Internet History

Internet History Starting out as a small military experiment some 35 years ago, the Internet is quickly becoming one of the most popular forms of communication. With a present population of about 40 million users world wide, it seems to have a very promising future. Uncensored and almost impossible to monitor, it’s a breeding ground for all sorts of offensive and derogatory information. On the other hand, it is probably the biggest single source of data in the world brought home into your personal computer. Will this form of communication survive in the future, or will it simply die out like many others have in the past? History The first nodes of the Internet were built 36 years ago by the RAND corporation. They faced the problem of keeping communication between U.S. authorities active in the aftermath of a nuclear war.

The country needed a command-and-control network. The biggest problem was protecting the main server, which could be knocked out by a single atomic warhead. RAND came up with the solution in 1964. The new network would have no central authority, and secondly, it would be designed to operate in shambles. ” During the 60s, this intriguing concept of a decentralized, blastproof, packet-switching network was kicked around by RAND, MIT and UCLA.

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The National Physical Laboratory in Great Britain set up the first test network on these principles in 1968. Shortly afterward, the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency decided to fund a larger, more ambitious project in the USA. The nodes of the network were to be high-speed supercomputers (or what passed for supercomputers at the time). These were rare and valuable machines which were in real need of good solid networking, for the sake of national research- and-development projects.” (Sterling 1-2) The first was put in place during the fall of 1969. By December of the same year four nodes were installed. They were connected by dedicated high-speed transmission lines. This allowed the computers to communicate and be programmed from one of the other computers. In the year of 1971 there were 15 nodes, and by 72 there were 37.

This number kept increasing rapidly as the years passed. The network was also becoming more of a person to person way of communicating. Many military personnel began using it as a way to gossip with friends instead of a way to transmit documents and projects. This became even more evident in the following years. How it works The Internet may seem a very complex form of communication but that is not really the case. First, you must have a reasonably fast computer (80386 or higher) with a modem and a phone line. The next step is to contact your local Internet provider and get him to give you a password and an SLIP address. At this time you will also be given the software to get you started.

All of this costs about 140 dollars, depending on how many hours you wish to purchase. “We charge using an hourly rate because it gives our users more flexibility with their time. When run on a monthly payment, you are limited to an hour a day, whereas with our system you can use any amount of time whenever you want” (Schulmeister). The costs are as follows: 10 hrs – $30.00 20 hrs – $50.00 40 hrs – $80.00 60 hrs – $90.00 Once you have your software installed and want to start “surfing the net,” you must first login to the server (located at the Northwest Community College) by dialling in its phone number using a specific program. The two local numbers are 638-1543 and 638-1593.

Even with the two numbers, the server is often busy because of the constantly increasing number of users in our area. These numbers can be used by a number of people at a time, not just two. Once connected to the college server, you travel down to a larger server in Vancouver, and from there you can access any other computer connected as long as your server has permission to do so. Diagram: How the Internet works Impact on Society The Internet is just starting to have a large impact on society. It seemed to come out of nowhere, popping up in magazines and on the news. The Internet is now becoming an influential communications medium to over 40 million people worldwide.

Many of these people are becoming aware of the Internet’s commercial capabilities and they are taking advantage of them. ” According to some recent estimates, the amount of traffic on the Internet has been increasing 10 percent per moth, and the number of new applications and services has been increasing almost as quickly.” (LaQuey 6) There are tens of thousands of sites scattered throughout the world wide web where items ranging from games to sex toys can be ordered through a First Virtual Internet Account, or just by providing your e-mail address (not a very good idea if you want to keep your privacy). Business is another thing the internet can be used for. You could read documents and obtain projects and reports from anywhere in the world through your computer. The downside to conducting business over the net is the possibility of a hacker infiltrating private documents and using them for whatever he/she pleases.

The internet can have a good influence on society as well as a bad one. On the good side, the internet teaches us how to us a computer for communication purposes and it provides us with bundles of information. It can help you get your business going and is great for advertising products no matter what they are. These are all the good things that the Internet can be used for. Unfortunatly it contains a lot of bad stuff too, the stuff you hear about most often on the news or in magazines. The internet is one of the few uncensored forms of mass communication. The net is loaded with pornographic images and movies as well as dirty chat lines and sex shops. Many of the images you find contain child pornography as well as bestiality, all of which can be downloaded onto your computer and viewed. The information superhighway is such a huge mass of links it is almost impossible to monitor, and the people putting these pictures on the net can stay annonymous making them very hard to locate. “An analysis of searches by Internet users found that 47 per cent were for pornographic material” (The Weekly Telegraph 21).

This is why parents should monitor their childern carefully while they are “surfing the net.” Present Uses The internet is quickly becoming one of the most popular forms of communication. It has become a commercial center out of what began as an experimental military project. Computers, modems, servers, and telephone wires are becoming faster and more efficient. Computers have gone from 8086’s to 80486’s and pentiums. Modems started at about 1200 bps and they are now up around 28,800 bps, and fibre optics are replacing regular wires.

All of these factors are changing the internet into a powerful new system that almost anyone can use with ease. The present day estimate of the number of internet users worldwide is somewhere between 20 and 80 million. The most accurate assumption would be about 40 million people. This is a huge increase to the number just a few years ago. “The Internet is full of technology and full of tools, all of which help you to send and receive elecronic mail, participate in discussions about topics, and access information resources.” (Carroll 9) Conclusion The future for the Internet is looking very bright.

No other form of communication can provide the user with such freedom of expression and privacy. All of this may yet change if the government decides that the net needs to be censored. This is going to be a debate for the future, one which could determine if the Internet has a future.

Internet History

History of The Internet
The Internet is a worldwide connection of
thousands of computer
networks. All of them speak the same
language, TCP/IP, the standard
protocol. The Internet allows people with
access to these networks to share
information and knowledge. Resources
available on the Internet are chat
groups, e-mail, newsgroups, file transfers,
and the World Wide Web. The
Internet has no centralized authority and
it is uncensored. The Internet
belongs to everyone and to no one.


The Internet is structured in a hierarchy.

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At the top, each country
has at least one public backbone network.

Backbone networks are made of
high speed lines that connect to other
backbones. There are thousands of
service providers and networks that connect
home or college users to the
backbone networks. Today, there are more
than fifty-thousand networks in
more than one-hundred countries worldwide.

However, it all started with one
network.


In the early 1960’s the Cold War was
escalating and the United States
Government was faced with a problem. How
could the country communicate
after a nuclear war? The Pentagon’s
Advanced Research Projects Agency,
ARPA, had a solution. They would create a
non-centralized network that
linked from city to city, and base to base.

The network was designed to
function when parts of it were destroyed.

The network could not have a
center because it would be a primary target
for enemies. In 1969, ARPANET
was created, named after its original
Pentagon sponsor. There were four
supercomputer stations, called nodes, on
this high speed network.


ARPANET grew during the 1970’s as more and
more supercomputer stations
were added. The users of ARPANET had
changed the high speed network to an
electronic post office. Scientists and
researchers used ARPANET to
collaborate on projects and to trade notes.

Eventually, people used ARPANET
for leisure activities such as chatting.

Soon after, the mailing list was
developed. Mailing lists were discussion
groups of people who would send
their messages via e-mail to a group
address, and also receive messages.


This could be done twenty-four hours a day.

Interestingly, the first
group’s topic was called Science Fiction
Lovers.


As ARPANET became larger, a more
sophisticated and standard protocol
was needed. The protocol would have to link
users from other small networks
to ARPANET, the main network. The standard
protocol invented in 1977 was
called TCP/IP. Because of TCP/IP,
connecting to ARPANET by any other
network was made possible. In 1983, the
military portion of ARPANET broke
off and formed MILNET. The same year,
TCP/IP was made a standard and it was
being used by everyone. It linked all parts
of the branching complex
networks, which soon came to be called the
Internet.


In 1985, the National Science Foundation
(NSF) began a program to
establish Internet access centered on its
six powerful supercomputer
stations across the United States. They
created a backbone called NSFNET to
connect college campuses via regional
networks to its supercomputer
centers. ARPANET officially expired in
1989. Most of the networks were
gained by NSFNET. The others became parts
of smaller networks. The Defense
Communications Agency shut down ARPANET
because its functions had been
taken over by NSFNET. Amazingly, when
ARPANET was turned off in June of
1990, no one except the network staff
noticed.


In the early 1990’s the Internet
experienced explosive growth. It was
estimated that the number of computers
connected to the Internet was
doubling every year. It was also estimated
that at this rapid rate of
growth, everyone would have an e-mail
address by the year 2020. The main
cause of this growth was the creation of
the World Wide Web.


The World Wide Web was created at CERN, a
physics laboratory in
Geneva, Switzerland. The Web’s development
was based on the transmission of
web pages over the Internet, called Hyper
Text Transmission Protocol or
HTTP. It is an interactive system for the
dissemination and retrieval of
information through web pages. The pages
may consist of text, pictures,
sound, music, voice, animations, and video.

Web pages can link to other web
pages by hypertext links. When there is
hypertext on a page, the user can
simply click on the link and be taken to
the new page. Previously, the
Internet was black and white, text, and
files. The web added color. Web
pages can provide entertainment,
information, or commercial advertisement.


The World Wide Web is the fastest growing
Internet resource. In conclusion,
the Internet has dramatically changed from
its original purpose. It was
formed by the United States government for
exclusive use of government
officials and the military to communicate
after a nuclear war. Today, the
Internet is used globally for a variety of
purposes. People can send their
friends an electronic “hello.” They can
download a recipe for a new type of
lasagna. They can argue about politics
on-line, and even shop and bank
electronically in their homes. The number
of people signing on-line is
still increasing and the end it not in
sight. As we approach the 21st
century, we are experiencing a great
transformation due to the Internet and
the World Wide Web. We are breaking through
the restrictions of the printed
page and the boundaries of nations and
cultures.

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