.. -0.35*** Youth Mother Time Spent-Father -0.24* Youth Father Time Spent-Father -0.22* Mother Similarity-Youth -0.33*** Mother Emulation-Youth -0.37*** Father Emulation-Youth -0.20* +p * 0.1 ; *p * 0.05 ; **p * 0.01 ; ***p * 0.001. This table consists of only the scales significantly related to the adolescent marijuana usage with the exception of father AIDS. From the table above, we see that the greater the fathers marijuana usage the more frequent his child will use marijuana. A close parent-child mutual attachment, the more admiration, affection, warmth, and child-centerness the child feel from the parents, the less frequent the child will use marijuana. The greater the conflict is between the parents is associated with the childs more frequent use of marijuana.
In regards to parenting variables, the greater the mother, father extreme autonomy or more lenient, the more frequent the child will use marijuana. It makes sense then to see that the more discipline the father reinforces, the less likely his child will use marijuana. Likewise, the greater the reinforcement of the mother, father rules, the less frequent the child will use marijuana. Especially the mother rules. It might be because of the fact that majority of the children resides with the mothers.
With that said, we see that the more time the mother spent with the child is strongly related with less frequent adolescent marijuana use and the more time the father spent with the child will also help to reduce the frequency of childs marijuana usage. The same goes to mother similarity and parents emulation with mother having the strongest effect on the reduction of childs marijuana usage. Interactions of Father and Youth Risk-Protective Variables: A series of regression analyses was run in which a variable from one domain was entered first then a variable from another domain, followed by the interaction term (e.g., father AIDS status by one of the parenting variables). I will discuss only the significant interactions, p * 0.05, since the others will not provide any important information. In all cases, the dependent variable was the past year frequency of adolescent marijuana use. The first set of regression done was by taking father AIDS status and interacts with each of the parenting variables. Although the fathers AIDS status did not emerge as a significant main effect on the childs marijuana use, it did show significance in the presence of two other variables.
The two significant interaction regression analyses are: Father AIDS Status by Father Child-centerness and Father AIDS Status by Time Spent with Mother. In the case that the father does not have AIDS, the effectiveness of father child-centerness (high or low), would not make a big difference in the adolescent marijuana use. If the father has AIDS and is accompanied by low father child-centerness, we have a risk/risk interaction and the adolescent marijuana use is very high. However, if father child-centerness is high, then it buffers some of the risks to the adolescent marijuana use posed by the father having AIDS. The same result is shown in the interaction of father AIDS status by mother time spent with child.
When the father has AIDS, and the mother spends little time with the child, then the frequency of child marijuana usage is high, where as it would be buffered by mother spending more time with the child. The combined presence of these variables as risk/risk interactions was more strongly associated with frequent marijuana use than each of these variables considered alone. The next set of regression was done by interacting the gender of the child with each of the parenting variables to predict the adolescent marijuana usage. The significant ones are: Sex by Mother Identification, Sex by Father Extreme Autonomy, Sex by Mother Extreme Autonomy, and Sex by Mother Time Spent. In all cases, male child marijuana usage in greater than female.
For both male and female, if the child identified weakly with the mother, marijuana use for the child increase (male using more than female). The more lenient the father is, the more marijuana use for the male child is affected. Females not affected by as greatly as male. The same goes for lenient mothers. Both male and female are affected by the time spent with mother.
The less time mother spent with the children, the more highly used the marijuana with males being affected more than females. Another set of interaction regression was also conducted to see the effect of the parenting variables on the adolescent marijuana use differ in the two race studied (black and white). The significant interactions include ethnicity by father rules and ethnicity by fathers time spent with child. If father rules are strong, then the adolescent marijuana use in both races will be low. If the father rules are weak, then the adolescent marijuana use is more at risk for white children than for black children.
It is highest for the three children that identified themselves as other for ethnicity. The same result applied to father time spent with child. When the fathers time spent with his child is high, the adolescent marijuana use for both races is low. While fathers time spent with the child is low is more risky for white children to use more marijuana than for black children. Finally, father marijuana use is interacted with each of the parenting variables. Only mother identification was significant in the interaction regression with father marijuana use variable.
The plot show if the child is strongly identified with the mother, his/her marijuana use will be low regardless if the father uses marijuana or not. When the child shows weak identification with the mother, child marijuana use will increase; more strongly effected in the presence of fathers marijuana use. Therefore mother identification helped buffered the negative effects of the fathers marijuana use risk factor on the childs marijuana use. Discussion The overall information suggest that a strong parent-child relationship helped offset the negative effects of certain risk factors such as father having AIDS and father using marijuana. Specifically, a more affectionate parent-child relationship, characterized by warmth, good discipline, adolescents identification with the parents (mother in particular), and a non-conflict relationship were related to less frequent marijuana use by the child. We can then say that fathers who spends a good deal of time with the children were less likely to have kids that use drugs.
The risk/protective interactive analyses show that white male children are more at risk of marijuana use than white females or black children provided that no parenting variable buffers the negative effect. This study stresses the importance of parenting style and parental drug abuse affecting the childs marijuana usage. Programs should be established to assist the fathers as well as the mothers in their parenting roles to reduce the and possibly prevent marijuana usage for these children. This is a cross-sectional study where both the father and his child are interviewed at the same time. A longitudinal study is being conducted at this time to see how the adolescent marijuana use would be different over time. We wouldnt have access to this information until it is complete.
A larger sample will also be provided.