Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder known as ADHD, it is a
disorder that is found in children and can continue into adulthood. The
child has the symptoms of inattention and a combination of hyperactive impulsive behavior. Some children dont develop these symptoms till late childhood or early adolescence. This disorder occurs more with boys than girls. They say it possible that boys have more of a chance genetically in getting this disorder. There are a large number of people that are affected.
Psychiatrists say ADHD arises as a developmental failure in the brain circuitry that underlies inhibition and self control. If this is what happens, that is what impairs the brain functions for maintaining attention. That is why children my have trouble paying attention.
There is still a search for the cause of this disorder, but over the years imaging studies have shown that the brain regions might have a malfunction in the patients that have ADHD, therefore is causes them to have the symptoms of the condition. These images show that the brain areas that are reduced in size in children with ADHD are the ones that control attention. Many studies say that mutations in several genes might play a role in this disorder. Nongenetic stipulations that have to do with the developing of this disorder are premature birth, maternal alcohol and tobacco use. These stipulations can cause a child to develop ADHD.
When children grow up they absorb mental activities that are called executive functions, these functions help them divert distractions and remember things. If a person can not inhibit interfering thoughts and impulses the executive functions will not be able to be carried out. These executive functions are accomplished early in childhood. An example is when children talk to themselves to try to remember something. Once children mature they stop from talking to themselves and keep it inside but still remember what they are thinking. They dont have to keep repeating it to themselves. On the other hand children with ADHD cant keep from talking to themselves because they often forget things. The executive functions are grouped into mental activities. There are four which are the, operation of working memory, the internalization of self directed speech, controlling emotions and reconstitution.
In the operation of working memory, the mind is trying to hold information while working on something else at the same time.
The internalization of self directed speech is an activity that allows the individual to formulate problem solving and follow rules and instructions. For example if a teacher tells u to raise your hand before you speak. That is a rule that is known for a student to follow before speaking, but if you have a child that has ADHD they would most likely interrupt the class by calling out. They have trouble following directions. Controlling emotions is another mental function. This type of control enables people to delay or alter their emotional reaction to a certain incident. For example if someone dies this mental function controls your emotions and makes you feel sad.
The last function is reconstruction which gives individuals fluency refinement and flexibility. This allows individual to force themselves toward a particular goal without learning any steps ahead of time. All these executive functions are developed by children at a young age. They learn some of their behaviors and feelings from others. It is thought that because of genetics children with ADHD are not able to perform the same activities as others.
Children with ADHD use drugs to try to help their capacity to inhibit and regulate impulsive behaviors. The drug most commonly used is Ritalin, which inhibits the dopamine transporter, increasing the time that dopamine has to bind to its receptors on other neurons. Children that take this medication are found to be less impulsive restless and distracted. They are able to hold more information be better in school and control themselves. After taking their medication they tend to calm down also and are better liked by other children. Parents and teachers also have to break things down in small simple steps so that they can understand. By doing this they are not taking in too much information at a time and are able to comprehend. Some these children with ADHD are put in special programs that provide a small and less competitive environment, where these kids are able to receive individual instruction.
Although there is no cure for ADHD there are medications that can help these individuals. Scientific studies are still going on which will hopefully provide more information to help provide better medication
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