History And Cultures By Thomas Sowell “History and Cultures” by Thomas Sowell surveys many different cultures and explains why cultures have differences in productivity, income, wealth, education, occupation and industry. A reason for these differences is due primary to geography, rather than to the individual or ethnic group. History has proven that because of geography that no one society has developed equally and that the size of a person’s cultural world will influence how far a person or an ethnic group can develop, technologically and culturally. Immigrants can thrive almost everywhere because they must. As outsiders immigrants tend to work harder than natives, starting with most menial jobs. Japanese-born farmers achieved eight times more out put per acre than native-born farmers. Despite an immigrant’s humble origins, they help nations to succeed and prosper.

The majority of benefits that come from immigrants without credentials are those people who don’t have much to recommend to society them except to strive for a better life. Many countries show that general populations become better off through markets than through government. Reviled by native Americans for clinging to their culture,immigrants have launched vast business enterprises, which include household names such as, Bausch and Lomb, Weyerhauser, Chrysler, Steinway, Wurlitzer, Hershey, and Heinz. Another reason why some ethnic groups tend to excel in another society is because they conform to the norm of their newfound social group and they find approval. This is mainly blamed on their new society. Foreign-born people have made long vital contributions to other nations throughout history, including military matters; they receive little or no help from governments. In producing military technology, immigrants bought with them technology or cannons to China, Spain, and Russia, among others, and manned the United States as being the first in nuclear power.

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Immigrants that have become involved in politics usually have been representatives of broader political realms rather than ethnic leaders. These immigrants are ambassadors to their ethic country. Migration has been a part of history for many centuries. When an immigrant or an ethnic group migrates to another geographic location, their cultural patterns do not disappear but remains with them. Culture does not only shape what we do but it demonstrates shared values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that govern a person’s way of life. Cultures are strategies to meet human needs. History has shown that ethnic groups or individuals have prospered better outside of their culture than existing within their own culture. The differences among these cultures are values and beliefs that affect cultural development.

The inter-group differences that rise from poverty to prosperity are between the doers and the do-nots. Cultures do not only compete against each other but they also compete within their own societies. Most competitions will result in winners and losers but most of all competitions will result in a higher standard of living. Cultures compete at many different levels, but one method that cultures compete is warfare. The conquest of a country will determine what laws, language and customs that the natives of that country will adhere to. Warfare is not the only way that cultures compete. Cultures also compete in practical ways to serve a better purpose for humanity, from growing food to discovering a cure for cancer.

Migration has its ups and downs in another society. Immigrants have brought with them added disease and crime. During the late twentieth century the United States had several diseases that had become nearly extinct within the American population, but some of these diseases re-introduced themselves when immigrants entered into the country. Some of these diseases are tuberculosis, leprosy, measles, cholera, and malaria. Crime among the different cultures in another society is mainly because of the different backgrounds, priorities, and religions. Immigration does not only help with the development of a country but it can also dissolve a country.

Countries have made considerable efforts in preserving other foreign cultures and their languages within the host country. In the United States many immigrants are entitled to preferential treatment under the affirmative action. Affirmative action is intended to take a wrong that was done in the past and make it a right in the present. Programs such as affirmative action has increased anti-immigrant feelings among U.S citizens in which has resulted in potentially explosive conflicts between natives and immigrants. History does not only offer an outline for the present but it does offer examples and insights to the future.

Migrations have played a very valuable roll in the economic, productivity, income, wealth, and education developments of a country. Nevertheless, each culture needs another culture in order to advance in society and to preserve mankind.


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