California California was the 31st state, which received its statehood on Sept. 9, 1850 , and nickname is the Golden State. The bird is the California Valley Quail; the flower is the golden poppy; the tree is the California Redwood; and the state motto is Eureka (I have Found It). There are many sights to see in the state of California. Besides all the big metropolitan cities, there is the Golden Gate Bridge, Chinatown, and Fishermans Wharf in San Francisco. Also there is the San Diego Zoo, Sea World, Yosemite and Sequoia National Park, and any of the mountains in the northern part of the state.

In addition to that, you can see Disneyland and the countless numbers of television and movie studios in Hollywood. Another hotspot is the beautiful Lake Tahoe, which borders Nevada. California is the most populated state and is the most dense , of the fifty states, at an average of 151 persons per square-mile. The majority of Californias persons are white, but there is a notable number of blacks, Hispanics, and Japanese & Chinese Americans. About 95% of its population is metropolitan, or urban, so about 5% is rural. Pretty much all of the rural population is ranches or farmers.

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California is very rich in minerals. They include crude petroleum, natural gas, boron, tungsten, sand and gravel, asbestos, copper, feldspar, iron ore, mercury, potash, rock salt, soda ash, sulfur, uranium, zinc, and gold. On Jan. 24, 1848, gold was found at Sutters Mill. The news of the find spread quickly. Before long, the Gold Rush was under way, bringing thousands of forty-niners to stake their claims in northern California. Gold production peaked in 1852 but from there on, declined rapidly.

Manufacturing brought in an estimated $40.5 billion a year in the mid-70s. A large amount of it comes from fruits & vegetables, processed meat, canned fish, and beverages like wine and fruit juice. Most of the above come from or near the world-famous Napa Valley. Other goods made in California are steel, textiles and clothing, refined petroleum, metal, wood, plastics, chemicals, and printed materials. Californias climate varies in different regions because of the great changes in topography and wide latitudinal range. Most parts of the state has two distinct seasons.

A rainy, which lasts from October to April, and a dry period, May to September. Annual precipitation is greatest in the north, especially near the Pacific Coast, which gets around 80 in. dumped on them, while Los Angeles gets 15 in. and San Diego gets only 10 in. The desert gets even less precipitation. Temperatures along the coast are mild with small variations between the warmest and coolest months. The average recorded temperatures in January range from 50 F in San Francisco, 56 F in Los Angeles, and the July temps are 72 F for Los Angeles, and a very comfortable 59 F in San Francisco. The Central Valley usually has a mild climate, but other parts of the area are either hotter like Death Valley and the Mojave Desert, or colder like the peaks of the Sierra Nevada.

Earthquakes are quite common in California. An earthquake is the sudden shaking of the ground that occurs when masses of rock change position below the Earths surface. Earthquakes, called tremblors by scientists, happen almost continuously. Fortunately, big earthquakes can be monitored by sensitive instruments called seismographs. Others that are felt are just small tremors or aftershocks. Earthquakes can be great destructers which produce such tragic effects as destroyed cities, broken dams, mud slides, tsunamis, and volcano eruptions.

A very large earthquake usually rises at least once every year in some part of the world. All of Californias earthquakes are from the San Andreas Fault, which is a major fracture in the Earths crust at the mutual boundary of two of the major plates that make up the Earths crust. The fault is about 50 miles inland of the California coast from southern California north to San Francisco, where it continues out 200 more miles before heading out to sea. A famous earthquake in San Francisco was in 1906. There were 700 deaths, many injured and it jumped up to 8.3 out of 10 on the Richter Magnitude Scale. In 1989, during the World Series which saw the Oakland Athletics -vs.- San Francisco Giants game interrupted by an earthquake of 7.1 on the Richter Scale, and 70 deaths.

Sacramento is the capital city of California. It is the marketing and manufacturing center for the northern part of the great Central Valley. This rich agricultural valley is watered by the Sacramento River. To the East of the city rises then Sierra Nevada, a mountain wall that is always snowcapped. To the west are the Coast Ranges.

The gold rush helped put this beautifully placed city on the map. In the early 1980s the golden-domed State Capital in the heart of the city was restored to its turn-of-the-century look. It rises in a 40-acre park that has varieties of trees and shrubs from all parts of the world. The Old Sacramento Historic District along the river has a collection of restored buildings dating from 1849 to 1870, the period of the Pony Express and the gold rush. Thousands of people work in the citys government offices and military installations. A modern ship canal, completed in 1963, made the city a deepwater port by linking it with San Francisco Bay.

Mather and Mc Clellan Air Force bases and an Army depot are close by. The city of Sacramento has grown and redeveloped a lot in the 1970s and 1980s, when its population grew by nearly 20%. A new trolley system opened in the city in 1987. Sacramento has a council-manager form of government. Population in the city in 1990 was 369,365; and metropolitan area was 1,481,102. With the spread of irrigation, the valley became one of the major truck-farm areas of the United States. The city is now a leader in fruit and vegetable canning, freezing and shipping.

Among the chief products of the surrounding area are beef cattle, rice, dairy products, peaches, prunes, wheat and vegetables. Tours are given of the California Almond Growers Exchange in Sacramento. The printing and aerospace industries are also economic mainstays of the city. In 1839, while California was ruled by Mexico, Capt. A.

Sutter sailed up the Sacramento River from San Francisco Bay. He set up a colony on the present location of Sacramento. He named it New Switzerland after his native homeland. Two years later he built a fort to protect his Mexican land grant, which has been restored as a museum.


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