Immigration

For many immigration to the United States would be a new beginning during 19th to early 20th century. There were many acts and laws to limit the number immigrating to the United States. Many of these acts were due to prejudice and misunderstanding of a culture. One such act was the Chinese Exclusion Act. Form this one act many immigration laws and acts were made against foreigners. They hoped to control the number of immigrants arriving on the American shores. The Chinese Exclusion Act of May 6, 1882 was just the beginning. This act was the turning point of the U.S. immigration policies, although it only directly affected a small group of people. Prior to the Chinese Exclusion Act there was no significant number of free immigrants that had been barred from the country. Once the Chinese Exclusion Act had been in acted, further limitations on the immigration of ethnic groups became standard procedure for more than eight decades. Irish catholic, Mexican, and other races were not allowed the same freedoms that others were allowed. Even after a family had been here for generations there were not given the same freedoms. Since the arrival of the first Chinese Immigrants, racist hostility towards the Chinese always existed. They were predominantly male laborers, concentrated in California. They were vital to the development of western mining, transportation, and agriculture. Other races were also discriminated against, the Irish were not allowed to get jobs or live in certain areas of the cities. By 1880, the great fear of German-speaking and Irish-Catholic immigrants was over. Employers, who still sought worker-immigrants, and not just temporary workers, looked increasingly to southern and eastern Europe. When Italians, Greeks, Turks, Russians, Slavs, and Jews arrived in the United States in numbers, however, new anxieties arose about making Americans of so many different kinds of strangers. An 1880 this act gave the United States the one sided right to mandate to limit or even stop the immigration of Chinese laborers. In effect canceling the right of the Chinese to enter the country. Congress quickly complied and made a ten-year bill that the President signed on May 6, 1882. While exempting teachers, students, merchants, and tourists the Act suspended immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years. The law was renewed for a second ten-year period in 1892 and then made "permanent" in 1902. Chinese Exclusion Act had set a pattern for many other immigration laws and acts to come. The Immigration Act of March 3, 1891 was the first comprehensive law for national control of immigration. It established the Bureau of Immigration under the Treasury Department to administer all immigration laws (except the Chinese Exclusion Act). This Immigration Act also added to the inadmissible classes. The people in these classes were inadmissible to enter into the United States. The people in these classes were, those suffering from a contagious disease, and persons convicted of certain crimes. The Immigration Act of March 3, 1903 and The Immigration Act of February 20, 1907 added further categories to the inadmissible list. Immigrants were screened for their political beliefs. Immigrants who were believed to be anarchists or those who advocated the overthrow of government by force or the assassination of a public officer was deported. This act was made mainly do to the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901. On February 5, 1917 another immigration act was made. This Act categorized all previous exclusion provisions and added the exclusion of illiterate aliens form entering into the United States. This Act made Mexicans inadmissible. It insisted that all aliens pay a head tax of $8 dollars. However, because of the high demand for labor in the southwest, months later congress let Mexican workers to stay in the U.S. under supervision of state government for six-month periods. The Gold Rush in California brought a large influx of Chinese laborers and was ended abruptly by the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882. In between this time Thousands of Chinese immigrated or traveled freely from China and San Francisco. They were mostly young male peasants that left their villages to become contract laborers in the American West. They were recruited to extract minerals and metals, construct a vast railroad network, reclaim swamplands, build irrigation systems, work as migrant agricultural laborers, develop the fishing industry, and operate highly competitive, labor-intensive manufacturing industries in the Western States. These Chinese Americans did not mix with other Americans they began their own cities such as Chinatown in San Francisco were Chinese worked, shopped and owned business. After 1882, only diplomats, merchants, and students and their dependents were allowed to travel between the U.S. and China. Before the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the patterns of Chinese settlement followed the patterns of economic development of the western states. Since mining and railway construction dominated the western economy, Chinese immigrants settled mostly in California and states west of the Rocky Mountains. As these industries declined and ant-Chinese feelings intensified, the Chinese retreated and sometimes were forced by society into small import-export businesses, labor-intensive manufacturing and service industries in such rising cities as San Francisco, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle and sometimes in the Deep South. Although many sought the American Dream due to racial prejudice and bias many did not get to become part of society. They were forced to live in poverty working for low wages and never making it ahead. Many were forced in to low paying jobs in unsafe conditions. Many did not survive to see their children grown.

Immigration

.. than that. A common belief is that aliens fulfill many of the least desirable jobs. However, most experts agree that in todays economy, there is no shortage of Americans competing for many of these same jobs. Actually, many Americans already work in these low-paying jobs.

For example: the poor black woman, who works as a seamstress, Her boss asked her to train a new employee, an illegal immigrant. As soon as she finished training her new charge, she was fired. Her position, of course, went to the illegal immigrant, who was willing to work for less pay, and under deplorable working conditions. This is one example of how illegal workers depress wages, and slow, stall or prevent unionization or improvements to working conditions. Another myth cited by supporters of immigration is that illegal immigrants work hard, pay taxes, and do not go on welfare.

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The sad truth is that these folks seem to learn the ropes of the welfare system with incredible speed. Todays illegal immigrants apply for and receive benefits from the government that citizens need. According to Donald L. Huddle, an economist at Rice University in Texas, legal and illegal immigrants cost the nation a net 42.5 billion dollars in 1992. The Huddle study also found that in 1992, more than 2 million Americans were displaced from their jobs by illegal immigrants.

This resulted in an additional 11.9 billion dollars in public assistance. In California alone, they cost more than 18 billion dollars a year. California currently has an estimated 300,000 illegal immigrants now attending grades’ 0-12. This will costs the California tax payers an estimated 1.5 billion dollars. This is 10 percent of the students currently enrolled in our elementary schools today! California has 49.8 percent of the countries illegal aliens, therefore, California pays multiple costs for its leaky borders. Providing health care for illegal immigrants costs California tax payers 400 million dollars annually.

Illegals drain about two billion dollars a year for incarceration, schooling and Medicaid from the budgets of such major destination states as Texas, Florida and California. For California alone, a 1993 study by the California Legislature estimates criminal justice costs involving illegal immigrants to be 385 million dollars to the state, with an additional 112 million dollars to local or county government. This is a total cost of 497 million dollars, paid by the California tax payer, each and every year! Illinois did a study showing that it paid 66 million dollars in unemployment benefits to illegal immigrants in one year, despite a law that was supposed to stop illegal immigrants from getting unemployment benefits. Los Angeles estimates that it spends 269 million dollars in social services on illegal immigrants each year. Every person added to our population drains our natural resources and contributes to the destruction of our environment.

In a Pulitzer-Prize-winning study, the Des Moines Register found that for every person added to our population, 1.5 acres of the richest farm land goes out of production to make way for new houses, roads, and shopping centers. If this continues, the United States will stop shipping food to other countries shortly after the year 2000. How can the United States feed the hungry people of the world? The national majority now says it favors cutting back on legal immigration. A TIME/CNN poll determined last week that 77 percent of those surveyed felt the government was not doing enough to keep out illegal immigrants. For years now, the battle has raged between the federal authorities who are supposed to police the borders and the states who pay the price if they fail.

In an attempt to reduce illegal immigration, Nevada Senator Harry Reid, has introduced a bill that would establish an annual limit of 300,000 newcomers, including immediate relatives, and a national identification card. Congress passed legislation in 1986 that stipulates fines and other penalties for employers who knowingly hire illegal aliens. The bill includes provisions to grant amnesty to illegal aliens who were in the United States prior to January 1, 1982, and to aid farmers who have relied on illegal aliens to harvest their crops. Does anyone benefit from the rising tide of illegal immigration? Businesses that can profit from employing illegals at low wages do. And many illegals are better off here than in their own countries.

But many others are exploited by dishonest employers and are treated like slaves. These immigrants are denied the rights and privileges we want every person in the United States to enjoy. In closing, we must all realize this issue will not go away. Other generations of Americans made great sacrifices so that we today can enjoy the freedom, the quality of life, and the standard of living that we have. When I think of what uncontrolled immigration will do to the dreams of my parents and grandparents, what it will mean to the future of my children, I realize that we will find a way to control immigration. Because we must.

Primary And Secondary Sources (These listings are in order of their importance, in category.) “Immigration: Identifying Propaganda Techniques” Bonnie Szumski & JoAnne Buggey, Ph.D. College of Education, University of ` Minnesota (Greenhaven Press 1989) “Immigration-Opposing Viewpoints” David Bender & Bruno Leone, Series Editors William Dudley, Book Editor (Greenhaven Press 1990) “The Essential Immigrant” Dan Lacey (Hippocrene Books 1990) “Immigration” Kelly C. Anderson (Lucent Books 1993) “Immigration-A pictorial History of” Oscar Handlin (Crown Publishers 1972) “Immigrants, Refugees, and U.S. Policy” Grant S McClellan (H. W. Wilson Company 1981) “Immigration and Illegal Aliens” Mark A.

Siegel, M.A., Ph.D. Nancy R. Jacobs, B.A., M.A. Patricia A. Von Brook, B.A., M.S. (Information Plus 1989) Newsprint Articles examined from the following publications: Des Moines Register Los Angeles Times Orange County Register America On Line Numerous Articles were reviewed.

A word search was performed on the system, using the keywords: Immigration Borders Aliens Liberty All Articles Were Transmitted Within The Past 8 Months Excerpts from: Donald L. Huddle Economist, Rice University: Texas Doris Meissner (Clintons nominee as Commissioner of the INS) Let me know what you think. Comments regarding this paper may be sent to: .

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