Digestive and urinary system

CH. 16
Digestive and Urinary System
Lesson 1: The Digestive System
qGastric Juices:
Functions of the Digestive System:
qDigestion, Absorption, and Elimination.

qDigestion occurs in the digestive tract which includes:
1.Mouth: Mastication occurs and enzymes produced by salivary glands starts digesting carbohydrates.

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2.Esophagus: 10 in. long and extends from the pharynx to the stomach. Food moves down the esophagus by the peristalsis. The sphincter, a circular muscle at the entrance of the stomach opens and closes to allow food to enter the stomach.
3.Stomach: Holds about 1qt of food for 3-4 hours and controls the rate at which it enters the small intestine. It also produces Chyme and Gastric Juices.

4.Small Intestine: 20ft (6m) long, 1in (2.5cm) in diameter. Consist of 3 parts the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Intestinal juice, secretions from the liver and pancreas complete chemical breakdown.

5.Large Intestine (Colon): 2.5in (6cm) in diameter and 5-6ft (1.5-1.8m) long. The main function of the large intestine is the elimination of waste and the absorption of water. The water is absorbed into the bloodstream
Other Organs that aid Digestion
qThe liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are essential for the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

1.Liver: the largest gland in the body
qWeighs about 3.5 lbs.
qDark reddish brown color
qOver 500 functions
qProduces bile
qConverts sugar glucose to glycogen and stores it
qMaintains level of glucose in the blood
qChanges harmful to less harmful toxins
qStores vitamin A, D, E, K, B12, and Iron
2.Gallbladder: Small sac about 3-4 in. (7-10cm) long
qStores bile until food moves from the stomach into the duodenum of the small intestine.

3.Pancreas: a gland of the digestive and endocrine system.

qProduces insulin
qProduces 3 digestive enzymes:
1.trypsin: digest protein
2.amylase: digest carbohydrates
3.lipase: digest fats
qThese enzymes are released into the small intestines through ducts.
Lesson 2: Problems and care of the Digestive Systems
qHiatal hernia:
qPeptic ulcers:
Common Functional Problems:
qHalitosis: (bad breath), can result from disorders of the teeth and gums caused from poor oral health care.

qIndigestion: occurs when your body doesnt properly breakdown foods. This can be caused by eating too much ,eating too fast, or by indulging in an excess of alcohol.
qHeartburn: occurs when acid content from the stomach backs up into the esophagus. If a person has hiatal hernia they may experience heartburn.

qGas: a certain amount of gas in the stomach or intestine is normal but some foods can cause an excess of gas.

qNausea and Vomiting: this can be caused by motion, pathogens, medicines, drugs, and other substances in the stomach. Nausea precedes vomiting. Vomiting is reverse peristalsis.
qDiarrhea: condition in which feces are watery and are expelled frequently. This can be caused by a change in diet, food poisoning, overeating, emotional turmoil, and nutritional deficiencies. It can also be caused by viral and bacterial infections. This can cause dehydration.

qConstipation: a condition in which feces become dry and hard and bowel movements become difficult. It can be caused by a lack of fiber, erratic eating habits, not drinking enough water, lack of exercise and constant use of laxitives.

Common Structural Problems:
qGallstones: small crystals formed from bile that can block the bile duct between the gallbladder and the duodenum.

qUlcers: an open sore on the skin or in the mucous membrane.the can develop in the stomach or duodenum and can be treated by reducing the acid intake or by taking medicine.

qGastritis: an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach. This can occur from the presence of irritant foods, alcohol, or bacteria and viruses.
qAppendicitis: inflammation of the appendix, which is a 3-4in extension at one end of the large intestine. As the result of a bacteria or foreign matter that gets lodged in it the appendix becomes swollen and fills with pus.

qHepatitis: an inflammation of the liver which occurs from a viral infection.

1.Hepatitis A: transmitted by direct contact
2.Hepatitis B: virus enter into the bloodstream, transmitted sexually and through blood transfusions, dental instruments and medicines.

qTooth Decay: weakens the teeth and affects chewing. This can be prevented by brushing, flossing, and regular dental checkups.

qCrohns Disease: chronic disease of the digestive tract. When the mucous lining becomes inflamed absorption of food into the small intestine is affected.

qHemorrhoids: swelling of the veins in the lower rectum and anus area.

Care of the Digestive System
qPractice good eating
qEat a variety of foods
qEat regularly
qDont eat too fast
qDrink plenty of water
Lesson 3: The Urinary System
Funtions of the Urinary System:
qBlood flows through the kidneys which filter out extra salts, water, and nitrogenous waste.

qLiquid waste are temporarily stored in the bladder
Structure of the Urinary System:
1.2 kidneys on either side of the spine.

2.nephrons are functional units of the kidney.

3.filter every drop of your blood once an hour.
4.filtrate is the fluid that flows through the filtering part of your kidney. 40-50 gallons of filtrateis processed each day.

5..5 gallon is expelled as urine.

qThe Bladder and Urethra
1.bladder is a muscular organ that stores urine
2.the sphincter muscle is voluntary
3.the urethra leads from your bladder to the outside of your body.

Problems of the Urinary System:
qThe inability to control your bladder
qCystitis which is a bacterial infection of the bladder. Characterized by blood in urine.

qNephritis occur when nephrons become inflamed.

qUrethritis is an inflammation of the urethra. Urination becomes painful and difficult.

qWhen kidneys are unable to rid the body of waste. (uremia)
qKidney stones are stones formed by mineral salts that passes out the urine.

qKidney failure may cause a blockage of urine or a loss of blood.

qThree technique can be used for kidney failure:
1.Hemodialysis: is when a person is connected to an artificial kidney machine which will filter the blood.

2.Peritoneal dialysis: a process that uses the peritoneum to filter blood and remove waste.

3.Kidney transplant: a person gets a kidney from a donor.

Care of the Urinary System:
qDrink plenty of water
qA nutritionally balanced diet
qRegular checkups.
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