Grain ProductsVegetables & FruitMilk
2 cups Rice Crispies Cereal (120g)4
Meat & Cheese Lovers lasagna:
1 small bag seasoned taco chips (55g)*
Carol did meet the recommended number of servings in each of the four food groups as shown in the previous page and also below.

Grain ProductsVegetables & FruitMilk ProductsMeat & AlternativesOther Foods
Carols Total Intake1032 4***
Recommended Food Guide Range5-125-102-42-3***
This shows that Carol consumed quite a few other foods for that day including 4 cups of coffee. Though Carol did meet the required number of servings for each of the four food groups, her choices for each food group could have been better.
Carols food choices did not reflect the six Directive Statements in Canadas Food Guide to Healthy Eating as well as they should have. The first Directive Statement is to enjoy a variety of foods from each group every day. Carol did achieve this as she consumed the required number of servings for each food group. This is about the only Directive Statement that Carols food choices reflected.
The second directive statement says that you should choose lower fat foods more often. Carols diet included a variety of high fat foods. The only foods or drinks that Carol ate that were considered lower-fat was the 2% milk at Breakfast, 1 apple as a Snack and 1 cup of corn for Supper. The other foods that Carol ate would have been low fat if they were prepared differently, the fish sticks could have been eliminated and salmon used instead.

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The third directive statement refers to Grain Products and how people should choose whole grains and enriched products more often. Carols choice for grain products did not reflect this statement at all! She chose a raisin croissant and a warm, stick cinnamon bun, both of which are high fat and not whole grained and a warm, stick cinnamon bun, both of which are high fat and not whole grained. These two foods appear higher up on the arc of the rainbow and the good-for-you Grain Products appear on the lower end of the arc. Carol also had Rice Krispies cereal for Breakfast.This appears mid-way on the rainbow arc. Had Carol eaten whole grain products, she would have consumed dietary fibre, which therefore would decrease the intestinal transit time.

Choose dark green and orange vegetables and orange fruit more often is the fourth directive statement. Carols vegetables and fruit choices were relatively poor. She only had two to three servings of vegetables and fruit, the apple and corn, which were not in some way prepared. The directive statement says to try eat dark green and orange vegetables and fruit, but Carol didnt consume any of the recommended foods.

The fifth directive statement is to choose lower-fat Milk Products more often. Carols food choices partially reflected this statement. She had cup of 2% milk at Breakfast, but as the day wore on, her choice for Milk Products became poorer. For example, anytime Carol had coffee she had 2 tbsp. of cream. For lunch, Carol had ‘Meat and Cheese Lovers lasagna. This contained 2 servings of milk products, because of the cheese. When the milk products arc of the rainbow is considered, it is found that cheese is not considered lower-fat.

Choose leaner meats, poultry and fish, as well as dried peas, beans and lentils more often is the last directive statement. Out of all of the directive statements, Carols food choices for this one were particularly bad. Carol consumed ground beef, from the lasagna, and prepared fish sticks. Though the dietary recall does not say if the ground beef in the lasagna was lean or regular, it can be assumed that it was regular since this type of meat is cheaper and the Arts Buffeteria made it. Carol did not consume any beans or lentils either, which would have been healthier for her.
Carols nutrient intake had a couple of dietary deficiencies and also excesses. For this one day Carol had a deficiency in dietary fiber and Vitamin D. Dietary fiber is found in legumes and whole grains. However, Carol did not consume any of these foods. Instead she chose foods like raisin croissants and cinnamon buns, which are grain products but not whole grained. For meat, Carol chose ground beef and fish sticks. Vitamin D was also lacking in Carols diet. Vitamin D is found only in Milk Products. However, Vitamin D is not found in Cheese, so Carol only got some of the Vitamin D from her cup of milk and margarine. Carols dietary excesses include iron and magnesium.Carol consumed huge amounts of Iron in her diet because of the Meat and Cheese Lovers lasagna, not only because of the red meat but also because of the pasta noodles. Red meats contain twice as much iron as chicken or fish.
The foods that Carol ate which contained high amounts of fat were:
-Small bag of seasoned taco chips
-Meat and Cheese Lovers lasagna
This chart depicts the types of fat in Carols diet and what the current recommendations are:
Types of FatCurrent Recommendations
Saturated Fatty Acids13-15% should come from total Energy
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids5-6% should come from total Energy
Monounsaturated Fatty AcidsShould comprise the majority of fat in the diet
Trans Fatty AcidsShould be minimized
Marine/Fish OilShould eat fish two times a week
Carol had a very high intake of Saturated Fat then the recommended 15-17%, because the fish alone had about 12g of Saturated Fat and the croissant had about 5g of Saturated Fat. If you were to add up the Saturated Fat content in all of the food Carol consumed, it would have been super high.Carols Polyunsaturated Fat was pretty decent. There was a high amount of Polyunsaturated Fat in the fish sticks. So, I would say that she stayed within range of the current recommendations on Polyunsaturated Fat, though it should have been cut down a little more.It is recommended that the Trans fats be minimized. In Carols diet, a lot of foods she consumed had a large amount of Trans Fat in them. For example, in the lasagna, both the meat and the cheese had some Trans Fat in them. Both the cream and the croissant also had small amounts of Trans Fat in them. If you were to add up all of these little bits of Trans Fats in the foods, you would find that Carol did have quite a bit of Trans Fat in her diet for that day. The fish oils were only found in the fish sticks. Carol did and probably got over the recommended amount of fish oil for the day. It would have been healthier had Carol consumed fish that was not prepared in batter which would have lowered her fat content for the day.

There are many ways Carol could change her diet and lifestyle. The first is to incorporate more fresh vegetables and fruit, particularly green and orange vegetables and orange fruit into her diet. Cut back the other foods and also the prepared food like fish sticks and french-fries since they both contain high amounts of fat. Instead try to eat fresh salmon and baked potatoes with no additives. They are both healthier for Carol and contain not so much Trans Fat. Prepare a bag lunch and snacks for those days Carol will be at school all day. This way she will be able to cut the cost of buying Dinner and also cut the unwanted and unnecessary fat from her diet since a lot of the foods bought in a cafeteria are generally high in fat and greasy. Instead of sitting and watching television with her roommates, Carol should do something active like bike riding, and going for walks. That way Carol will be able to raise her high-density lipoprotein, which in turn would lower her blood cholesterol. As mentioned before, the little additives to food like regular margarine and cream can make a low fat food higher in fat. Carol should cut them back where ever possible. Carols snack should also be low in fat like carrot sticks.In Carols 24-hour recall, she included no lentils, dried peas or beans in her diet. They are very healthy and a source of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is necessary in regulating bowel function and may prevent certain diseases.

My eating habits are slightly different then Carols. I have a lower fat intake and my food choices usually reflect the six Directive Statements. I live in an off-campus residence so I do not have the ability to actually prepare my own food. The food in residence is generally full of fat since the food is prepared with a lot of butter and usually every meal contains something that is deep-fried: French Fries, Onion Rings, etc. I get my nutrients from salad with light dressing, soups, brown bread, raw vegetables, eggs and on occasion meat. I try to consume as much dietary fibber as I can in a day, which is not very much. I would like to incorporate dried peas, beans and lentils into my diet, but it is very hard to do since I can not cook. I occasionally take Calcium pills since I do not drink milk on a regular basis. For snacks I usually have soups, fruit, fruit juices, etc. I eat a variety of foods every day from the four food groups while concentrating on the lower fat foods. I am fairly active with karate, football and occasionally jogging. Though Im still active I do not eat as much as Carol does in a day. Carol has a lot of other foods in her diet and usually I do not, since I try not to eat margarine or any other extra additives to foods. In regards to the serving sizes, I meet the requirements of the vegetables and fruit, but I do lack one serving or sometimes all of the servings of milk products and meat and alternatives.

-Nutrition 120.3 Class Notes
-Contemporary Nutrition textbook
-Using the Food Guide/Canadas Food Guide to Healthy Eating
-Food Guide Facts-Background for Educators and Communicators


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