Cocaine

Cocaine Cocaine is one of the worst drugs on the streets today. It has destroyed millions of lives and will hurt many more in the years to come. The Partnership for a Drug-Free America is a group that is concerned. They created a web site (located at http://www.drugfreeamerica.org.cocaine.html) that gives straight information on cocaine and every other known illicit drug. This information is invaluable to parents.

With an enemy like cocaine people need all the information that they can get. The web site explains every thing about Cocaine. Cocaine is distributed in two main forms. Powder cocaine is a white crystalline substance. It is usually snorted through the nose, or in can be mixed with water and injected. This causes high that lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes. Crack cocaine is cocaine hydrochloride.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Cooking cocaine with baking soda produces crack. The high from crack lasts about 5 to 10 minutes. Some people use it occasionally and others use it many times a day. No matter how much it is extremely addictive. The high produced by cocaine is a surge in energy, an extreme feeling of pleasure. If used heavily it can cause its victim to suffer from paranoia, aggression, insomnia, and depression associated withdrawal.

Once it is out of the user’s brain the user may experience depression, irritability, and fatigue. One of the main reasons people use cocaine is achieve an altered state of perception (the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Text 125). When the brain is under the influence of cocaine it will perceive information from the environment differently. The main people use cocaine try to get a feeling of euphoria, this is when the mind perceives everything as positive. The feeling of euphoria only takes place while cocaine is in the user’s brain once it leaves the brain; the mind perceives almost everything as negative. Another issue with the altered state of perception produced by cocaine is people hurting themselves or others while under the influence of cocaine.

A person driving under the influence of cocaine has the extreme possibility of being overconfident (the tendency to be more confident than correct– to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments text page 274). An overconfident driver not under the influence of cocaine can be a great danger. That danger is multiplied by ten when that person is on cocaine. One of the main problems with getting a user off cocaine is withdrawal (the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug text page 191). The symptoms of withdrawal associated with cocaine are paranoia, aggression, insomnia, and depression. These symptoms are one of the main reasons that it is hard for people to stop using cocaine.

Another problem associated with cocaine withdrawal is that after a while of heavy cocaine use the user can only achieve happiness while under the influence of cocaine. To counteract the problems posed by cocaine withdrawal there are support groups to teach people how to live their lives without cocaine. Despite the odds everyday people beat their cocaine addiction. The psychological perspective that is very important to the purpose of this article is the social-cultural (investigates the connection between society and behavior text page 5) perspective. The goal of the web site is to give parents the information needed to protect their kids from drug abuse.

This perspective studies what influences people have to start using drugs in the first place. Psychologists from this field are involved marketing anti-drug information to people especially the youth. One thing that research in this field is information on who uses the drug and why. The Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has commissioned many studies on why youths begin to use cocaine. The have found what people have known for years. Teenagers tend to be overconfident and they will try it, and before they know it they are hooked.

This information has helped spawn the “just say no” anti-drug campaign. Another important perspective to this article is the biological (How the body and the brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences text page 5) perspective. Psychologist from this perspective study how cocaine effects the brain. Their research is very important, since they might find a drug that will alleviate the withdrawal symptoms of cocaine. If a drug like this was found it would be a great help to people who are addicted to cocaine. What cocaine does to the brain is terrible. It kills brain cells like beach kills germs.

After a long period of use a users can be described as “the walking dead”. Cocaine also has the possibility of killing first time users. The reason for this is that many people’s body is not able to metabolize cocaine, and the only time people find out is after they are in the hospital with cartact arrest.

Cocaine

Cocaine Cocaine is an alkaloid found in leaves of a South American shrub. It is a powerfully reinforcing stimulant. The drug induces a sense of exhilaration in the user primarily by blocking the dopamine from going into your brain. Life-long happiness will be genetically pre-programmed. “Peak experiences” will become a natural part of everyday mental health. Cocaine, alas, offers merely a tragically delusive short-cut.

Before Columbian times, the coca leaf was reserved for Inca royalty. The natives subsequently used it for mystical, religious, social, nutritional and medicinal purposes. They exploited its stimulant properties to ward off fatigue and hunger, enhance endurance, and to promote a benign sense of well-being. It was initially banned by the Spanish. But the invaders discovered that without the Incan “gift of the gods”, the natives could barely work the fields – or mine gold.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

So it came to be cultivated by the Catholic Church. Coca leaves were distributed three or four times a day to the workers during brief rest-breaks. Returning Spanish conquistadores introduced it to Europe. Coca was touted as “an elixir of life”. In 1814, an editorial in Gentleman’s Magazine urged researchers to begin experimentation so that coca could be used as “a substitute for food, so that people could live a month, now and then, without eating..” The active ingredient was first isolated in the West around 1860. Freud, who believed in the virtues of self-experimentation, described cocaine as a magical drug.

He wrote a song of praise in its honour. To Sherlock Holmes, cocaine was “so transcendentally stimulating and clarifying to the mind that its secondary action is a matter of small moment”. Doctors dispensed cocaine as an antidote to morphine addiction. Unfortunately, some patients made a habit of combining them. Cocaine was soon sold over-the-counter. Until 1916, one could buy it at Harrods.

It was widely used in tonics, toothache cures and patent medicines; and in chocolate cocaine tablets. Prospective buyers were advised – in the words of pharmaceutical firm Parke-Davis – that cocaine “could make the coward brave, the silent eloquent, and render the sufferer insensitive to pain”. When combined with alcohol, it yielded a further potently reinforcing compound, now known to be cocaethylene. Thus cocaine was a popular ingredient in wines, notably Vin Mariani. Coca wine received endorsement from prime-ministers, royalty and even the Pope. Coca-cola was introduced in 1886 as as “a valuable brain-tonic and cure for all nervous afflictions”. It was promoted as a temperance drink “offering the virtues of coca without the vices of alcohol”. The drink was invigorating and popular.

Until 1903, a typical serving contained around 60mg of cocaine. Sold today, it still contains an extract of coca-leaves. Coca Cola imports eight tons from South America each year. Nowadays the leaves are used only for flavouring since the drug has been removed. A coca leaf typically contains contains between 0.1 and 0.9 percent cocaine.

If chewed in such form, it rarely presents the user with any social or medical problems. When the leaves are soaked and mashed, however, cocaine is extracted as a coca-paste. The paste is 60 to 80 per cent pure. It is usually exported in the form of the salt, cocaine hydrochloride. This is the powdered cocaine most common, until recently, in the West. Drug testing for cocaine aims to detect the presence of its major metabolite, the inactive benzoylecgonine.

Benzoylecgonine can be detected for up to five days in casual users. In chronic users, urinary detection is possible for as long as three weeks. Yet old-fashioned cocaine hydrochloride still wasn’t good enough. Sensation-hungry thrill-seekers have long sought the ultimate high from the ultimate “rush”. They haven’t been satisfied with the enhanced mood, sexual interest, self-confidence, conversational prowess and intensified consciousness to be derived from just snorting cocaine. Normally, only the intravenous route of administration could be expected to deliver the more potent and rapid hit they have been seeking.

Yet there are very strong cultural prejudices against injecting recreational drugs. So a smokable form was developed. Since the hydrochloride salt decomposes at the temperature required to vaporise it, cocaine is instead converted to the base form. It is concentrated by heating the drug in a solution of baking powder until the water evaporates. This type of base cocaine makes a cracking sound when heated; hence the name “crack”.

Crack is base-cocaine which vaporises at a low temperature. It can thus be easily inhaled via a heated pipe. Crack-cocaine delivers an intensity of pleasure completely outside the normal range of human experience. It offers the most wonderful state of consciousness, and the most intense sense of being alive, the user will ever enjoy. (S)he will access heightened states of being whose modes are unknown to chemically-nave contemporaries.

Groping for adequate words, crack-takers sometimes speak of the rush in terms of a “whole-body orgasm”. Drug-naive psychopharmacological virgins – slightly shop-soiled or otherwise – cannot be confident (unless in thrall to ill-conceived logical behaviorist theories of meaning) that they have grasped the significance of such an expression. For to do so, it would be necessary to take the drug via its distinctive delivery-mechanism oneself. This is at best very imprudent. Ultimately, the emotional baseline, and affective analogue of Absolute Zero, characteristic of post-humanity in its hedonically enriched modes of awareness may be greater than anything we can now grasp. It may be higher than the rapturous transports of the most euphoric coke-binge in paleo-human history.

In the meantime, a drug which induces a secular parody of Heaven commonly leads the user into a biological counterpart of Hell. *ALIGN=CENTER When Is It Best To Take Crack Cocaine? */ALIGN=CENTERAs a rule of thumb, it is profoundly unwise to take crack-cocaine. The brain has evolved a truly vicious set of negative feedback mechanisms. Their functional effect is to stop us from being significantly happy for any length of time. The initial short-lived euphoria of a reinforcer as powerful as crack will be followed by a “crash”. This involves anxiety, depression, irritability, extreme fatigue and possibly paranoia.

An intense craving for more cocaine develops. In heavy users, stereotyped compulsive and repetitive patterns of behaviour may occur. So may tactile hallucinations of insects crawling underneath the skin (“formication”). Severe depressive conditions may follow; agitated delirium; and also a syndrome sometimes known as toxic paranoid psychosis. The social consequences of heavy cocaine use can be equally unpleasant.

Non-recreational users are likely eventually to alienate family and friends. They tend to become isolated and suspicious. Most of their money and time is spent thinking about how to get more of the drug. The compulsion may become utterly obsessive. The illusion of free-will is likely to disappear. During a “mission”, essentially a 3-4 day crack-binge, users may consume up to 50 rocks a day.

Whereas “empathogens” such as ecstasy – which trigger the release of far more serotonin than dopamine – will typically promote empathy, trust, compassionate love and sociability, mainly dopaminergic drugs, if taken on their own and to excess, can easily have the reverse effect. Simplistically, cocaine tends to be a “selfish” drug. There is perhaps a single predictable time of life when taking crack-cocaine is sensible, harmless and both emotionally and intellectually satisfying. Indeed, for such an occasion it may be thoroughly commended. Certain estimable doctors in England were once in the habit of administering to terminally-ill cancer patients an elixir known as the “Brompton cocktail”.

This was a judiciously-blended mixture of cocaine, heroin and alcohol. The results were gratifying not just to the recipient. Relatives of the stricken patient were pleased, too, at the new-found look of spiritual peace and happiness suffusing the features of a loved one as (s)he prepared to meet his or her Maker. Drawing life to a close with a transcendentally orgasmic bang, and not a pathetic and god-forsaken whimper, can turn dying into the culmination of one’s existence rather than its present messy and protracted anti-climax. There is another good reason to finish life on a high note. In a predominantly secular society, adopting a hedonistic death-style is much more responsible from an ethical utilitarian perspective.

For it promises to spare friends and relations the miseries of vicarious suffering and distress they are liable to undergo at present as they witness one’s decline. A few generations hence, the elimination of primitive evolutionary holdovers such as the ageing process and aversive experience will make the social institutionalisation of the hedonistic death advocated here redundant. In the meanwhile, one is conceived in pleasure and may reasonably hope to die in it.

Cocaine

Cocaine Cocaine When you reach into the refrigerator for a Coca-Cola, do you ever wonder where it got its name? You might be surprised to find out! When coke was created 120 years ago, it contained cocaine (Bayer 27). At the time scientists did not realize that cocaine was addictive and dangerous. Scientists today know that cocaine is among the strongest stimulants known, and trying the drug even one time can cause heart attack, stroke, and even death. Even the most in shape athlete could die from one use (Bayer 26). The history of coca leaves began hundreds of years ago in South America.

The Indians of Peru and Bolivia chewed coca leaves so that they could work hard in high altitudes and need little food. It was not until the late 1700’s that the coca plant was brought to Europe, and cocaine was not actually created until 1855 when a German chemist named Albert Niemann extracted a compound from coca leaves and named it cocaine. It was not long after cocaine was discovered that it became a common household item (Woods 32). In the 19th century in The United States, cocaine was included in many different over the counter medicines and tonics (Woods 33). Also a wine named Vin Mariani, which contained cocaine as one of its ingredients, was widely marketed.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Among the famous people to indorse the wine were Pope Leo III, author Jules Vern, and inventor Thomas Edison (Woods 33). One of the first doctors to prescribe cocaine to his patients was Sigmund Freud. Freud thought that cocaine could be used to cure opium addiction and alcoholism. In reality, though, he was only substituting one addiction for another. Freud wrote a paper on the affects cocaine had on himself. He found that the only really safe and proper medical use was as a painkiller (Woods 33). Most of the coca plants in the world are grown in Peru and Bolivia by Indians that have learned to make coca paste (when coca leaves are mixed with kerosene) from the plant (McFarland 31).

The paste that is made is then shipped to Columbia where it is made into a powdered substance. After the cocaine is made into powder it is shipped to the United States and other parts world (McFarland 32). Drug families in Columbia control most of the cocaine trafficking. They use special planes and boats to carry cocaine from Columbia to Caribbean Islands and southern Florida. They send some on land, by truck through Mexico into the United States (McFarland 32).

Most of the cocaine brought into the U.S. goes through Los Angelas, Houston, New York, and Miami (Cocaine Use 3). From these locations trafficking gangs connect with street gangs to distribute most of the cocaine. Gangs including the Crips, Bloods, and Dominican, Cuban, Haitian, Mexican, and Puerto Rican groups control most of the sales. Cocaine is only about percent 80 pure when it reaches the gangs, and only 60 percent pure when it hits the street.

This is because gangs cut’ it with other substances such as sugar, PCP, speed, corn starch, and talcum powder to save money (Cocaine Use 3). Between 1981 and 1996 the U.S. Government has spent more than $80 billion fighting the drug war. Government agents continuously patrol our southern border, from Florida to California, in an effort to ward off large scale drug smuggling. Thus far, their efforts appear futile (Bayer 33).

Cocaine is a strong central nervous stimulant. It speeds up the body’s work, and affects the part of the brain that produces strong feelings of pleasure. It makes the user feel powerful and full of energy, and they no longer feel tired. In experiments, monkeys that were allowed to have all the cocaine they wanted, took it until they died. Cocaine has stronger physical affects on the body and brain than almost any other drug.

After cocaine is taken, the heart beats 30 to 50 percent faster and the body temperature rises. The strongest physical affects cocaine has, though, are on the brain. The human brain has 30 million nerve cells, which are separated from each other by tiny gaps called synapses. When messages are ready to be sent, chemicals flow into the synapses between one brain cell and another. Cocaine causes these chemicals to remain in the synapses longer, causing the brain’s messages to be sent quicker.

This then makes the body react to things much quicker and sometimes over react. Another part of the brain that cocaine affects, is the reward pathway. Behaviors that are necessary to survival like eating, drinking, and sleeping activate this pathway, and are rewarded so that the person continues to do them. An addictive drug like cocaine activates this same passageway, and that is why the person continues to use the drug. Cocaine also has very strong affects on the minds of its users. There is a feeling of well being when high on cocaine, but when the high goes down, the mood can change quickly to depression. Cocaine users think that they are invulnerable, and that they do everything right.

In reality, although they may do some things better, they can not do anything that requires thought. Many users talk a lot when they are high, and most of what they are saying makes no sense. Many users of cocaine repeat the same tasks over and over without realizing it. Some users become angry, wild, or out of control, and hurt other people. Other users become paranoid and feel everyone is against them, so they stay away from people.

Longtime users begin to see, feel, and taste things that are not actually there (Bayer 18). Addiction is the side affect to worry about the most. There is no cure or quick fix for addiction; stopping the use of the drug completely can only control it. Staying off of drugs is very hard, and cocaine is one of the most addicting, but it can be done with the right help. Testing for the presence of cocaine, and other drugs, in the human body, is big business these days.

As a prerequisite for employment, and to keep the workplace drug free, many government agencies, and private corporations, spend millions of dollars, each year, in order to test new, and current employees, for signs of cocaine usage. My dad, Gregory Brulz SR., is a Technical Service Representative, employed by Roche Diagnostics Corporation. Roche is one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical manufacturers, and supplier of biomedical testing instrumentation, to many of the clinical laboratories, and hospitals, that perform drug testing. Aside from testing prospective employees for casual cocaine use, these laboratories also perform clinical testing, to aid in the treatment of cocaine addicts, and abusers. My dad’s job is to set up the test instrument operating parameters, perform testing to ensure that the instrument, and tests, meet federal (FDA), and laboratory regulatory guidelines, and train the instrument operators.

On most diagnostic analyzers, human urine is the medium tested, in determining the quantity of cocaine present in a human body. The concentration of cocaine present in the urine, can also be used to interpret the frequency of usage by the individual, and assist in the clinical treatment process. On the analyzer, the urine is mixed with chemical aggregates, called reagents. A high intensity light is projected through a clear plastic cup, containing the urine- chemical mixture. When the mixture contains the drug in question, the reaction created by the drug-chemical reaction absorbs the amount of light projected through the mixture, in proportion to the amount of drug present.

The quantity of light absorbed’ is converted to a specific concentration, presented in nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) of urine. The presence of cocaine is considered negative up to 300 ng/ml (Roche 22). These analyzers can process several hundred individual urine samples per hour. Even at this rate, many laboratories strain to keep up with the demand for cocaine testing. Hundreds of years ago, Indians in South America discovered the coca plant. In 1855 cocaine was first extracted from the plant. Cocaine became a household item in the 19th century until a man named Sigmund Freud tested the drug on himself and realized that it was dangerous.

Today, all over the country, cocaine destroys young lives every day. It is a dangerous, addictive drug, and using it once can kill you. It damages the brain, and messes with the mind. Knowing the facts about cocaine can help people stay healthy and drug free, and may even save lives. Economics Essays.

Cocaine

Cocaine
When you reach into the refrigerator for a Coca-Cola, do you ever wonder where it got its name? You might be surprised to find out! When coke was created 120 years ago, it contained cocaine (Bayer 27). At the time scientists did not realize that cocaine was addictive and dangerous. Scientists today know that cocaine is among the strongest stimulants known, and trying the drug even one time can cause heart attack, stroke, and even death. Even the most in shape athlete could die from one use (Bayer 26).

The history of coca leaves began hundreds of years ago in South America. The Indians of Peru and Bolivia chewed coca leaves so that they could work hard in high altitudes and need little food. It was not until the late 1700’s that the coca plant was brought to Europe, and cocaine was not actually created until 1855 when a German chemist named Albert Niemann extracted a compound from coca leaves and named it cocaine. It was not long after cocaine was discovered that it became a common household item (Woods 32).
In the 19th century in The United States, cocaine was included in many different over the counter medicines and tonics (Woods 33). Also a wine named Vin Mariani, which contained cocaine as one of its ingredients, was widely marketed. Among the famous people to indorse the wine were Pope Leo III, author Jules Vern, and inventor Thomas Edison (Woods 33).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

One of the first doctors to prescribe cocaine to his patients was Sigmund Freud. Freud thought that cocaine could be
used to cure opium addiction and alcoholism. In reality, though, he was only substituting one addiction for another. Freud wrote a paper on the affects cocaine had on himself. He found that the only really safe and proper medical use was as a painkiller (Woods 33).

Most of the coca plants in the world are grown in Peru and Bolivia by Indians that have learned to make coca paste (when coca leaves are mixed with kerosene) from the plant (McFarland 31). The paste that is made is then shipped to Columbia where it is made into a powdered substance. After the cocaine is made into powder it is shipped to the United States and other parts world (McFarland 32).
Drug families in Columbia control most of the cocaine trafficking. They use special planes and boats to carry cocaine from Columbia to Caribbean Islands and southern Florida. They send some on land, by truck through Mexico into the United States (McFarland 32).

Most of the cocaine brought into the U.S. goes through Los Angelas, Houston, New York, and Miami (Cocaine Use 3). From these locations trafficking gangs connect with street gangs to distribute most of the cocaine. Gangs including the Crips, Bloods, and Dominican, Cuban, Haitian, Mexican, and Puerto Rican groups control most of the sales. Cocaine is only about percent 80 pure when it reaches the gangs, and only 60 percent pure when it hits the street. This is because gangs cut’ it with other substances such as sugar, PCP, speed, corn starch, and talcum powder to save money (Cocaine Use 3).

Between 1981 and 1996 the U.S. Government has spent more than $80 billion fighting the drug war. Government agents continuously patrol our southern border, from Florida to California, in an effort to ward off large scale drug smuggling. Thus far, their efforts appear futile (Bayer 33).

Cocaine is a strong central nervous stimulant. It speeds up the body’s work, and affects the part of the brain that produces strong feelings of pleasure. It makes the user feel powerful and full of energy, and they no longer feel tired. In experiments, monkeys that were allowed to have all the cocaine they wanted, took it until they died.
Cocaine has stronger physical affects on the body and brain than almost any other drug. After cocaine is taken, the heart beats 30 to 50 percent faster and the body temperature rises. The strongest physical affects cocaine has, though, are on the brain. The human brain has 30 million nerve cells, which are separated from each other by tiny gaps called synapses. When messages are ready to be sent, chemicals flow into the synapses between one brain cell and another. Cocaine causes these chemicals to remain in the synapses longer, causing the brain’s messages to be sent quicker. This then makes the body react to things much quicker and sometimes over react.
Another part of the brain that cocaine affects, is the reward pathway. Behaviors that are necessary to survival like eating, drinking, and sleeping activate this pathway, and are rewarded so that the person continues to do them. An addictive drug like cocaine activates this same passageway, and that is why the person continues to use the drug.

Cocaine also has very strong affects on the minds of its users. There is a feeling of well being when high on cocaine, but when the high goes down, the mood can change quickly to depression. Cocaine users think that they are invulnerable, and that they do everything right. In reality, although they may do some things better, they can not do anything that requires thought. Many users talk a lot when they are high, and most of what they are saying makes no sense.
Many users of cocaine repeat the same tasks over and over without realizing it. Some users become angry, wild, or out of control, and hurt other people. Other users become paranoid and feel everyone is against them, so they stay away from people. Longtime users begin to see, feel, and taste things that are not actually there (Bayer 18).

Addiction is the side affect to worry about the most. There is no cure or quick fix for addiction; stopping the use of the drug completely can only control it. Staying off of drugs is very hard, and cocaine is one of the most addicting, but it can be done with the right help.
Testing for the presence of cocaine, and other drugs, in the human body, is big business these days. As a prerequisite for employment, and to keep the workplace drug free, many government agencies, and private corporations, spend millions of dollars, each year, in order to test new, and current employees, for signs of cocaine usage.

My dad, Gregory Brulz SR., is a Technical Service Representative, employed by Roche Diagnostics Corporation. Roche is one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical manufacturers, and supplier of biomedical testing instrumentation, to many of the clinical laboratories, and hospitals, that perform drug testing. Aside from testing prospective employees for casual cocaine use, these laboratories also perform clinical testing, to aid in the treatment of cocaine addicts, and abusers.

My dad’s job is to set up the test instrument operating parameters, perform testing to ensure that the instrument, and tests, meet federal (FDA), and laboratory regulatory guidelines, and train the instrument operators.

On most diagnostic analyzers, human urine is the medium tested, in determining the quantity of cocaine present in a human body. The concentration of cocaine present in the urine, can also be used to interpret the frequency of usage by the individual, and assist in the clinical treatment process.

On the analyzer, the urine is mixed with chemical aggregates, called reagents. A high intensity light is projected through a clear plastic cup, containing the urine- chemical mixture. When the mixture contains the drug in question, the reaction created by the drug-chemical reaction absorbs the amount of light projected through the mixture, in proportion to the amount of drug present. The quantity of light absorbed’ is converted to a specific concentration, presented in nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) of urine. The presence of cocaine is considered negative up to 300 ng/ml (Roche 22).
These analyzers can process several hundred individual urine samples per hour. Even at this rate, many laboratories strain to keep up with the demand for cocaine testing.

Hundreds of years ago, Indians in South America discovered the coca plant. In 1855 cocaine was first extracted from the plant. Cocaine became a household item in the 19th century until a man named Sigmund Freud tested the drug on himself and realized that it was dangerous. Today, all over the country, cocaine destroys young lives every day. It is a dangerous, addictive drug, and using it once can kill you. It damages the brain, and messes with the mind. Knowing the facts about cocaine can help people stay healthy and drug free, and may even save lives.


Economics Essays

x

Hi!
I'm Lydia!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out