Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution Prior to the 18th century, in the United States and Western Europe, the majority of the population lived on farms. However, during the 1700s many remarkable new innovations came into being which caused an upheaval of sorts. New forms of power, such as steam, replaced animal strength and human muscle. The factory system of making goods came into use. All of these advances affected patterns of living as well as working. Because society was so transformed, this time of great change is known as the Industrial Revolution. (Perry, Scholl, Davis491) The Industrial Revolution brought upon many changes in society. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the United States had established an agrarian society and soon, the Industrial Revolution would lead to rapid urbanization.

There were many revolutions that took place within the Industrial Revolution. A revolution in agriculture had paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. (491) Farmers were in dire need to increase production, which in turn would increase trade. The Agricultural Revolution began in 1701, when Jethro Tull invented a mechanical drill for planting. (492) A Transportation Revolution broke out when traders and commuters needed better methods of transportation. The Transportation Revolution led to the building of canals and railroads. The poor conditions of roads led to the building of canals.

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It was far less costly to transport heavy goods by waterway than by land. (491) Railroads, at the time, were the fastest method of transportation on land. A trip that might take days would only be a few hours by train. Railroads would also aid in trafficking raw materials, machinery, and finished products from north to south in far less time. A demand for better methods of transportation would lead to more innovative designs in the field of transportation. One of the greatest problems that existed in the South was how to produce enough cotton to meet the demands of England’s newly invented spinning and weaving machines? (Comptons Encyclopedia, Eli Whitney) There were two types of cottons grown on plantations: A black-seed, long-staple cotton was easily cleaned, but it grew only near the coast, while a green-seed, short-staple variety grew in inland areas but resisted cleaning since its fiber stuck to the seed.

(Comptons) Before cotton can be used, the fibers must be separated from the seeds. (Comptons) It takes about one day to get a pound of cotton if the fibers are being separated by hand. (Comptons) Whitney discovered a way to resolve the issue regarding the green-seed by inventing a machine to clean the green-seed cotton. Whitney based his renderings never having seen raw cotton. He just assumed that comb-like teeth were imperative. Whitney had designed a crude model within days.

Based on simple principles, the cotton gin was finished in 1793. By 1800 cotton production had increased from about 3,000 bales a year to 73,000. His cotton-cleaning invention brought prosperity to the South. (Comptons) The steam engine was perhaps one of the greatest inventions during the 1700s. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, the steam engine was improved to increase its work potential. In 1698, the purpose of the steam engine was to pump water. The demand for the steam engine had been minimal until the establishment of factories. In the days before 1760 most industries were carried out in the home or in small workshops where the muscles of men, and women, provided the power.

(Storer, 50) The key motivation behind the invention of the steam engine, was the need for power. Edmund Cartwright developed a loom that would be powered by a steam engine. (50-51) In time, The spinning wheel started to become obsolete, a steam-powered factory had been established. (51) Despite the fact that steam-powered factories started out as a financial disaster, Powered machines grouped in factories replaced home industries. (51) In 1769, James Watt was recognized as developing the first practical steam engine that burned coal. (Perry493) While repairing a model of a Newcomen-type engine for Glasgow University, Watt realized that a large quantity of heat was being wasted by successfully heating the cylinder to fill it with steam and cooling it to condense the steam.

Watt solved this problem. In his own words, Watt describes the realization that he comes to regarding steam and how to apply it. As steam was an elastic body it would rush into a vacuum, and if a communication was made between cylinder and an exhausted vessel, it would rush into it, and might be there condensed without cooling the cylinder. (Storer, p.52) Watts first model of a steam engine didnt work as well as he had hoped, but it was a start. Like all steam engines, it had a cylinder and sliding piston, but, in addition, it was connected to two other important components, which were a condenser and an air pump.

(p.52) It would take Watt close to ten years and the help of about 600 highly skilled craftsmen to build a practical steam engine. (p.53) The steam engine would soon power factories, boats, and trains. The effects of the steam engine were looked at with a positive perspective. Steam engines were much more cost effective and superior to the traditional forms of power. The costs of powering a factory would decrease allowing industries to use their funds in different ways. The use of the steam engine on boats and locomotives was beneficial to the transportation and trade industries.

The trade of raw materials and finished products increased between England and the South. The factory system produced goods efficiently, but workers led hard lives. Wages were generally low and employment was never secure. Therefore, it was imperative that one member of the household always held employment. The traditional philosophy of the time was that Man is the bread-winner and woman is the home-builder. (Gladden, 192) Despite the common belief, Many menare quite willing to let the women of their house-holds go out and earn wages to support the family, and are willing themselves to live on what their wives and daughters bring in. (192) It was more beneficial for factory owners to employ women and children than it was to employ men.

Women did a better job when it came to certain tasks, where muscle wasnt necessary. They were typically better then men in the clothing industry. Factory owners elected to hire women for certain jobs because it was cheaper to employ them and more profitable in the long run. One question that was put into much consideration was what is suitable employment for women? The conclusion was that it is a womans right to choose. An old Indian chieftain was shown the ways and wonders of New York, and when asked, What is the most surprising thing you have seen? his only response was, Little children working.

(Markham, 213) According to the Talmud, Children must not be taken from the schools even to rebuild the Temple. Child labor is perhaps the most demoralizing thing that has occurred throughout time. It was customary for families to stick together and they stuck together by working together. Families spent most of their time with one another. They lived together and they worked together.

Some felt that the industrial life was better when the entire family worked together. In defense of child labor, Thomas Livermore, a mill worker, briefly describes his life before working in the mills and why he brought his family to the mills. Livermore owned two hundred acres of land, where he and his five children grew corn, wheat and oats and raised hogs and sheep. He barely made enough money to support his family. He decided to sell everything he owned, pay off his debts, and moved his family to a cotton mill.

He and his five children combined made enough money to pay for all provisions and have one hundred thirty dollars left over to purchase clothes and put into the bank. (Livermore, 224) The truth of the matter is, life was horrible for children. They were over-worked and underpaid. Edwin Markham asks, Why these machines at all, if they dont help to lift care from the soul & burden from the back? (214) The conditions in which these children worked were below standards. For a day or a night at a stretch, these little children do some one monotonous thing- abusing their eyes in watching the rushing threads; dwarfing their musclesbefouling their lungsbestowing ceaseless, anxious attention for hours, where science says that A twenty-minute strain is long enough for a growing mind. (215) The majority of child laborers, mostly girls, worked in textile mills located in the South.

(215) However, factory owners were driven by profit. It paysto grind little children into dividends. (219) Social Issues Essays.

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution In the last part of the 18th century, a new revolution gripped the world that we were not ready for (Perry, 510). This revolution was not a political one, but it would lead to many implications later in its existence (Perry, 510). Neither was this a social or Cultural Revolution, but an economic one (Perry, 510). The Industrial revolution, as historians call it, began the modern world. It began the world we live in today and our way of life in that world.

It is called a revolution because the changes it made were so great. They were also sudden, although the preparation for these changes took many years. It is called industrial because it had to do with manufacture. “Manufacture” means the making of every kind of useful article, from cotton cloth to brass pins. The Industrial Revolution changed how the world produced its goods and altered our societies from a mainly agricultural society to one in which industry and manufacturing was in control.

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The Industrial revolution began in England in the middle of the 18th century (Perry, 511). It was in full swing at the time of the American Declaration of Independence in 1776 and England at the time was the most powerful empire on the planet (Perry, 511). So, it was inevitable that the country with the most wealth would be a leader in this revolution. This revolution transformed the entire life of the people and it the habits of workers-the men and women who produced the goods. It brought down prices, so that people were able to buy things they could not buy before. It made some men rich, but it reduced the earning power of others.

It gave work to many that had been unemployed. At the same time it took jobs away from many skilled workers. Because British entrepreneurs were unable to meet the increased demand for goods by traditional methods of production, the domestic handicraft system of manufacturing gave way beginning in the late 18th century to factory-based mechanization. The cotton industry was the first to be fully mechanized (Perry, 515). The crucial inventions were James Hargreaves’s spinning jenny (1765), Richard Arkwright’s water frame (1769), Samuel Crompton’s mule (1779), and Edmund Cartwright’s machine loom (1765, but delayed in its general use) (Perry, 515).

The first factories were driven by water, but James Watt’s steam engine (1760’s) made steam-driven machinery and modern factories possible from the 1780’s (Perry, 515). Each development spawned new technological breakthroughs, as for example, Sir Henry Bessemer’s process for making steel (1856) (Perry, 517). With the sudden introduction of machines powered by waterwheels or steam engines manufacturing had to be done in hot, crowded factories and the work became harder for the workers (Perry, 524). It could no longer be done in comfortable homes with spinning wheels, for example, or handlooms. The Industrial Revolution affected many other kinds of manufacture.

For the making of machines, tools, and engines, huge ironworks became necessary and these used new methods (Perry 516-17). When the railways came, rolling mills for iron and steel rails did a large business (Perry, 517). It’s easy to see how the Industrial Revolution changed more than the geography of England. It changed the living habits and economic conditions of almost all the English people as well (Perry, 519-523). Families everywhere moved to cities to get employment (Perry, 520-22).

Country villages were deserted and the cities grew rapidly (Perry, 520-22). Now that waterpower was no longer necessary, towns grew up far from rivers. Under the new industrial ownership men grew enormously rich in a short time. When labor was paid almost starvation wages, there was an immense gap between the rich and the poor (Perry, 522-24). The nation was no longer self-supporting in food as agriculture became less important (Perry, 513).

More and more food, raw cotton, bar iron, flax and other raw materials were imported. All the time the British Empire grew in size and activity. Britain had certain natural advantages that help to explain why the Industrial Revolution began there. It was richly endowed with coal and iron, easily navigable waterways, and easily negotiated coasts. It was favorably placed at the crossroads of international trade, and the largest free-trade area in Europe.

The Industrial Revolution began the movement of the world. The historical term Industrial Revolution can be applied to specific countries and periods of the past. The process known as industrialization is still going on, particularly in developing countries. This process has changed the entire life of people. It has made many rich and many poor.

It has brought out the inventiveness and creativeness of people. It has given people the will to achieve, caused happiness, but also has caused tragedies. However, without the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution, society would be uncivilized. People and life in general would be slow and repetitive. It would also make life unfulfilling. The story of what people can do if they are left alone to think, work, invest and employ their energies is the story that is being related here.

Civilization is the story of human freedom if anything. History.

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution and its impact on the 20th century The French Revolution, Haitian Revolution, Communist Manifesto and Industrial Revolution all are an influence on our world in 20th century. However, the Industrial Revolution is the most influential. Unlike the French and Haitian Revolution, the Industrial Revolution had a direct far-reaching impact on the entire world. The Industrial Revolution, which originally began in Britain in the 1780’s, spread further, influencing the growth of other countries. It spurred the growth of trade, transportation, communication, production, and the population. The goods that Europe in the revolution produced were being shipped everywhere in the world and, as a result, and the economy and society changed.

Unlike the Industrial Revolution, the French Revolution did not extend beyond its colonies. The ideas that the French revolution promoted, equality, individual rights, and suffrage, were not unique only to France. The 19th century liberalism that became a role model for worldwide nations did not only originate from the French Revolution, but from other countries, such as America and the Declaration of Independence, as well. Also, the revolts in Haiti that resulted in the first independent black republic did not lead to rebellions in other countries. The ideas from the Haitian revolution were seen as a threat to the slaveholders and plantation owners in America and the surrounding Caribbean islands.

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As a result of their fear, they kept the Haitian revolution hidden from their slaves in order to prevent the dangerous ideas from spreading. The Haitian revolution was not heard of until almost 200 years later. Therefore, the impact of the Haitian revolution was also not as extensive. Before the Industrial revolution, life was harsh. In Europe, people lived in small towns and villages and were self-sufficient, making their own clothes and furniture and trading products for food.

Their lives revolved around agricultural seasons, and there was always a constant threat that crops would not grow. The population stayed very low, and people were very susceptible to disease and epidemics. However, after the Industrial Revolution, the general conditions of life improved. New technologies in farming led to a surplus in food, and thus a booming population. Inventions such as the cotton gin and the power loom led to a new labor system of mass-producing: the factory. A new social class of factory workers was created.

As a result of the growing number of the factories, prices of goods lowered and items were more available to the poor. The economy was not based on the agricultural system anymore, but on machine-produced goods. The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Freiderich Engles, was another direct result of the Industrial Revolution. Marx wrote about the injustice that he saw between the poor factory workers, who had to suffer grueling conditions, and the aristocrats who were gaining wealth as the factories produced and prospered. The saying “Man is made alien by man” is based on Marx’s observation of the Industrial Revolution.

He saw that the poor workers were only making themselves poorer and making the rich richer as they worked. The Communist Manifesto described a classless society in which everyone was equal. The ideas of the Communist Manifesto and Communism spread until 1/3 of the world’s population was communist. However, the effects of the Communist Manifesto were also effects of the Industrial Revolution. Had there been no Industrial Revolution, the existence of the Communist Manifesto would be questionable. Although the Communist Manifesto affects many people’s lives today, the Industrial Revolution reaches out to almost everybody. Communism is hard to live by. It ideals are to perfect and impossible to reach. However, capitalism is favored by human nature.

Our society is based on material possessions. We have a market economy that is centered on trading goods. We work to make money, and that is what we base our lives upon- making enough money for survival. Without the Industrial Revolution, our society would be much different. Imagine a world without toilets, electricity, factories and smog.

Our economy would probably still be agricultural, instead of technological, and our weak population would still be suffering from disease and epidemics. Therefore, without the Industrial Revolution, our world would be much different from today. It is obvious that the effects of the Industrial revolution were worldwide, unlike the French and Haitian revolution, which affected only its colonies and surrounding countries. There is also more evidence of the effects of the Industrial revolution than the Communist Manifesto, in which the ideas were too ideal and thus did not reach as many people. As a result of the Industrial revolution, our society is based on money and capitalism. The Industrial Revolution shaped our society and economy into what it is today.

In conclusion, the Industrial Revolution has the greatest influence on the 20th century world. History Essays.

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