Death Penalty

Death Penalty When New York States governor George Pataki took office in 1995, crime dropped in total of 45%, and the murder rate dropped by 1/3. As of September 1st 1995, the death penalty was reinstated in the state of New York, assuring safer communities and fewer victims, and an over all drop in crime rate. People have used a number of arguments to support their views regarding the death penalty. Among the arguments used include deterrence, incapacitation, religious viewpoint, rehabilitation and cost. Yet it is suggested that the true judgement of a persons position on capital punishment is determined by emotional and moral beliefs.

The primary questions raised by the death penalty are whether it is an effective deterrent to violent crime, and whether it is more effective than the long-term incapacitation. Defenders of the death penalty believe that by taking an offenders life is a more severe punishment than any prison term, it must be the better deterrent. “A life term is commonly a short vacation at State expense with nothing to do but eat the fruit of others industry.” (Opposing, p43.) The term deterrence is used to suggest that with the execution of murderers, there will be a direct decrease in homicide rate, due to the idea that potential murderers will fear for their own lives. Under New Yorks death penalty law offenders involving: murder of a police officer; a probation, parole, court, or corrections officer; a judge; or a witness or members of witnesss family. Also those who murder while already serving life in prison, escaping from prison, or committing other serious felonies, as well contract killers, serial murderers, those who torture their victims, and those who have murdered before. It is criminals and crimes like these that impose fear in our communities.

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Due to change in sentencing laws, and other weaknesses in the system, society is not protected from acts of crime. In 1962, James Moore raped and murdered a 14 year old girl. He was not sentenced to death, but instead life imprisonment. Twenty years later, due to a change in our system, Moore is eligible for parole every two years. It is criminals like Moore, who do not deserve the right to live, certainly not amongst innocent communities.

In 1868, in a debate before Englands Parliament one man stated “It is better that the murderer should parish than that innocent men and women should have their throats cut.” (Opposing, p57.) It are those individuals who commit a crime so grave, that they relinquish their right to life. On a religious and moral standpoint, it is said that the death penalty is a fitting punishment. Written in the bible by Luke: “a certain man planted a vineyard, leased it to vinedressers, and went into a far country for a long time. Now at vintage-time he sent a servant to the vinedressers, that they might gave him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the vinedressers beat him and sent him away empty-handed. Again he sent another servant; and they beat him also, treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty-handed.

And again he sent a third; and they wounded him and cast him out. Then the owner of the vineyard said, what shall I do? I will send my beloved son. Probably they will respect him when they see him. But when the vinefressers saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir. Come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.

So they cast him out of the vineyard and killed him. Therefore what will the owner of the vineyard do to them? He will come and destroy those vinedressers and give the vineyard to others.”-Luke 20:9-16. (Pro-capital, p15.) It is said that in this passage Jesus states that the probable punishment for murder is death. Christians who morally support the death penalty may do so for two reasons; they believe in an eye for an eye, meaning that with those whose crimes are to grave, they deserve to die. They also believe if the criminal is repentant of the crime they committed, they are regretful for doing so, then by their execution they are justified to the Lord. Next there is the issue of rehabilitation. Abolitionists who support the concept of rehabilitation for murderers believe that imprisonment is effective in preventing murders from happening again. Murderers have the lowest rates of effective rehabilitation.

Those who murder generally show no remorse, or guilt, and have the ability to kill again. In fact, murderers who serve time in prison are more likely to commit more murders, whether in prison, or upon their release. Civilization must have rules to follow otherwise there will be utter chaos. With 3/4ths of Americans in favor of the death penalty, and murder rates in New York State down by nearly 1/3, one must question the downside of capital punishment. An effective punishment not only forfeits the rights of the criminal, it deters crime, increases public safety and helps provide restitution to victims.

All these components are found in the newly reinstated death penalty law. “Death has a property that life in prison does not: finality.” (Does, p34.) Bibliography 1. Hagg, Ernest Van Den & Conrad, John. The Death Penalty; A Debate Pro/Con. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York. 1983.

2. Bender, L. David & Leone, Bruno. The Death Penalty; Opposing Viewpoints. Greenhaven Press, Inc., San Diego. 1998.

3. Barbour, Scott & Schonebaum, Stephen. Does Capital Punishment Deter Crime? Greenhaven Press, Inc., Sand Diego. 1998. INTERNET: 1. “Pro Capital Punishment.” Http://

Death Penalty

Death Penalty Sign up now for a free trial. Date Smarter! Death Penalty Electric chair, gas chamber, lethal injection, firing squad, hanging, guillotine, and garroting. When you hear these words what do you think of? Do you feel frightened? When some hear these words they tend to say, ” Oh they deserve it”. In the court system that is not always the case. The question you always have to ask yourself is what did the accused do and do they deserve the death penalty? What is bad enough to deserve death? Are their certain crimes that do and then some that do not? Almost every culture through out history has relied on the death penalty and capital punishment and justified as a necessary tool to maintain order.

The only thing that changed throughout time were the crimes deemed punishable by death and the methods used to kill those found guilty. Some of the other countries’ laws of capital punishment seem so barbaric. In ancient India, executions were sometimes carried out by having an elephant crush the condemned’s head. Executions used to be public spectacles. In ancient Persia, one method of execution involved being eaten alive by insects and vermin.

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In the middle ages, methods of execution included chopping off limbs, stripping off the condemned person’s skin, boiling in oil, drawing and quartering (cutting the persons innards and then tearing the body into four pieces), burning at the stake, and crucifixion. In 1692, a man refused to testify after his wife was accused of witchcraft and was ” Pressed ” to death. The sentence was carried out by lying him on a stone floor, placing a board over him, and piling stones upon the board. Benjamin Rush, credited with the beginning the movement to abolish capital punishment in the U.S, declared in 1792 that reform, not retribution, should be the goal of punishment. The Bible authorizes executing those who show contempt on their parents, walk without permission on sacred ground, practicing sorcery, sacrifice in foreign gods or who prostitute themselves.

In the Bible Exodus 21:12 it says, ” Whoever strikes a man a mortal blow must be put to death.” Electrocution in the modern era. Electricity causes biological damage through both heat and electrochemical havoc. The electrical current itself abolishes the function of organs and tissues such as the brain, nerves, and heart by overwhelming the fragile bioelectrical basis of the metabolism. The voltage applied is not the most critical factor but is in fact, almost irrelevant as much as electrical pressure was a factor. The body can tolerate a lot of volts without discomfort.

The type of electrical current, too, makes a difference-whether direct (DC) or alternating (AC). The latter is more dangerous and can be lethal even with low voltage and relatively low amperage. The alternating cycle of 60 per second, which is ordinary 110-120 volt house current, will invariably stop heart action through stand still or ventricular fibrillation if the body somehow becomes part of a circuit. The gas chamber. When sodium cyanide pellets are dropped into acid beneath the seated subject in a gas chamber, extremely lethal hydrogen cyanide is produced.. Cyanide asphyxiates acts by choking the cells instead of blocking air intake.

The gas, HCN, is rapidly absorbed into the blood stream through the lungs. The red blood cells are relatively immune to HCN. When delivered to all of the body’s cells.. Cyanide literally and rapidly chokes all the body’s cells to death at the same time. Hanging proponents. Proponents of hanging as a more humane method objected to the practice of beheading..Advocates of hanging argued that if the noose were correctly applied to the neck, consciousness would disappear quickly due to the sudden and complete blockage of blood in the head, with resultant swelling of the brain and rupture of small blood vessels.

People to whom this was done too that survived swore that there was no pain before they lost consciousness. In a sense any advantages of hanging would seem to be compromised when the “drop” was added. That the drop usually resulted in the breaking of the neck and the ripping of the spinal cord, thus essentially and much more crudely duplicating the results of decapitation without detaching the head. Lethal injection. Thiopental Sodium is a fast acting drug that produces almost short -term unconsciousness after a single dose, it is also used as a ” truth serum ” administered in small, intermittent, carefully calibrated hypnotic dosed while the subjects counts backward from 100.

A trance-like, semi-consciousness is usually reached before the count gets to 90. To complete the lethal mixture for execution, society has stipulated the addition of potassium chloride. A high level of potassium in the blood paralyzes the heart muscle. In effect, then, that would correspond to a heart attack for the condemned while in the deep sleep of a barbiturate coma. As April, 1991, the method of execution in 21 states is lethal injection.

Six states grant a choice: between lethal injection and the gas chamber in MO and NC, hanging in MT and WA, or a firing squad in Idaho and Utah. The fist such execution in Texas in 1982 was attempted by prison employees. They had difficulty in trying to pierce the badly scarred veins of the condemned man with a large needle and blood splattered all over the sheets. Among those witnesses the bungled attempt was of the prison doctor. Firing squads. Firing squads was probably the 2nd most widely; cruel used technique of execution.

Death was virtually instant if the person is shot at close range through the skull; the bullet penetrates the medulla, which contains the vital respirator and cardiac among others. The other way firing squads followed their orders is to aim at the condemned’s heart from some meters away. The reason for this is simple; the cause of death in these cases is normally blood loss through the rupture of the heart or a large vessel, or tearing of the lungs. Persons shot by bullet wounds that are were suffering said when they were shot it felt like hey were kicked hard by a large horse. Usually firing squads usually kill quickly because of a large number of soldiers of prison guards firing simultaneously. The guillotine.

The guillotine was named after the French deputy who proposed the use of the device in 1789. It was believed to be a swift and painless device. Many people believe that the guillotine was invented in France, but it had previously been used in Italy, Germany, and Scotland in the 16th century. Guillotining was considered to be more humane because the blade was sharper, and execution was more rapid than was normally accomplished with an ax. Death occurs due to the separation of the brain and the spinal cord, after transaction of the surrounding tissues.

Consciousness is probably lost within 2-3 seconds, due to rapid fall of intracranial perfusion of the blood. Garroting. Garroting is a form of strangulation by a metal collar with a clamp. The tissues of the neck are tough and the application of the contraption is highly disagreeable, the clamp also occludes the trachea. It kills by asphyxia, cerebral ishaemia. Dying is painful, deeply di …

Death Penalty

Illinois, Citing Faulty Verdicts, Bars Executions
SPRINGFIELD, IL (AP) –Citing a “shameful record of convicting innocent people and putting them on death row,” Gov. George Ryan of Illinois today halted all executions in the state, the first such moratorium in the nation.
Governor Ryan, a moderate Republican who supports the death penalty but questions its administration, noted that 13 men had been sentenced to death in Illinois since 1977 for crimes they did not commit, before ultimately being exonerated and freed by the courts.
“I cannot support a system, which, in its administration, has proven so fraught with error,” he said, “and has come so close to the ultimate nightmare, the state’s taking of innocent life.”
Opponents of the death penalty, who said mistaken convictions like those discovered in Illinois were common throughout the nation, hailed the move. Since 1973, 85 people have been found to be innocent and released from death row.
The Nebraska Legislature passed a moratorium on executions last year, citing concerns of racial disparity in sentencing, but the governor vetoed it. Bills that would halt executions are pending in 12 states.
In Oregon, an anti-death-penalty group led by Mark Hatfield, a former Republican senator and governor, hopes to put a measure on the ballot that would eliminate executions and instead provide for sentences of life without parole.
More than 600 inmates have been put to death since 1977, when the Supreme Court allowed the reinstatement of the death penalty. The death penalty is on the law books in 38 states. The Midwest has traditionally been a center of opposition to the death penalty. It is not allowed in Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota or Wisconsin.
In Illinois, about 150 inmates are on death row; none had an execution date.
Governor Ryan’s announcement of a moratorium met with little public criticism here, a measure of how public outrage over the wrongful convictions has changed the political landscape on the issue in this state.
“Until I can be sure that everyone sentenced to death in Illinois is truly guilty, until I can be sure with moral certainty that no innocent man or woman is facing a lethal injection, no one will meet that fate,” the governor said.
Mr. Ryan resisted calls for a moratorium last year, but he said that continuing evidence of flaws in the system, including still more reversals of convictions, had persuaded him to impose a moratorium.
One of the leading voices for a moratorium has been that of Mayor Richard M. Daley of Chicago, who, while he was Cook County State’s Attorney in the 1980’s, prosecuted some of the death penalty cases that later were overturned.
Mayor Daley now contends that prosecutors did nothing improper in these cases but that defense lawyers were often poorly financed and sometimes incompetent.
In nine of the reversed Illinois cases, students and professors at Northwestern University unearthed pivotal evidence that freed the men from death row.
Lawrence Marshall, a law professor at Northwestern who is director of the Center for Wrongful Convictions at the university, said that the mistakes unearthed in Illinois surely existed in other states.
“This should not be seen as an Illinois problem,” Professor Marshall said. “What happened here is that we got lucky in the first few cases, and found the evidence? After that, people were more willing to take a second look at other cases.”
The willingness in Illinois to examine such cases, Mr. Marshall said, means that letters from inmates protesting innocence are not ignored.
“The political climate has changed here,” he said. “There has been an astonishing recognition that innocent people are being sent to death row. So now people are re-examining cases in Illinois that would not be re-examined in other states.”
While Illinois seems to have become a center of debate over the death penalty, the issue is gaining resonance around the nation, after many years in which it was seen as essentially a dead letter in American politics.
Besides the halt on executions here, and the vetoed moratorium in Nebraska, the death penalty has been the focus of intense scrutiny in Florida and other states. Last year, in a visit to the United States, Pope John Paul II called on Catholics to oppose the death penalty.
And a new movie, “Hurricane,” examines the life of a man, Rubin Carter, who was sent to death row for a crime he did not commit.
“People are starting to raise more concerns about the death penalty,” said Steven Hawkins, the executive director of the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. “It’s becoming obvious that mistakes can be made, and innocent people” can be sent to death row.
While the wrongful convictions in Illinois have generated intense scrutiny and debate, Florida has had 18-death row cases reversed, the most of any state.
Governor Ryan, who said he would appoint a panel to study death penalty sentences, heads the Illinois campaign for Gov. George W. Bush of Texas, the state that executes more people than any other.
“I believe that a public dialogue must begin on the question of fairness of the application of the death penalty in Illinois,” Mr. Ryan said.
In about a year as governor, Mr. Ryan has taken some actions that have put him at odds with conservatives in his party. He has called for strict gun control, expressed support for the civil rights of gays and traveled to Cuba and met with Fidel Castro. Some suburban and downstate lawmakers complain that Mr. Ryan has maintained too cozy a political relationship with Mayor Daley, a Democrat.
Mr. Ryan has lately been beleaguered by an investigation into a bribery scandal at driver’s license bureaus that occurred during his watch as the Illinois secretary of state. While Mr. Ryan has not been charged with wrongdoing, one of his top aides is expected to be indicted.
Seventeen people have pleaded guilty to taking bribes to fix driver’s license exams, and some of the money went to Mr. Ryan’s campaign.
Since 1977, Illinois has executed 12 inmates, the most recent in March 1999, the lethal injection of Andrew Kokoraleis, and a suburban Chicago man who had been convicted of an especially grisly murder.
The Cook County State’s Attorney’s Office has instituted special internal reviews for all cases that would be eligible for the death penalty. The prosecutor’s office, which is headed by Richard Devine, a Democrat, has not called for an execution date since April 1998.
David Erickson, the first assistant state’s attorney, said the governor’s call for a moratorium was appropriate.
“The easy thing would have been to finger-point, and the governor did not do that,” Mr. Erickson said. “If something has fallen apart here, it is a systemic problem.”

Death Penalty

The death penalty has been an ongoing debate for many years. The following essay will not solve the issue either; I will only try to persuade the reader to understand my point of view. The death penalty has both supporters and non-supporters. The death penalty is justified in certain cases such as Mcveigh Vs State of Indiana; however it is unjustified when in other cases, including Bloodsworth Vs State of Maryland. The death penalty is a must, especially in todays society. With the increase in vicious crimes today, the government must act just as harsh with our justice system to try and prevent these types of crimes. Non-supporters argue that the death penalty is inhumane and should be considered murder. People of this malicious caliber must be dealt with in the same way, an eye for an eye. Putting these criminals to death doesnt solve the crime that they committed, but it helps the victims family and friends to feel a sense of justification for whats happened to them.

Capital Punishment has been part of the criminal justice system since the earliest of times. The earliest historical record that contains evidence of capital punishment is the Babylonian Hammurabi Code. It ordered death for crimes as minor as the fraudulent sale of beer. Egyptians could be put to death for disclosing the location of sacred burial sites. During the time of the code you were put to death for the smallest crimes, which now would be a minor offense or even considered being nothing
Today, capital punishment is still apparent in society. People are put to death because of murder or rape. The different types of punishment used are anywhere from hanging to lethal injection. The death penalty is a better deterrent than imprisonment because taking offenders life is more of a severe punishment. By using the death penalty as a type of punishment, it will in the future prevent other criminals from committing similar crimes and eventually make our society a much better place to live. The concept is very simple, the death penalty prevents a murders by putting the fear of death into would be killers. A person is less likely to do something, if he or she thinks that harm will come to him. Another way the death penalty prevent murder, is the fact that if the killer is dead, he will not be able to kill again. As Issac Ehlrich is quoted saying, If the execution of a guilty capital murderer deters the murder of one innocent life, the execution is justified. This means that if the news of an execution changes a potential murderer the death penalty is appropriate act for the situation. The Bible also states that there should be retribution for a crime. The Bible says whosoever sheds mans blood, by man shall be shed. This statement has been interpreted as a divine justification for putting a murderer to death.
A very fine example of the death penalty doing something for the general welfare of the American people is the death sentence of Timothy McVeigh, the brains behind the Oklahoma City bombing. On April 19, 1995, 168 people, including many young children in the day care center, died in the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, OK. Many people believed that McVeigh should fry in the chair, and it looks like it will happen. It shows that capital punishment does some good for the country to keep the citizens safe from violent offenders such as convicted murderers and rapists. Capital punishment is a logical form of justice for the United States, even though many people are against it.
For the people against the death penalty, they need to realize that capital punishment is for the general welfare of the people because the death penalty is the most logical way to punish criminals of vicious crimes. Everyone in the world needs to follows certain laws, and if they are broken, the accused has to pay to price for his or her crime. The sentences might be anywhere from ten to twenty years in prison, but some crimes force the defendant to die for their crime or crimes. Capital punishment is just, and it should stay in

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