Hemingway ERNEST HEMINGWAY BIOGRAPHY On the date of July 21, 1899 Ernest Hemingway, a now known brilliant writer, was born. Hemingway was conceivably the only writer to achieve the combination of international celebrity and literary stature in the twentieth century. Hemingway was brought up in the village of Oak Park, Illinois, close to the prairies and woods west of Chicago. Both here and in Michigan, he could explore, camp, fish and hunt with his father, Dr. Clarence Hemingway. In Chicago he would attend concerts, operas and visit art museums with his mother, a musician and an artist. Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School, where he was an active writer.

He wrote articles, poems and stories for the schools publications largely based on his own experiences. The year Hemingway graduated he quickly secured a job with the Kansas City Star. There he received a writing style sheet that instructed: Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. (Parshall 1).

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These were rules he never forgot to incorporate into his works to get to the heart of a story. The following year he entered World War I as a volunteer with American Red Cross ambulance unit as a driver. There he was wounded near the Italian/Austrian front. Hospitalized, he fell in love with his nurse, who later called off their relationship. After World War I, Hemingway returned to northern Michigan to read, write, fish, and later to work for the Toronto Star in Canada. In 1921 married his first wife and moved to Paris.

In Paris he continued to write for the Toronto Star as a foreign correspondent. During his stay in Europe through the 1920s, Ernest was influenced by eccentric writers like Gertrude Stein and Ezra Pound their literary compression. Hemingways use of these methods in short stories and novels that captured the attention of critics and the public. In the 1930s, he turned to writing for causes, including democracy as he knew it in the Spanish Civil War and World War II. In each conflict he sought support for the side he favored.

But he insisted on impartially describing the truth of both wars, which he knew from firsthand experience. In the years following World War II, many critics said Hemingways best writing was past. He surprised many of the critics when the novel, The Old Man and the Sea, was published. This work led to his Pulitzer Prize in 1952. Two years later he received the Nobel Prize for his powerful, style-making mastery of the art or modern narration (Griffin 1) for The Old Man and the Sea. Hemingways years following these awards saw few works as successful as his novel or earlier writings.

Hemingway was devastated that he could no longer write as he once did. During 1961 Hemingway, troubled by high blood pressure and mental depression, received shock treatments during two long confinements at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. He died July 2, 1961 at his home in Ketchum, Idaho, as a result of self-inflicted gunshot wounds and was buried in Ketchum. But as he had hoped, his writing lives on. His works continue to sell very well and are translated in an amazing variety of languages around the world.

HEMINGWAY HERO For Ernest Hemingway, the secondary world which he constructed in his many stories and novels served as a mirror to reflect his beliefs about the world in which he lived (Relations to Fact Through Fiction 1). Even though he reflected his beliefs in his works he never portrayed himself as the hero. Instead Hemingway created a hero that followed the same general code in all of his works. We generally, call this man the code herothis because he represents a code according to which the hero, if he could attain it, would be able to live properly in the world of violence, disorder, and misery to which he has been introduced and which he inhabits. The code hero, then, offers up and exemplifies certain principles of honor, courage, and endurance which in a life of tension and pain make a man, as we say, and enable him to conduct himself well in the losing battle that is life.

The Hemingway hero of The Snows of Kilimanjaro is Harry. Harry is self pitying and views his present diseased state as the culmination of poor choices and false, convenient values. However, through final, confrontation with his own mortality, he achieved self-redemption. In The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber Francis is the Hemingway hero because he had courage and faced his fears. If Francis would not have went out on the safari the last time and had so much courage his wife would not have shot him.

Mrs. Macomber killed him because she could no longer rule him. With Francis gaining so much self-esteem he no longer sat back and let his wife cheat on him, without confronting her. The Italian soldiers in In Another Country are the heroes because they were not afraid to die. The three boys went to war and returned back to Milan with medals for their bravery for facing death.

Santiago from The Old Man and the Sea is a hero because he was courageous and was not afraid of death. Santiago went out to sea, never gave up, and knew he could survive anything that happened. Ole Anderson of The Killers does not whimper. He takes the medicine quietly and is not afraid of death. In A Farewell to Arms Henry is not afraid to face death. He went to war.

Later he deserted the Italian Army, knowing that he faced death. He dove into the river and escaped. He swam to safety and boarded a train to Stresa where he reunited with Catherine. REFLECTIONS OF HEMINGWAYS LIFE Hemingway did not only create characters but created himself. The meaning to that is that he took his life and intertwined it not only into one of his stories but almost all of his stories.

As a writer, Hemingway drew heavily upon his war experiences, as is seen in his earlier works that speak of men and women deprived, by World War I, of faith in the moral values in which they had believed, as well as, of those who lived with hostile disregard for anything but their own emotional needs. Many of the situations and characters in A Farewell to Arms came from Hemingway’s own experience with the war in Italy. Not long after high school Hemingway volunteered as a Red Cross ambulance driver in 1917. Just like Frederick in the story he is seriously wounded and taken to get medical care. Henry was posted in northern Italy and, like Hemingway, received a wound from a mortar round. Even the details of the wound to the leg are based exactly on the novelist’s own injury.

While Hemingway was recovering he fell in love like Henry. The only exception to that is that the woman Hemingway fell in love with ran off and became engaged to an Italian nobleman. He also drew upon his love of fishing, hunting, and bull fighting, where his writings tell of men with simple characters and primitive emotions, such as prizefighters and bullfighters (Roberts 8). He wrote of their courageous and usually futile battles against circumstances. In The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other stories Hemingway looked back on his African safaris from 1934.

Most of the source material for The Old Man and the Sea comes from Hemingway’s own experiences fishing off the coast of Cuba. Hemingway spent more than two decades of his life living on the island, and fishing was one of his favorite activities. Another episode in 1940 may have also served as a source for the novel. Hemingway witnessed a man and a boy in a small boat being dragged by a fish that the man had hooked. When Hemingway approached to try to help, the man had screamed at him to stay away. Hemingway watched the struggle for half the day, finally pulling his own boat close enough to throw some provisions into the boat of the embattled fisherman and boy. Beginning with the illustrative story and perhaps this experience, Hemingway added deeper elements from the environment to flesh out Santiago’s character and develop the action of the story. THEMES In The Snows of Kilimanjaro Harry himself regards his life as a failure.

He has prostituted his art: each day of not writing, of comfort, of being that which he despised, dulled his ability and softened his will to work so that, finally, he did no work at all. The months and years of idleness slip by. He never acts, he never loves, he never carries out his plans. He returns to Africa simply because he had once been happy there, and he thinks perhaps there he can work the fat off his soul. Scorning the challenge of real life all around him, he postpones writing the stories he knows, and he postpones loving an eminently lovable woman simply because she is his and is available at the present moment.

Harry then becomes infected with the disease called gangrene. He lays on his cot where he flashes back to scenes from his life that he has saved to write, taking pleasure in their recall but knowing he will never write about them. He dreams of his younger days when he was capable of fulfilling and remaining true to his talent. Therefore the theme is dont put off what you could have done today to do tomorrow. Always have courage and face your fears in life is the lesson from The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber. Francis Macomber was a wealthy American on a safari with his beautiful, unloving wife, Margot.

On one of the first days out Macomber flees away as fast as possible to get away from the lion instead of shooting due to his fears. This is similar to how he ignores his wifes cheating habits instead of confronting her. Later on Macomber has the chance to live up to his fears again which he does, by facing a buffalo and his wife (when he realized she was in Wilsons tent one night). You may not always know ones true background and what is really happening in their life. That is a theme for In Another Country.

The narrator for the story is in Milan for rehabilitation where he meets an Italian Soldier, a champion fencer, whose hand has been wounded while at war that is also in rehabilitation. The recovering of his hand does not seem to have the slimmest effect on him at all. That does not seem to be right thought the narrator, for a champion fencer to lose his …


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