from the Internet. Students need more information than is offered by school libraries. The Internet gives students access to resources from around the world. They are also more willing to sit and browse the Internet then to use the library. Information can be found, selected and retrieved faster on the Internet.

Entire books can be transferred in minutes (Sterling n.page). Students find the Internet to be a viable educational tool which makes them aware of the globalism of the world rather than sheltered in the realm of the classroom. They have the option of writing to pen pals in other countries and getting to know other cultures. (MRP-Discussion n. page) The Internet also serves as a preparation tool for the future. The world is moving towards electronics: in todays market being competitive means knowing how to get information, and more and more, it is traveling by wires.

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The Internet allows children to get hands on experience, and helps them develop intellectual skills and problem solving. It allows children to research information that interest them. For example, a child interested in baseball can find information on the latest statistics and read about the history of the sport. By educating themselves it opens their minds to technology. ( Why Minnesota Students need access to the Internet n.page) The Internet is a popular place to socialize.

Exchanging information with those far away take only seconds using the Internet. While postal mail can take days, electronic mail, or e-mail, takes seconds. Many companies offer e-mail services for free to those with access to computer with a modem. Unlike phone system and postal system there are no charges for long distance service or communication with foreign countries. E-mail and instant messages (found in programs such as America Online and ICQ) can be used to send images and software. (Sterling n.

page) Internet technology has gone as far as to allow people to make new friends without any physical contact. One way to meet new people is to join an Internet discussion group. In such a group people with a common interest ask and receive advice and exchange information. Another opportunity to meet new people is in Internet chat rooms. In such rooms one can speak freely to anyone as if they were at a party.

America Online users refer to relations charter though the sever as “AOL luv”. Those in discussion groups and chat rooms are not limited to just Americans but open to people all around the world. The Internet is a world wide tool filled with many cultures, and different people. In this world, race is not a factor since there is no physical contact. Everyone is equal and has the freedom to express oneself. It is an institution that resists institutionalization.

It belongs to everyone and yet no one, everyone sort of pitches in and it evolves on its own. There are no censors, bosses, board of directors or stockholders. The Internet is unregulated and uncensored. However, the Internet being so free and uncensored presents many problems. Acknowledgment of children using the Internet has fueled a fight for regulation. Parents can not always monitor their children, therefore the Internet needs to be a safe place for the children.

Children have access to the Internet in schools, libraries, and just about everywhere. In schools it is nearly impossible for a teacher to watch all the children, and in libraries it is not the librarians job to monitor them. Computers and the Internet are for everyone, including children, thus it has become an immense problem. Access to pornography has been one of the greatest concerns among parents. Surprisingly, pornography is easy to access and children will.

Children are naturally curious and love to explore. Minors are also targeted by advertisers. Just like on television advertisers try to lure children in with pictures and web sites which include games and chat rooms. However the biggest danger is not what they find on the Internet but who they find. The information they access is not as dangerous as the people they meet. There have been many cases of molesters and kidnappers searching for pray on-line.

Nicknames are used to protect the identity of the children but can also be used to mask adults. They enter childrens chat rooms and coax the children to trust them. Nonetheless, denying the children access to the Internet is not the solution, perhaps software is. However software limiting childrens access to web pages have not been successful. In some case the software does not filter out all inappropriate pages but filters out non-objectionable pages. (Should children be kept off-line? n.page) Molesters and kidnappers are not the only people with access to the Internet we should fear.

Those mischievous thinkers also pose a threat. Known as hackers or crackers, they search for vulnerable computer systems then strike. Businesses can lose trade secrets, and the damages can be a disaster. In 1996 Dan Framer, a security consultant, tested 2,000 computers networks, and of those 65% had security holes large enough for an intruder to enter (Freedman 280). Government computers are just a vulnerable as teenagers have recently demonstrated. Teenagers working out of their home with guidance from a 18 year old broke into government classified information.

Though they were caught, it bought alarm to the possible dangers of information leaks. The United States enemies could have access to military codes and top secret files. Although the average person is not targeted by hackers they are in danger of fraud and con-artists. Stolen credit card numbers have been rumored to be a major problem. The chances of it happening are not as great as the media makes it to be, but nevertheless it is a problem.

The criminals easily get away with such a crime. They get the number of a credit card and charge ridiculous bills, but by the time the bill comes they have moved on to the next victim. Many schemes come in the form of junk mail. They offer deals that sound too good to be true and chances are they fake. They only ask for a small sum of money up front, next they cash the check and move on.

( Anarchy Online 98) Secure passwords can prevent hackers from accessing computers. Passwords should consist of numbers, letters and symbols: an example “P11++69.” No matter how secure and high tech the computer security system, all it takes is a simple , stupid password like “hello” to render the whole system worthless. (Freedman 279) Though the Internet has its advantages it also has disadvantages, therefore users should educate oneself on the revolutionary tool. With over 50 million users the Internet is rapidly growing and is to the 90s what the personal computer was to the 70s. New usages are springing up everyday, making it impossible to predict the future of the Internet. One thing certain is that the Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications. “The Internet is a world wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for collaboration and interaction between individuals without regard to geographic location.” (Leiner n.page).

Internet

.. ceasta tehnologie este disponibila atit pentru firme, cit si pentru utilizatori individuali. Adevarata explozie in domeniul exploatarii retelei X-telecomului a constituit-o mai recenta tehnologie ADSL(asymetric digital subscriber line). In momentul de fata, este cea mai avansata tehnologie din lume, ce transforma banala pereche de sirme din cupru in linii digitale de mare viteza pentru acces Internet ultra-rapid. Modemurile ADSL folosesc o tehnica de codare digitala care nu interfereaza cu serviciile conventionale de voce. Aceasta inseamna ca poti vorbi la telefon, sau trimite un fax, simultan cu navigarea pe Internet. Modemurile sunt asimterice pentru ca transmit datele din downstream mult mai repede decit cele din upstream(7-8 Mega pe sec., fata de 1 Mega pe sec.).

Avantajele acestei tehnologii sunt uluitoare. Viteza mare de transfer a datelor, accesul permanent la Internet ar fi principalele atuuri. Apoi, urmeaza CIR(commited information rate) garantat. Aceasta inseamna asigurarea unei latimi mineime de banda contractata, indiferent de incarcarea retelei. Securitatea maxima este apoi un alt aspect important. Fata de alte tipuri de retele, ADSL permite garantarea securitatii traficului datelor, atit prin linia inchiriata unde nu mai exista un alt abonat, cit si prin backbone-ul ATM(Asyncronous Transfer Mode), unde controlul benzii este foarte strict.

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De ADSL pot beneficia si companiile care au costuri mari pentru serviciile de telefonie care pot sa-si ruteze tot traficul printr-o singura retea de tip Internet, cit si companiile care doresc acces Internet rapid pentru utilizarea serviciilor si a aplicatiilor multimedia. Tehnologia ADSL permite dezvoltarea unor aplicatii critice, care au necesar minim de banda, cum ar fi Voice Over IP, videoconferinte, distance learning, FTP la mare viteza, video-on demand, etc. Alte tehnologii au incercat sa renunte la varianta clasica a retelei de telefonie fixa. Costurile extrem de mari pe care le-ar implica implementarea unor noi retele sunt un obstacol serios. Asa ca varianta de compromis a fost orientarea tot catre un suport deja instalat. Raspunsul a fost oarecum simplu: reteaua de televiziune prin cablu(CATV).

Acestea ofera viteza mult mai mare decit reteaua clasica de telefonie, insa sufera de anumite limitari tehnice. Raza de actiune este de pina la 10 km. distanta de centrala. O distanta acceptabila, in cazul unei retele metropolitane, dar daca vrei sa te extinzi, intervin noi costuri pentru routere, echipamente foarte scumpe de amplificare a semnalului, al caror nu este deloc neglijabil. Un alt handicap major este ca viteza de transfer depinde de trafic.

Chiar daca tehnic modemurile permit trafic la 30 Mps, aceasta latime de banda este folosita in comun de toti abonatii de pe o linie, motiv pentru care viteza poate scadea chiar dramatic. Presupunind ca toti abonatii unei linii se conecteaza si folosesc reteaua in acelasi timp, poti avea chiar surpriza unei gituiri a liniei. Daca esti o firma mission critical, nu iti poti permite asa ceva. Solutia salvatoare pentru cei care au nevoie de viteza mare la orice ora, si isi si permit financiar acest lucru se numeste OF(optic fibre). Si aici intervine iar tehnologia ADSL, care reduce dramatic costurile de instalare si exploatare. Chiar si asa, tehnologia bazata pe fibra optica, desi cea mai performanta, este si cea mai scumpa. In primul rind, costa implementarea infrastructurii.

De exemplu, constructia backbone-ului de fibra optica ATM din bBucuresti, in lungime de 10 km, a costat in jur de un milion de dolari. La aceasta suma se adauga costurile pentru lucrarile speciale pentru tragerea unor cabluri pentru multiplexoarele ADSL. Un alt cost important il constituie echipamentele concentratoare si multiplexoare. Achizitionarea acestora inseamna inca 500.000-1.500.000 de dolari. Cu o astfel de investitie poate fi acoperit un oras de dimensiunea Bucurestiului si se pot instala citeva mii de locatii ADSL. In final, asta inseamna un pret al abonamentului cuprins intre 250 si cateva mii de dolari pe luna, in functie de serviciile solicitate.

La aceasta suma se mai adauga si valoarea echipamentelor de la sediul abonatilor, ceea ce inseamna alte cateva sute de dolari, si care se poate esalona pe mai multe luni. In Occident asistam la o adevarat migratie catre acest sistem de comunicatii, in ciuda costurilor. Raportul calitate pret inclina puternic balanta in favoarea ADSL. S-a pus la un moment dat intrebarea:ce-ar fi daca retelele ar fi realizate integral din fibra optica?. Un calcul simplu releva insa ca cel putin deoacamdata aceasta este o utopie.

Numai cele 130 de milioane de linii telefonice din SUA folosesc peste 1000 milioane de perechi de fire din cupru. Luind in calcul ca distanta de la Pamint la Soare este de circa 150 mil. Km, ne putem da usor seama de cita fibra optica ar fi nevoie. Potrivit unui studiu al Bellcore Institute, dat publicitatii in 1997, costurile inlocuirii sirmelor din cupru cu fibra optica ar insemna peste 250 miliarde dolari, si citeva decenii de munca. Acest cost este cam de zece ori mai mare decit costul inlocuirii fiecarui releu telefonic din SUA cu echipamente si linii digitale.

O alternativa ce pare mult mai viabila si mai usor realizabila ar fi inlocuirea doar a liniilor telefonice ale firmelor. Dar nici aceasta nu este chiar atat de ieftin sau rapid. Ar insemna cam 10.000 USD/abonat, si multi ani de munca. Mobilitate maxima: cu Internetul la plimbare. O alta tendinta in evolutia Internetului este mobilitatea maxima. Accesul la retea in orice punct de pe glob devine o necesitate pentru tot mai multi oameni.

Internetul la purtator este un concept care reinventeaza telefonia celulara. Primii pasi in acest sens au fost laptop-urile, care impreuna cu un telefon mobil permiteau o conexiune Internet decenta. Un urmator pas a fost aparitia hand-heldurilor PDA (Personal Digital Assistants). Aceste dispozitive sunt un inlocuitor de succes al laptop-urilor si notebook-urilor, avind avantajul dimensiunilor mult mai reduse. Un PDA cu un minimodem incorporat si un telefon celular, iata primul model al Internetului de buzunar. Exista si PDA-uri mai avansate, care nu mai necesita nici macar telefonul mobil.

Un exemplu in acest sens il constituie device-ul Palm VII, lansat cu un urias succes acum un an in SUA. Acesta dispune de un modem incorporat si un minibrowser care permit conectarea nonstop la Internet, contra unui abonament lunar (9 USD/luna). Din pacate, serviciul este disponibil numai pe continentul nord-american, extinderea lui la nivel global fiind considerata inca prea scumpa de catre Palm, compania care a lansat acest serviciu. O alternativa mai ieftina, care prinde din ce in ce mai mult teren, pare a ramine astfel reteaua de telefonie GSM. Ideea a fost implementarea browser-ului Internet direct in telefonul mobil. Se elimina astfel necesitatea laptop-ului sau a PDA-ului, ceea ce reduce costurile.

Un browser este un client software proiectat sa permita accesul unui dispozitiv la servicii Internet, in combinatie cu un server de retea adecvat. Apare aici insa o problema. Popularele standarde de Internet HTML, HTTP, TLS si TCP sunt ineficiente si greoaie cind sunt folosite in retele mobile, intrucit presupun transmiterea unei mari cantitati de text. Continutul standard al unei pagini de Web HTML nu poate fi afisat eficient pe ecranele minuscule ale telefoanelor mobile sau pagerelor, iar navigarea intre mai multe ecrane este foarte dificila. HTTP si TCP nu sunt optimizate pentru intreruperile generate de iesirea unui utilizator de GSM din cimpul de acoperire sau pentru largimea de banda foarte limitata. Exista servicii fara fir care folosesc totusi protocoalele Internet clasice, insa aceste servicii sunt in general scumpe, lente si greu de folosit. Standardul de securitate TLS(Transport Layer Security) presupune un schimb intens de date intre client si server, ceea ce, in conditiile comunicatiilor mobile, se traduce printr-un raspuns foarte lent pentru utilizator. Solutia pentru toate aceste probleme este un nou protocol, dedicat comunicatiilor mobile: WAP(Wireless Application Protocol).

Avantajul WAP este ca poate fi folosit in diverse tipuri de retele fara fir, si nu numai pentru GSM. Mai mult, include un mediu pentru aplicatii programate in WML(Wireless Markup Language), compatibil cu orice sistem de operare existent, de la Palm OS, la EPOC, Windows CE, FLEX- OS, OS/9, Java OS, etc. In termeni simpli, srandardul WAP este alcatuit din doua elemente: un mediu si un protocol de aplicatii. Mediul de aplicatii consta din WML, descris mai sus, si bazat pe XML(eXtended Markup Language) care permite programatorilor sa defineasca interfata cu utilizatorul independent de dispozititvul care o va afisa, si un limbaj de programare, WML-script, care permite inglobarea logicii executabile in aplicatiile proiectate. Modelul de protocol WAP este similar cu cel WWW. Acest lucru prezinta multe avantaje in comunitatea dezvoltatorilor de aplicatii, incluzind un model de programare si o arhitectura similare. Evident, pentru a se putea incadra in caracteristicile mediului wireless, WAP a trebuit sa fie modificat si adaptat.

Intr-o retea tipica WAP, clientul comunica cu doua servere. Adresa de proxy translateaza apelul WAP in apel WWW, permitind astfel clientului sa trimita apelul la serverul web. Daca serverul raspunde direct cu o informatie de tip WAP(de exemplu in format WML), proxy-ul preia informatia direct de la server. Totusi, daca informatia este trimisa in continut WWW, (de exemplu in format HTML), atunci se va utiliza un filtru pentru a translata informatia in WML, sau in alt format recunoscut de WAP. Utilitarele de WAP sunt interactive si bazate pe un sistem de meniuri.

Exista terminale care suporta grafica, icon-uri, seturi de fonturi, iar tendinta este de a asigura un ecran cit mai cuprinzator pentru telefonul celular WAP-ready. Telefoanele de ultima generatie pot fi programate manual, folosind meniul aparatului. In viitorul apropiat, acest proces va putea fi simplificat considerabil prin trimiterea unui mesaj SMS, iar setarile vor fi ajustate automat. In acest domeniu, virful de lance il reprezinta colosii telefoniei mobile clasice: Nokia, Motorola si Ericsson. Motorola a lansat recent modelul Timeport, care pe linga cardul SIM mai poate citi si cardul bancar.

Avem astfel de-a face cu primul telefon WAP-able cu care putem face cumparaturi pe Internet. Ericsson a ajuns deja la al treilea produs de acest gen. Nokia a lansat deja o suita de aplicatii WAP proprii, care se bucura de un real succes: serviciul de cotatii online, serviciul de stiri realizat in colaborare cu CNN, etc. Tendinte pentru viitorul apropiat Pentru urmatoarele luni, se prefigureaza o adevarata explozie a comunicatiilor fara fir. In intreaga lume, ritmul de crestere a numarului de utilizatori de telefonie mobila este, in medie, de circa 1000% pe an. Iar WAP se prefigureaza a fi noul standard in telefonia mobila.

Iridium, reteaua globala de telefonie prin satelit, se extinde rapid. Chiar daca momentan tehnologia este mai scumpa decit GSM-ul uzual, avantajele sale sunt indiscutabile: viteza mare de transfer, acoperire la nivel planetar, suport pentru WAP. Iar costurile vor scadea odata cu cresterea numarului abonatilor. Integrarea comunicatiilor la nivel planetar prin Internet este cuvintul de ordine in IT&C. Bibliografie: ? business week ? pc magazine Referinte: ? www.ibm.com ? www.motorola.com ? www.orange.com ? www.iridium.com ? www.ericsson.com ? www.nokia.com ? www.3com.com ? www.palm.com ? www.cnn.com ? www.ge.com Business.

Internet

The Internet – Threat or Asset ?
The new age of technology was born late last century in the form of the silicone chip. Since this early invention computers have progressed in leaps and bounds from the very basic early models to the now very complicated and very powerful computers and laptops of today. In between this growth the Internet developed into a mega market where billions of dollars are traded daily. It is a place where you can pretty much buy and sell anything you can think of. But with the development of such a powerful tool there are always going to be problems such as pornography, hackers, dodgy chat rooms and authenticity of information. But like with any argument you have to way up the good with the bad, the internet provides you with a wealth of information so that you can find out much on many different products, allows businesses to function so much more efficiently, there is also the availability of online learning.


A major threat to the people who use the internet, especially children, is the sex industry. It is very hard to ignore as there are thousands of sites of which many have very unobvious site names. This makes it very easy for children to access accidentally sites which are very inappropriate and can have great harmful effects on a young childs very impressionable mind. It is not acceptable for a young person to be exposed to the intimate world of adult pornography which can include anything from child porn to bestiality. Fortunately you are able to get programs such as “net minder” which protects young children from the filth on the net. These programs are regularly up dated barring more and more inappropriate pages as the net is constantly growing.

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A major threat that nearly everyone who goes on the internet faces is the attack of hackers who can pretty much strike anyone at any time inflicting major damage and loss of money. These hackers are able to gain your confidential information using special hacking tools, this means they can get your credit card number that you gave out when doing online shopping and use it much to there benefit. These people are also able to create viruses that have the sole purpose of destroying and damaging your computer software. The “I love you” e-mail that was circulating the web recently is a good example of what people are capable of.


Many people now days us chat rooms and the like to make new friends and meet different people. This in turn can create problems as there is a danger of meeting weird people who may want to harm you. They can make themselves seem to be different from the person they really are, this can be a real danger if someone decides to meet a stranger they met on the net as he or she may turn out to be someone you really do not like. Yet they could become obsessed with you which would result in a lot of fear and possibly worse. But on the other hand it can be a very good way of forming new friendships or relationships with other businesses that are on the other side of the world
Although there are many threats to take into consideration when using the Internet if safety precautions are taken it can be an amazing place. The internet is like huge library that is categorized right at your finger tips, type a key word in and up come many of the options you have to look at. You can use it at any time day or night it never closes, making it an amazing asset to have when researching a topic. The Internet is very cheap and these days you can even get it for free, only a phone line or some sort of network like the schools system is needed and then your away.


The Internet has made businesses much more effective as they are now able to communicate with there clients and suppliers through e-mail. This cuts down the time having to be spent posting, sorting and collecting mail. Businesses can order there supplies as well as receiving orders from customers all through the net

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