Discoveries of Scientists of the “Age of Reason” The discoveries of many scientist and great thinkers of the “Age of Reason” have all contributed to the entire scope of how we view astronomy today. The shift was of a less secular thesis to one based on humanism and the Scientific Method. There were several great thinkers that led to this discovery on the scientific level, which chiefly began and ended with the astronomers/scientists Copernicus and Isaac Newton. Copernicus was a mathematician as well as a scientist whom found the stars fascinating. He did, however, find a great flaw with the mathematical results of the universe being a Earth- centered one.
He then saw that if the universe was to revolve around the sun (an error on Copernicus’s part.. only our solar system revolves around the Earth — not the universe!) then all of his mathematical formulas would become more “aesthetic”. Thus, he composed the theory, which led to great controversial book “On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres” in which the church was greatly angered. While Copernicus’s book was not a revolutionary book, it was, however, a catalyst to make other minds ponder the new Heliocentric theory. After Copernicus’s death there were three other scientists which helped credit the Heliocentric theory.
Tycho Brahe was the first, he played with the idea that the planets all revolved around the sun, but the sun instead revolved around the Earth(still Geocentric). After Brahe’s death Johannes Kepler took the notes and data that Brahe had taken. Kepler came up with the idea the it would be even more mathematically plausible that the orbits of the planets around the sun (Heliocentric) were elliptical, instead of circular and published the book “On the motion of Mars”– the problem was unfortunately that this could not be proved. The most important of these three scientists was Galileo Galilei, whom looked out his telescope one night and saw something very dangerous to the church. He saw the Jupiter had a moon which orbited it. This meant big trouble because it proved that everything did not revolve around the Earth — contradicting the church.
Galileo was attacked and pressured to deny this evidence the rest of his life. The final great thinker of the time was Isaac Newton, whom ended up solving all the problems of the astronomers previously. Newton (Thanks to an apple falling on his head — just kidding!) developed the theory of Gravity and several laws of science and Physics which now serve as the basis of all we study today. Newton theories intelligently explained the ideas and why the planets in our solar system revolve around the sun, and also why there were elliptical orbits. The great achievements of the scientists whom disproved the Geocentric theory of the universe, contradicting the church’s strong scholastism, ave proved to be one of the greatest examples of courage and truly using scientific method. The entire structure of our humanism and the relationship with the universe changed forever. Hopefully now that we know our place in the universe, we can work on fixing some of the problems back here on Earth!.