Aristotle

Aristotle Aristotle discusses the ideal state and citizens. In his ideal state, Aristotle states about the features of citizens and answers the question of who sould be citizen? . The concept of citizen is very important in his ideal state, because according to Aristotle citizens have the fullest sovereign power, and it would be ridiculous to deny their participation in the state management. Aristole’s inspiration is from biology. It depends on teleology.

Teleology is about purposefullness.Everything has a purpose. So the form of the citizen is like that. Aristotle argues that citizens have a common purpose for the stability of association, because they are the most important part of society. According to Aristotle, a citizen is one who participates in giving judgement and holding office. For citizens membership on juries has no limitation or to be a member of an assembly.

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But there is no agreement as what constitutes a citizen generally. The citizens will necessarily vary according to the constitution. In a democracy, the all poor people could be citizens; however in an oligarchy the rich people are going to be citizens. It means in an oligarchy only rich people will give judgement and hold office. Aristotle states that resident foreigners and slaves are not citizens.

Because citizens are a particular class of men, the others (slaves, foreigners, workers..) don’t have the function of ruling and being ruled according to Aristotle. Therefore the occupations of others are different from the citizens.Aristotle makes discrimination in society. Many people couldn’t have right to be citizens because of their occupations or situations in society. Aristotle argues some virtues about the citizens and rulers. At first he states that the virtue of the citizen must be in relation with the constitution. There are many types of constitutions.

In each constitution there are different virtues. For instance in Aristocracy courage is the main virtue but in monarchy wisdom is the main virtue. So it is hard to explain certain virtues for citizens. With the consideration of circumstances we can say some virtues for citizens. But the most important and main virtue of the citizen is to contribute to the stability of association as it is mentioned. Aristotle states that the virtues of ruler and ruled person are different. He states that the virtue of ruler is practical wisdom and the ruled person should have correct opinion.

Of course, the concept of correct opinion should conform to the constitution. According to Aristotle citizens should have so much features ,which are seemed to be impracticable in society. Aristotle argues that citizens should participate in judgement and hold office. That means the good citizen must have the knowledge and ability both to rule and to be ruled. It is very hard to find a citizen who fits these qualifications, because every person can not have the ability to ruling.

Aristotle wants to explain the form of citizen with teleology. A citizen should have a purpose for the stability of the association. But I think a citizen should not to be compelled to rule. Bibliography Aristotle politics Philosophy.

Aristotle

Aristotle Although Aristotle was best know for his work in philosophy and the natural sciences, he was also a poet. Poetry, to the Greeks, included drama. Aristotle used the same methodology in poetry as he used in science. Aristotle made many contributions to the world, and much of his work still exists today. In 384/3 B.C., Aristotle was born in the small of Stagira.

Stagira is located on the eastern coast of the peninsula of Chalcidice in Thrace. Aristotles father Nicomachus was a court physician and a friend of Amyntas II, the king of Macedon and the father of Philip the Great. Proxenus of Atarneus, adopted Aristotle when his father died. When he was eighteen, Aristotle was sent to Athens. There he was in close association with the Academy of Plato. Aristotle developed his writing it Poetics from tragedy as he saw it.

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A tragedy at the time had four main characteristics. First, a tragedy must have unity of action, therefore there is only one plot. The main character has to be a good man. This character commits an error or sin which makes his once happy life miserable, leading to pity and fear, followed by purification or purgation. Last, Tragedy must include Spectacle, Melody, Diction, Plot, and Character. Aristotle was rediscovered during the Renaissance, when in 1498, Poetics was first published in a Latin translation.

France nearly worshipped the work of Aristotle, and the tragedies written in France at this time followed Aristotles rules. Britain paid some deference to Aristotle, but nothing compared to France. Shakespeare in many ways is the antithesis of Aristotle, which may explain the rejection of some of his early work abroad. Greeks, including Aristotle, had little actual effect on British drama. But Aristotles work did have a strong hold on France, and he will never be forgotten.

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