Fitness and Training Principles

Task One
Fitness can be defined as “the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour
and alertness without undue fatigue and with ample energy to enjoy leisure
time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies”
Ref – (
Fitness can be broken down into motor fitness “this is the capability to
perform successfully at a particular game.”
Ref- (Physical Education and Sport Studies)
And also physical fitness “this is the capability to meet physical and
physiological demands made by a sporting activity”
Ref- (Physical Education and Sports Studies)
Components of motor fitness include:
. Reaction time – the time taken from the stimulus to first movement
. Balance – the ability to maintain a specific and stable orientation
in relation to the environment
. Agility – the ability to change the position of the body in a space
rapidly and accurately
. Co – ordination – the ability to integrate the nervous,
skeletomuscular system and sensory systems to create a single
smooth movement.

. Power – the ability to apply force at a fast rate
Components of physical fitness include:
. Cardiovascular endurance – which is the efficiency of the lungs and
heart to carry oxygen to the working muscles
. Muscular endurance – is the ability for the muscle to contract over
a prolonged period of time at a moderate intensity
. Strength – the ability to apply a force to overcome a resistance
. Flexibility – the range of movement possible at a joint
. Speed – the distance travelled per unit of time
Health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and
not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Ref – (
Health differs from fitness in that health is just to have well being and
for your mind and body to function properly, fitness is the ability to do
this with vigour and without fatigue. So some one who is fit may be
healthier as they are in a better state of mind and those organs i.e. the
heart work more efficiently, and can deal with daily stresses more easily,
without fatigue so they have energy for leisure time activities.

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Task Two
Anaerobic fitness refers to activities which require high intensity and
short duration. During aerobic activity stored fuels such as glycogen
provide energy at a fast rate without the need for oxygen. The system that
helps provide the energy for anaerobic activity is called the ATP-PC

“ATP is broken down to give adenosine diphosphate, a ‘free’ phosphate
and energy which is used for muscular work” Ref – (Sport and P.E)
In order for this system to continue to work ATP needs to be resynthesised
from ADP to ATP, this is done through the breakdown of phosphocreatine
which provides a third phosphate and energy to resynthesise ATP. The most
important feature of this system is the speed in which ATP can be
resynthesised through PC; this is why the system is used for very intense
activity. The main drawback to this system is that there are only limited
stores of ATP and PC in the muscles and is restricted to a short duration.

” . . no longer sustain ATP resynthesis. This usually occurs after 8 – 10
seconds of maximum effort.” Ref – (Sport and P.E) However
an athlete can improve their aerobic fitness and withstand the onset of
fatigue by increasing stores of ATP and PC in the muscles. This can be
done using various types of training, an example is pyramid training “this
is a form of multiple set training in which the weight is increased in each
set and the repetitions are reduced.” Ref – (The Complete Guide to Strength
Training.)This allows you to warm up the
muscles gradually and prepare it to cope with heavier weights by the end of
the sets; this allows the muscles to achieve overload and allowing the
muscle to develop in size and strength. Another type of training that will
help increase anaerobic fitness is interval training. In order for the
correct system to be stressed you need to work for the correct duration for
the ATP-PC system “the work period should last for 3-10 seconds” Ref –
(Sport and P.E.) Intensity
should be around 90-100% for the ATP-PC system. You also need to take into
account the number of repetitions “up to 50 short intense bouts within a
session” Ref – (Sport and P.E.) Interval training also requires a rest
period which allows the heart rate to return back down to 150 beats per
minute. An activity that could be used to train could be to do a 50m
sprint allow rest and then repeat the sprint.

In order to get maximum anaerobic fitness through training it is important
to train in the correct heart rate zone. In order to do this an athlete
needs to work at their maximum heart rate.

“(HRmax) = 220 – age” Ref – (Physical Education and Sports Studies)
A thrower would mainly work on the red line training zone. This means
working at 90% to 100% of maximum heart rate. Training in this zone will
only be of short duration. It will help train fast twitch muscle fibres
and helps develop speed. However in order to get all the benefits from
this system then they must also train in the anaerobic zone 80% – 90%
maximum heart rate. “it is important to have first developed your ability
to deal with lactic acid” Ref – (Sport Examined)
The anaerobic zone is where your anaerobic threshold can
be found, this is when the body can no longer remove the lactic acid from
the muscles quickly enough. This zone allows you to increase your ability
to deal with lactic acid and prolong your lactic acid threshold.

Task Three
We tested 10 participants in a quadrathlon as a form of screening to
identify potential talent for athlete throwers. The quadrathlon takes the
form of 4 events; 30m sprint, standing long jump, overhead shot and three
jumps. Each event was carried out 3 times by each participant and the best
result was taken from each event. Then in order to score each person’s
result a score calculator on was used. This allowed for
analysis of each participants performance and allowed us to highlight
potential talent. (See appendix for results) In order to make sure the
results were reliable we had to standardise each test. The overhead throw
was standardised as we used the same weight ball, same technique, the same
people also measured each throw. The standing long jump and the standing
long jump were also standardised with the sane people measuring, same
number of warm up jumps and same technique (both feet together.) The test
was valid in that it measured what it was supposed to measure – people’s
ability to perform the three tasks. However, the reliability could have
been affected by individual’s motivation to complete the events. Looking
at the table of results certain trends can be identified, it seems that the
better the standing long jump score the better the 3 jump score, so the
people who did well on the single jump also did well on the 3 jumps. This
would indicate that athlete’s with higher score had more power. It also
highlights that athletes with a bigger positive range between the single
and 3 jump score would also suggest that they have more muscular endurance
as they are able to maintain power throughout the 3 jumps and cover more
distance. There is also a correlation between 3 jump and shot scores; the
further the jump the further the throw, this suggests the higher scorers
have better all over power, not just in their legs. The athlete I would
recommend to go on a development programme would be male 8, this is because
he showed most consistency throughout the 4 events showing a high score in
each compared to male 9 who showed higher scores for 3 events had a big
drop in the 4th event.

Davis, B. Galligan, F. Honeybourne, J. Roscoe, D. Roscoe, J. Physical
Education and Sport Studies. (1998) Jan roscoe Publications, Chesire.

Bean, A. The Complete Guide to Strength Training. (2001) A & C Black
Publishers Ltd, London.

Beashel, P. Taylor, J. Sport Examined. (1992) Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd,

Hartigan, S. Thompson, G. Wesson, K. Wiggins, N. Sport and PE (1998) Hodder
and Stoughton Educational, London.
Assignment 2


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